You are on page 1of 69

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

INTERDISCIPLINARY

ECOLOGY

CHEMISTRY

ECONOMICS

POLITICS

GEOLOGY

SYSTEMS

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

hoto CD Dec ompressor

eeded to use this pic ture

1-1 LIVING

SUSTAINABLY

Questions to ask

How the Earth works?

• How are we affecting the Earth’s life supports

system? How to deal with environmental problems?

What laws? When do we phase it in?

What do you think is our most serious environmental problem?

  • a) Corruption in governments and businesses, and bad economic policies

  • b) Destruction of biodiversity

  • c) Environmental impacts from human poverty and hunger

  • d) Genetic engineering of organisms

  • e) Greenhouse Effect (global warming) and resulting climatic changes

  • f) Human diseases (cancer, malaria, AIDS, etc.)

  • g) Human overpopulation

  • h) Nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction

  • i) Poor farming techniques (soil erosion, overuse of pesticides, livestock wastes, etc.)

  • j) Wasting of valuable and nonrenewable resources

36%

21% 14% 7% 7% 7% 7% 0% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
21%
14%
7%
7%
7%
7%
0%
0%
0%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Six important environmental

issues

Population growth Increasing resource use Global climate change Premature extinction of plants and animals Pollution Poverty

LIVING SUSTAINABLY

LIVING SUSTAINABLY • SOLAR CAPITAL - PROVIDES 99%OF OUR ENERGY WE USE ON EARTH. • EARTH

SOLAR CAPITAL -

PROVIDES 99%OF OUR ENERGY WE USE ON EARTH.

EARTH CAPITAL -

LIFE-SUPPORT AND ECONOMIC SERVICES. SUSTAINABILITY - IS

THE ABILITY OF A

SPECIFIED SYSTEM TO SURVIVE AND FUNCTION OVER A SPECIFIED TIME.

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE

HARVEST

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCE HARVEST • SUPPLY OF RESOURCES THAT CAN BE HARVESTED EACH YEAR.

SUPPLY OF RESOURCES THAT CAN BE HARVESTED EACH YEAR.

SUSTAINABLE EARTH

EARTH CAPITAL ARE USED AND MAINTAINED OVER TIME.

What is sustainability?

  • 1. Satisfying basic needs without depleting or degrading resources

  • 2. Maximizing resource use

  • 3. Reducing resource use even if it means some big sacrifices by human beings

  • 4. Halting further resource use and limiting human progress

90%

10% 0% 0% 1 2 3 4
10%
0%
0%
1
2
3
4

SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

MANAGES ITS ECONOMY AND POPULATION SIZE WITHOUT EXCEEDING

ALL OR PART OF THE PLANET’S ABILITY

TO ABSORB ENVIRONMENTAL INSULTS,

REPLENISH ITS RESOURCES, AND SUSTAIN HUMAN AND OTHER FORMS OF LIFE OVER A SPECIFIED PERIOD. HUNDREDS OF YEARS.

CARRYING CAPACITY

DEFINED AS THE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ORGANISMS A LOCAL,REGIONAL, OR GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT

CAN SUPPORT

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

OVER A SPECIFIED

PERIOD.

CARRYING CAPACITY

VARIES BY LOCATION GLOBAL CHANGES

TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY USES TO EXTRACT AND PROCESS THE RESOURCES

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

ARE WE LIVING OFF THE

INTEREST OR THE PRINCIPAL?

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

1-2

GROWTH AND THE WEALTH GAP

LINEAR POPULATION

GROWTH

IS A QUANTITY THAT INCREASES AT A CONSTANT AMOUNT PER UNIT OF TIME.

IF PLOTTED ON A GRAPH IT WOULD BE A STRAIGHT LINE.

EXPONENTIAL GROWTH

IS WHERE THE QUANTITY INCREASES BY A

FIXED PERCENTAGE OF THE WHOLE IN A GIVEN TIME AS EACH INCREASE IS APPLIED TO THE BASE FOR FURTHER GROWTH.

IS J SHAPED.

DOUBLING TIME - THE RULE OF 70.

70/% OF GROWTH RATE = DOUBLING TIME IN

YEARS.

k = (1/t)ln(N/N 0 ) t = (1/k)ln(N/N 0 )

World Population Reached 1 billion in 1804 2 billion in 1927 (123 years later) 3 billion
World Population Reached
1
billion in 1804
2
billion in 1927 (123 years later)
3
billion in 1960 (33 years later)
4
billion in 1974 (14 years later)
5
billion in 1987 (13 years later)
6
billion in 1999 (12 years later)
World Population May Reach
7
billion in 2013 (14 years later)
8
billion in 2028 (15 years later)
9
billion in 2050 (22 years later)
Slide 2 Figure 1-2 Page 4
Slide 2
Figure 1-2
Page 4

The earth’s population is currently 6.6 billion people.

The rate of population growth is 1.2 percent. How large

will the earth’s population be after 58 years?

  • 1. 10.2 billion people

  • 2. 12.6 billion

people

  • 3. 13.2 billion people

33% 33% 33% 1 2 3
33%
33%
33%
1
2
3

Which of the following would not be an example of sound science?

1.

Calculating the destruction of trees in a forest based on historical cut rates

2.

Calculating the pollution in a stream based on chemical analysis

3.

4.

Developing a plan on how to conserve 25% 25% 25% 25% resources based on opinion polls
Developing a plan on how to conserve
25%
25%
25%
25%
resources based on opinion polls
Forecasting CO 2 levels in a region based on
historical emissions
1
2
3
4

Because developing nations make up

81% of the world’s

population, they generate most of the

pollution and waste

as well as using

most of the world’s

resources.

1.

True

2.

False

50% 50% 1 2
50%
50%
1
2

Based on the map, in

which three countries would you not expect to find high levels of

poverty?

  • 1. United States, Argentina, Japan

  • 2. United States, China, Australia

  • 3. Greenland, Kenya, South Africa

  • 4. Mexico, Brazil, Canada

25% 25% 25% 25% 1 2 3 4
25%
25%
25%
25%
1
2
3
4

How many people live on the

earth?

  • 1. About 5 million

  • 2. About 2 billion

  • 3. Over 6 billion

  • 4. Over 10 billion

25% 25% 25% 25% 1 2 3 4
25%
25%
25%
25%
1
2
3
4

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this pic ture

Clip

6739359653

DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

LOW INDUSTRIALIZATION AND PER CAPITA

GNPs. MAKES UP 80% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION.

15% OF THE WORLD’S WEALTH AND INCOME.

ONLY USE 12% OF THE WORLD’S RESOURCES.

Most population growth is

projected to occur in:

1.

Developed

countries

2.

Developing

countries

50% 50% 1 2
50%
50%
1
2

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

More Developed Country

Less Developed Country

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

hoto CD Dec ompressor

eeded to use this pic ture

WHAT CAN BE DONE

ABOUT THE WEALTH GAP?

NOTHING, BECAUSE PEOPLE MAKE THEIR OWN

BED SO THE MUST LIVE IN IT. IF WE HELP THEM

WE WILL BE CREATING A WELFARE STATE. THUS HURTING THEM IN THE LONG RUN.

SOMETHING, BECAUSE THE POOR ARE DYING. THE POOR SOMETIMES HAVE A MORE ADVERSE AFFECT ON THE ENVIRONMENT THAN THE

DEVELOPED COUNTRIES.

TOO MANY RICH PEOPLE

WEIGHING RELATIVE BURDENS ON THE PLANET

• READ PAUL EHRLICH’S ESSAY. WRITE A COUNTER POINT ESSAY. TYPED 2 pages. 20 POINTS. Test points Due Friday the 9th

1-3

RESOURCES

Nonrenewable resources:

  • 1. Are fixed in quantity

  • 2. Include solar energy

  • 3. Degrade quickly once they have been extracted from the earth

  • 4. Can be exhausted completely

25% 25% 25% 25% 1 2 3 4
25%
25%
25%
25%
1
2
3
4

WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?

IS THE CURRENT GROWTH RATE SUSTAINABLE

IN THE FUTURE?

THIS IDEA ASSUMES THAT WE RIGHT TO USE THE

EARTH’S RESOURCES AND EARTH CAPITAL TO

MEET OUR NEEDS BUT THAT WE HAVE THE

OBLIGATION TO PASS ON THE EARTH’S

RESOURCES AND SERVICES TO FUTURE GENERATIONS IN AS GOOD OR BETTER SHAPE THAN THESE CONDITIONS WERE PASSED ON TO

US.

SHOULD WE LIVE FOR TODAY AND NOT CARE ABOUT HOW FUTURE WILL BE AFFECTED?

ECOLOGICAL VS. ECONOMIC RESOURCES

ECOLOGICAL RESOURCE - IS ANYTHING

REQUIRED BY AN ORGANISM FOR NORMAL MAINTENANCE, GROWTH, AND PRODUCTION.

ECONOMIC RESOURCE - IS ANYTHING OBTAINED

FROM THE ENVIRONMENT TO MEET HUMAN

NEEDS AND WANTS.

RENEWABLE RESOURCES

RENEWABLE RESOURCES - SOLAR. POTENTIALLY RENEWABLE RESOURCES - CAN BE REPLENISHED FAIRLY RAPIDLY

THROUGH NATURAL PROCESSES. BIODIVERSITY GENETIC DIVERSITY

SPECIES DIVERSITY

ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

VARIETY PROVIDES MORE

RESOURCES.

Which of the following countries has the

highest ecological footprint per capita?

1.

India

  • 2. The Netherlands

  • 3. The United States

  • 4. All are about the

same

25% 25% 25% 25% 1 2 3 4
25%
25%
25%
25%
1
2
3
4

Country

United States

The Netherlands

India

Per Capita Ecological Footprint (Hectares of land per person) 10.9 5.9 1.0
Per Capita Ecological Footprint
(Hectares of land per person)
10.9
5.9
1.0

Slide 8

Figure 1-8 (1)

Page 10

Country

United States

The Netherlands

India

Total Ecological Footprint

(Hectares) 3 billion hectares 94 million hectares 1 billion hectares
(Hectares)
3 billion
hectares
94 million hectares
1 billion
hectares

Slide 9

Figure 1-8 (2)

Page 10

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

Some Major Problems
Some Major Problems

Fig. 113a

© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

More Major Problems
More Major Problems
More Major Problems Fig. 1 – 13b © Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

Fig. 113b

© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

Still More Major Problems
Still More Major Problems

Fig. 113c

© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this pic ture

THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMONS.

“ IF I DO NOT USE THIS RESOURCE, SOMEONE ELSE WILL. THE LITTLE BIT I USE OR POLLUTE IS NOT ENOUGH TO MATTER.”

WITH ONLY A FEW USES, THIS LOGIC WORKS. HOWEVER, THE CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF MANY PEOPLE TRYING TO EXHAUSTS OR RUINS IT. THEN NO ONE CAN BENEFIT FROM IT, AND THEREIN LIES THE TRAGEDY.

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

are needed to use this picture

USE THE COMMON-PROPERTY RESOURCE AT RATES BELOW WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE BY REDUCING POPULATION AND REGULATING ACCESS.

PROBLEMS - CONVERT THE COMMON-PROPERTY TO PRIVATE OWNERSHIP. PROBLEMS -

COMMAND-AND-CONTROL IS THE USE OF TAXES AND THE FREE- MARKET

PROBLEMS -

What is the tragedy of the

commons?

  • 1. The depletion of non- renewable resources

  • 2. The degradation of renewable free-access resources

  • 3. The seizing of natural resources by government

  • 4. The underuse of resources that could benefit needy people

25% 25% 25% 25% 1 2 3 4
25%
25%
25%
25%
1
2
3
4

1-4

POLLUTION

POINT SOURCE - COMES FROM A SINGLE, SOURCE.

IDENTIFIABLE

NONPOINT SOURCE - RUNOFF

THREE FACTORS DETERMINED HOW SEVERE THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF A POLLUTANT ARE.

1. THE CONCENTRATION LEVEL. ppm ppt

2. CHEMICAL NATURE. How active and harmful it is in nature?

3. HALF LIFE OR THE PERSISTENCE OF THE

POLLUTANT. ex BIODEGRADABLE DDT IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PERSISTENT POLLUTANT.

SOLUTIONS TO POLLUTION

POLLUTION CONTROL-INPUT CONTROL

THREE Rs POLLUTION PREVENTION- OUTPUT CONTROL

1. TEMPORARY BANDAGE.

2. THE CLEANUP OF ONE TYPE OF POLLUTANT MAY CAUSE ANOTHER TYPE OF POLLUTION PROBLEM.

3. COST IS TO HIGH.

ONLY 1 % IS SPENT ON PREVENTION

1-5 ENVIRONMENTAL AND

RESOURCE PROBLEMS: CAUSE AND CONNECTIONS

RAPID POPULATION GROWTH

RAPID AND WASTEFUL USE OF RESOURCES WITH TOO LITTLE EMPHASIS ON POLLUTION PREVENTION AND

WASTE REDUCTION POVERTY

FAILURE OF POLICIES THAT ENCOURAGE SUSTAINABLE GROWTH

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

Population X Affluence X Technology = Impact

IMPORTANT

QuickTime™ and a

Photo CD Dec ompressor

are needed to use this picture

1-6

Is our present course sustainable

Are things getting better or

worse?

1-8

ENVIRONMENTAL WORLD VIEWS

AND SUSTAINABILITY

WHAT’S THE USE OF A HOUSE IF YOU

DON’T HAVE A DECENT PLANET TO

PUT IT ON? THOREAU ENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS PLANETARY MANAGEMENT WORLDVIEW.

SUSTAINABILITY

PLANETARY MANAGEMENT WORLDVIEW

WE ARE THE BEST THERE IS ALWAYS MORE ALL EC. GROWTH IS GOOD

SUCCESS = CONTROL OF EARTH FOR OUR BENEFIT

Environmental wisdom view

Nature exist for all There is not always more

Some economic growth is good while some might effect the environment

Working Toward Sustainability
Working Toward Sustainability

Some Guidelines Leave the earth as good or better than we found it. Take no more than we need. Try not to harm life, air, water, soil. Protect biodiversity. Help maintain Earth's capacity for self repair. Don't use potentially renewable resources faster than they are replenished. Don't waste resources. Don't release pollutants faster than Earth's natural processes can dilute or degrade them. Slow the rate of population growth. Reduce poverty.

© Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP