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Geography revision

Orographic/relief Convectional Frontal

Hydrological cycle
Evaporation Transport Condensation Precipitation Groundwater Run-off

Watershed
Boundary of the drainage basin, formed by hills etc, a ring a round the drainage basin (catchment area)

Rivers
Load 3 types dissolved, suspended and bed. All material carried in river. Discharge volume of water that travels through in a given time. Starts at source Branch Tributary Mouth Where it flows out Confluence where 2 rivers join

LOOK IN BOOK AT UPPER MIDDLE AND LOWER COURSE OF RIVERS

River erosion
Abrasion/corrasion Hydraulic action Attrition Solution

River transport
Traction rolling over bed Saltation bouncing over bed Suspension carried along river Solution- dissolved in river

Vertical - Deeper than is wide causing bed 2 erode Lateral one side erodes Headward Backwards erosion

Interlocking spurs Ridges because river chooses easiest way through upper course Point bar depositional feature of streams On a meander, fastest & deepest is outside

Alluvail deposits sediment that has been dropped as river slows down etc Levee bank alongside top of river

River management
Hard engineering - dams, river engineering Soft Afforestation & managed flooding

Tombolo Island attached to land by spit

Settlement site land which it is built (e.g resources Settlement situation location relative to surroundings (e.g towns)

Dispersed settlement poor soil etc Low order goods bread etc, convenience High order goods, tvs etc, shopping goods Hinterland area just behind coast Zone of transition between factory zone and working class zone

Concentric ring model


Order (from outside) (its a circle with 5 rings)

Commuter zone Residential zone Working class zone Zone of transition Factory zone CBD

Sector model

Multiple nuclei model

Urbanisation physical growth of urban areas, increasing proportion of population in cities. Millionaire cities 10 mill+ inhabitants Gentrification rich buying houses in bad places Dormitory village commuters Brown field site abandoned industrial facilities, possibility of re-use

CBD Offices, shops, hotels, little housing etc Counter urbanisation migration away from urban areas, push factors = high land values, congestion, improvements in communications Greenfield development on new land Doughnut effect movement of retail etc from cbd to rural urban fringe (outskirts) Greenbelts undeveloped green areas in cities

Footloose industry can be set up anywhere, not effected by resources etc Honeypot site popular tourist destination