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Chapter 11

Resonance in AC
Circuits
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 2
Topics to be Discussed
Introduction.
Series Resonant Circuit.
Effect of Variation of
Frequency.
Variation of Voltage
across C and L with
Frequency.
Quality Factor (Q).
Voltage Magnification.
Resonance Curve.
Relation between f
0
, f
1

and f
2
.
Bandwidth (BW) in
Terms of Circuit
Parameters.
Bandwidth (BW) in
Terms of Q and f
0
.
Parallel Resonant Circuit.
Practical Circuit.
Resonance Curve.
Effect of Variation of
Frequency.
Some Important Points.

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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 3
Introduction
Resonance is the condition that exists in ac
circuits when the input current is in phase with the
input voltage.

When in resonance, the ac circuit is purely
resistive and draws power at unity power factor.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 4
Series Resonant Circuit
(a) The circuit.
(b) Phasor diagram
at resonance.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 5
The resonance in a series RLC circuit requires that
C
L X X X X
C L C L
0
0 0 0 0 0
1
or or 0
e
e = = =
The frequency of resonance,
LC
f
LC t
e
2
1
or
1
0 0
= =
The impedance of the circuit assumes a minimum
value given as
R j R Z = + = 0
0
The current has a maximum value given by
R
V
Z
V
I = =
0
0
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 6
Effect of Variation of Frequency
(a) Impedance.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 7
(b) Current. (c) Power factor angle.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 8
At f
0
, the circuit behaves as purely resistive.
Below f
0
,
X has negative values
(i.e., the circuit is capacitive).
Above f
0
,
X has positive values
(i.e., the circuit is inductive).
Since the current becomes maximum at resonant
frequency, the series RLC resonant circuit is also
called an acceptor circuit.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 9
Variation of Voltage across C and L
with Frequency
(a) When R has appreciable value.
2
2
1 1
2 2
C
R
f
LC L t
=
2 2
1
2 ( / 2)
L
f
LC R C t
=

We can show that


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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 10
(b) When R is very small.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 11
Quality Factor (Q)
cycle per dissipated Energy
cycle) per or in stored energy Maximum ( 2 C L
Q
t
=
2
1
2
m
2
0 0
2 [ ( ) ] L I
Q
I RT
t
=
R
L
R I
I L
0
0
2
0
2
0 2
1
) / 2 (
] ) 2 ( / [ 2 e
e t
t
= =
The quality of a resonant circuit to accept current (and
power) at the resonant frequency to the exclusion of
other frequencies is measured by its quality factor (Q
factor), defined below.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 12
Since
, / 1
0 0
C L e e =
CR
Q
0
1
e
=
By putting,
LC / 1
0
= e we get another form for Q :
0
1 1 LC L
Q
CR CR R C e
= = =
A capacitor usually has no losses.
The Q of a series inductor-capacitor circuit is the
same as the Q of the coil used.
In fact, Q of the coil is used as a figure of merit for
the coil.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 13
Coils with Q < 10 are described as low-Q coils.
Coils with Q > 10 are described as high-Q coils.
Coils having Q as high as 200-300 are used in
electronic circuits.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 14
Voltage Magnification
Let us determine the voltage drops across each element,
V R
R
V
R I V
R
= = =
0
VQ
R
L
V
R
X
V X
R
V
X I V
L
L L L
= = = = =
0 0
0 0 0
e
0
0 0 0
0
1
C
C C C
X V
V I X X V V VQ
R R CR e
= = = = =
The entire supply voltage V appears across R.
The voltage V
L
(and voltage V
C
) is Q times V.
This is often called Q gain in electronics.
The circuit is called voltage resonant circuit.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 15
Example 1
A series combination of a resistance of 4 , an
inductance of 0.5 H and a variable capacitance is
connected across a 100-V, 50-Hz supply.
Calculate
(a) the capacitance to give resonance,
(b) the voltage across the inductance and the
capacitance, and
(c) the Q factor of the circuit.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 16
Solution :
0 0 0 0
or 2 1/ 2
L C
X X f L f C t t = =
(a) For resonance,
2 2
0
1 1

(2 ) (2 50) 0.5
C
f L t t
= = =

20.3F
(b) At resonance,
0
100
25A
4
V
I
R
= = =
0
25 (2 50 0.5)
L L
V I X t = = = 3925V
C L
V V = = 3925V
(c)
39.25 =

= = =
4
5 . 0 50 2 2
0 0
t t e
R
L f
R
L
Q
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 17
Resonance Curve
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 18
The frequencies f
1
and f
2
are often called lower and upper
cutoff frequencies.
At these frequencies, the current reduces to 0.707I
0
.
These frequencies are also called half-power
frequencies.
The lower the value of R, the sharper is the resonance
curve.
We say that such a resonant circuit has high selectivity.
For larger values of R, not only the peak value of current
falls, but even the response curve becomes less sharp
(i.e., low selectivity).
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 19
Relation between f
0
, f
1
and f
2
At f
1
and f
2
,
2
0
I
I =
R
C
L R X X
R X X R Z Z
C L
C L
= =
= + =
1
or
2 ) ( or 2
2 2
0
For X
L
< X
C
, we get
LC L
R
L
R 4
2
1
2
2
1
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = e
For X
L
> X
C
, we get
LC L
R
L
R 4
2
1
2
2
2
+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = e
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 20
Multiplying these two equations,
2 2
2
1 2 0
1 4 1 1
( )
4 4
R R
L LC L LC
e e e
(
| | | |
= + = =
(
| |
\ . \ .
(

0 1 2
0 1 2
or
f f f
e e e =
=
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 21
Bandwidth (BW) in Terms of Circuit
Parameters
L
R
BW
LC L
R
L
R
LC L
R
L
R
f f BW
t
t t
t t
2
4
4
1
4
4
4
1
4
2
2
1 2
=
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ = =
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 22
Bandwidth (BW) in Terms of Q and f
0
R
L
Q
0
e
=
We know that
Q
f
Q L
R
0 0
2t e
= =
0
2 1 1
2 2 2
f R R
BW
L L Q
t
t t t
| |
| |
= = =
| |
\ .
\ .
0
or
f
BW
Q
=
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 23
Comments on Resonance
The f
0
is not centrally located with respect to f
1
and f
2
,
especially when the Q is small.
Actually, f
0
is the geometric mean of f
1
and f
2
.
The geometric mean is always less than the arithmetic
mean.
However, if Q > 10, f
0
is sufficiently centered with
respect to f
1
and f
2
.
Hence, we can write
2
and
2
0 2 0 1
BW
f f
BW
f f + ~ ~
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 24
Example 2
A series ac circuit has a resonance frequency of
150 kHz and a bandwidth of 75 kHz. Determine
its half-power frequencies.
Solution : Let us calculate the Q of the circuit,
0 0
150kHz
Since , we have 2
75kHz
f f
BW Q
Q BW
= = = =
Hence, we cannot use the approximate relations.
Using the exact relations, and working in kHz,
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 25
150 and 75
1 2 1 2
f f f f = =
Eliminating f
2
between the two equations, we get
kHz 192.1 or kHz 1 . 117
0 500 22 75
1
1
2
1
=
= +
f
f f
Ignoring the negative value, we have f
1
= 117.1 kHz.
Hence, f
2
= 75 + f
1
= 192.1 kHz.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 26
Parallel Resonant Circuit
The losses in inductor and capacitor are accounted
for by equivalent resistances R
1
and R
2
.
Resonant condition reaches when the reactive (or
wattless) component of line current I reduces to zero.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 27
Under resonance condition, the reactive components of
these two currents are equal in magnitude (but opposite in
phase). That is,
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 28
2 2 1 1
sin sin u u I I =
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
1
0
2
0
2
1
) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) (
) (
) ( C R
C
C R
V
L R
L
L R
V
e
e
e e
e
e +

+
=
+

+
1
or

) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) (
) (
or
2 2
0
2
2
0
2 2
0
2
1
0
2
0
2
2
0
2
0
2
1
0
+
=
+
+
=
+
C R
C
L R
L
C R
C
L R
L
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
e
) / (
) / (
2
1
2
2
2
1
0
C L R
C L R
LC
f

=
t
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 29
Practical Parallel Resonance Circuit
It is possible to get a capacitor having negligible
losses.
It means that the resistance R
2
in series with
capacitor C can be ignored.
However, in practice an inductor does have some
losses.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 30
(a) A practical circuit. (b) Its phasor diagram.
By putting R
2
= 0 and R
1
= R,
L C R
LC
C L
C L R
LC
f / 1
2
1
) / (
) / (
2
1
2
2
0
=

=
t t
Note that if
), / ( 1 /
2 2
C L R L C R > >
f
0
is imaginary, and therefore the resonance cannot occur.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 31
Ideal Parallel Resonant Circuit
If it were possible, it would have been ideal if the
inductor too were lossless. In such a case, we could
ignore resistance R,
LC
f
t 2
1
0
=
(c) An ideal circuit.
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The resonant frequency is
Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 32
Current at Resonance
For the practical circuit, at resonance we have
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
0
2
1
sin cos and ; ) (
Z
L
Z
R
Z
V
I L R Z
e
u e

= = = + =
= = = = = 90 and
/ 1
; / 1
2 0
0 2
2 0 2
u e
e
e C V
C
V
Z
V
I C Z
Equating the reactive components of the two
currents, we get
C
L
Z
C V
Z
L
Z
V
I I
=
= =
1
0
1
0
1
2 1 1

or 90 sin sin e
e
u
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 33
Since the reactive components of the two currents
cancel each other, the line current is
0
2
1 1 1
2 2 1 1
/ /
0 cos cos
Z
V
CR L
V
C L
VR
Z
VR
Z
R
Z
V
I I I = = = = + = + = u u
Thus, the effective or equivalent or dynamic impedance
of the parallel resonance circuit is given as
CR
L
Z =
0
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 34
Effect of Variation of Frequency
1
2 2 2 2
2
1
( ) ( )
1
(1/ )
L
C
R L
j G jB
R j L R L R L
j C jB
j C
e
e e e
e
e
= = =
+ + +
= = + = +
Y
Y
The conductance and susceptance of the inductive branch,
2 2 2 2
) (
and
) ( L R
L
B
L R
R
G
L
e
e
e +
=
+
=
For the capacitive branch,
C B G
C
e = = and 0
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 35
Total admittance of the circuit,
) (
) ( ) (
2 2 2 2
1 L C
B B j G C j
L R
L
j
L R
R
+ = +
+

+
= + = e
e
e
e
2
Y Y Y
C B
L R
L
B
L R
R
G
C
L
e
e
e
e
=
+
=
+
=
2 2
2 2
) (
and
) (
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 36
1. As f increases, G decreases.
2. The B
L
is considered negative, since j is associated
with it.
3. For low f, L < R and (L)
2
<< R
2
, hence B
L
is
directly proportional to f.
4. For high f, L > R and (L)
2
>> R
2
, hence B
L
is
inversely proportional to f.
5. Consequently, the plot is a rectangular hyperbola.
It can be seen that
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 37
(a) Admittance versus frequency.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 38
(b) Current versus frequency.
At resonance frequency, the line current is seen to
have minimum,
L
VCR
CR L
V
Z
V
I = = =
/
0
0
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 39
Some Important Points
Since the circuit rejects the current at resonance
(i.e., it has minimum value), the parallel
resonant circuit is also called rejector circuit or
anti-resonant circuit.
Since the circulating current between the two
branches is many times the line current, the
parallel resonant circuit is also called current
resonant circuit.
The circuit is also called a tank circuit.
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Sunday, February 23, 2014 Ch. 11 Resonance in AC Circuits 40
Review
Introduction.
Series Resonant Circuit.
Effect of Variation of
Frequency.
Variation of Voltage
across C and L with
Frequency.
Quality Factor (Q).
Voltage Magnification.
Resonance Curve.
Relation between f
0
, f
1

and f
2
.
Bandwidth (BW) in
Terms of Circuit
Parameters.
Bandwidth (BW) in
Terms of Q and f
0
.
Parallel Resonant Circuit.
Practical Circuit.
Resonance Curve.
Effect of Variation of
Frequency.
Some Important Points.

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