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Stability Analysis and Simulation of Hydro Turbine governing system

Dr M.S.R.Murty

Governing System Stability


Stability : Oscillation- free response Oscillations in speed, power, gate should be minimal under normal operation When small disturbances occur in load, system (i.e., speed and other parameters) should return to normalcy quickly and Transient deviations should not be excessive

SPEED TRANSIENTS
For step load change
Unstable Speed (%) Oscillatory (Hunting)

Time (Sec)

Modes of operation as per IEC standard Mode 1: Steady state operations when the unit is operating at constant load, head and command input Mode 2: The total system is subject to small changes caused by fluctuations in load or command input. In this mode none of the governor elements will reach the limit of closing or opening speed. The stability guarantees are always referred to this mode.

Operating Modes
Mode 3: The total system is subject to changes, which is resulting in speed limits, closing and opening movements of parts of the governor system. This is the situation during load rejections when the main servomotors are operating at maximum closing speed

Grid operation
The function of the governor is only to change the generator output. If the generator is being disconnected, a load rejection will occur, which means that the system is in mode 3.

Instability and sluggishness


Speed/ frequency Hunting and inability to synchronize Pressure oscillations Resonance Sluggish response: Inadequate participation in grid frequency control

Influencing parameters
Rotor Inertia time (Tm) Water Inertia time (Tw) Servomotor time (Ty/Tg) Governor adjustable settings: temporary droop parameters (bt, tr) or PID parameters (Kp, Ki,Kd) Hydraulic network

Stability and Optimum adjustment


(Tw/ Tm) ratio is an important indicator : light (>0.4) or heavy (< 0.16) Criteria for optimum adjustment: bt = 2.5(Tw/ Tm) Tr = 5 Tw Off-line damping and On-line damping

1.0
0.8

Stability Limit curve

Stable
0.6

Unstable

1 = Tw/Tm
0.2

Optimum

0.1

0.2

0.3

2 = Tw / Tr

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Stability Index :

(Tw/Ta) Normal 0.1 0.4 0.16 heavy > 0.4 Light : less stable Chibro : 0.15 kopili : 0.44 Pong : 0.35

Adaptive Governors
Tw, Tm are strictly function of operating point Governor parameters are adjusted automatically on-line as op. point varies Possible in digital governors

IEEEG2 speed-governing model.

w = Speed deviation [p.u.], K = Governor gain (inverse of the governor speed droop), Po = Initial loading of the machine [p.u.], PMAX = Maximum output power of the machine [p.u.], PMIN = Minimum output power of the machine [p.u.], T1 = Governor controller lag (sec), T2 = Governor controller lead (sec), T3 = Governor lag (sec), T4 = Water starting time (sec).

Speed-governing model.

au Hydraulic

P.I.D. GOVERNOR KP nr= 0

Load

Ki S

g TURBINE - m PENSTOCK

ROTOR INERTIA 1 TmS + D

ns

ns

KdS

bp

Droop

Block diagram of the hydro-turbine governing System for simulation

Temporary droop Governor

Governor Characteristic - Transient - steady state


Speed Error Governor (Temp.Drop) Or (PID)

Gate signal

Gate signal

Response for step change in speed error

Transient Steady stator t - Also decides stability - Power sharing

- Depends on setting - Important for stability

f 52 Hz
50 Hz 4% Drop

Permanent DROOP

Droop characteristic

100% Speed Ref. Governor Turbine penstock Load +

Load Rotor Inertia Speed

Gen. power / torque

Governing system block diagram


Pg

Transfer characteristics
PL

Speed Error

Guide valve ge Control (Electronic part)

Hydraulic part

ch Cam (Electronic) KALPAN TURBINE

Runner Blade Control

Hyd. Part

: RUNNER BLADE CONTROL

Flow q = f ( g, b, h, n ) Torque m = f ( g, b, h, n )

Guide vane movement

Power variation

Response Curves of Isochronous and Droop Governors

Effect of temporary droop parameters

Step change in Power reference from 80 % to 100 %

Comparison of typical Thermal and Hydro plants response

Step change in Power reference from 80 % to 100 %

Measured response curves

LOAD REJECTION RESPONSE


Load 100% Speed (%) TSR 0% t 4% Droop 100%

Time(sec)

TSR: Transient Speed Rise

21 % Frequency

Load Rejection response Kaplan

HYDRO GOVERNING SYSTEM DYNAMICS

Mech.Torque Tm Turbine Rotor Turbine control gate, g Dynamics Dynamics Dynamics Te : Elec.Torque h : presser flow Assigned g Unit Conduit generation Dynamics

Speed

Automatic Generation Control

Interchange & frequency

Load Dynamics

AUTOMATIC LOAD RFEQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM


Set point AUTOMATIC LOAD REQUENCY CONTROLLER Generator Power Secondary regulation

To Other Machines

Other m/c

Total Load

Set point Governor Turbine

+ +

GRID INERTIA

Frequency

Area Frequency

Total Generation Primary regulation

Governor and AVR

Response Requirement in USA


5% droop; Governor dead band must be plus or minus 0.036Hz ( 0.06 % on 60 Hz); and The power output must change within one second for any frequency deviation outside the governor dead band. The Generating Unit must be able to increase its real power output (MW) by the maximum amount within ten minutes

Summary
Stability is an important aspect of Hydro power plant operation Influencing parameters: Water inertia time (Tw), Rotor inertia time (Tm), and temporary droop or PID parameters Tuning criteria for optimum operation For long penstock systems, pipe reflection time (Te) is also important