19 views

Uploaded by Hany ElGezawy

O Level Physics

- Major Testing 2014-2015 Physics Part I Test 5 Chapter 5
- Gravitation
- MAE 241 - Lec1
- 17076591
- Rules of Animation
- w1d2
- Project Ppt Vtu Dbit
- Jest 2012 Physics Paper
- 05 Free Fall SV
- 'a' Level - Physics Vol 1
- Optional Challenge 1
- Albert Einstein
- gloss-o.pdf
- 10 23 18 unit 2 intro
- Quality of Fantastic and Good Team Leaders
- The Basal Principle
- A New Universe III. New Magnetic Permeability of Vacuum.
- STEMJOBS LessonPlan Interstellar
- Chapter 7 Dynamic
- EIK Session One Text

You are on page 1of 45

2 Fields

Gravitation

Breithaupt pages 54 to 67

AQA A2 Specification

Lessons 1 Topics Newtons law Gravity as a universal attractive force acting between all matter. Force between point masses F = Gm1m2 / r 2 where G is the gravitational constant. Gravitational field strength Concept of a force field as a region in which a body experiences a force. Representation by gravitational field lines. g as force per unit mass defined by g = F / m Magnitude of g in a radial field given by g = GM / r 2 Gravitational potential Understanding of the definition of gravitational potential, including zero value at infinity, and of gravitational potential difference. Work done in moving mass m given by W = m V Magnitude of V in a radial field given by V = - GM / r Graphical representations of variations of g and V with r. V related to g by g = - V / r Orbits of planets and satellites Orbital period and speed related to radius of circular orbit. Energy considerations for an orbiting satellite. Significance of a geosynchronous orbit.

2&3

4&5

6&7

Gravitational force

This is the ATTRACTIVE force exerted between objects due to their MASSES. WEIGHT is the name given to the gravitational force exerted by a planet or moon on an object.

Gravitational fields

These are regions within which an object experiences gravitational force.

They can be represented by lines of force.

Arrows show the direction of the force. Line density increases with the strength of the field.

These exist around point masses. The field around a uniform sphere, e.g. a planet is also radial.

Field question

Draw the field pattern expected between the Earth and the Moon

neutral point

X

EARTH MOON

This is equal to the force that acts on a very small unit test mass Definition: g = force mass g = F m

Earth, sea level average: g = 9.81 N kg-1 Moon, surface average: g = 1.6 N kg-1

Complete: Answers:

Location Weight / N Mass g / Nkg-1

Earth surface

Moon surface Earth surface Jupiter cloud top Earth surface

9.81

1.6 1.0 96 0.491

1 kg

1 kg 102 g 4 kg 50 g

9.81

1.6 9.81 24 9.81

785 128

80 kg 80 kg

9.81 1.6

Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is: 1. directly proportional to the product of their masses 2. inversely proportional to the square of their distance apart

Mathematically:

F m1 m2 r2

m1 and m2 are the masses of the particles r is their distance apart Note:

1. 2. 3. Doubling either mass DOUBLES the force Doubling both masses QUADRUPLES the force Doubling the distance apart QUARTERS the force

F = - G m1 m2 r2

G is called the Universal Constant of Gravitation. G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg - 2. G is a universal constant because it appears to be the same throughout the universe and independent of time, temperature and the medium separating the masses. G is a very small number and as a consequence gravitational force is only significant when at least one of the masses involved is very large (e.g. at least Moon sized) The equation contains a negative sign to indicate that the force is attractive.

Question

Calculate the gravitational force between yourself and the person sitting next to you. Comment on your answer.

Comment: The weight of one of these persons is about 700N. The above force would be the weight of a mass of about 0.000 04g. This is too small to measure even using a chemical balance reading down to 0.001g.

g=F/m where m is a mass feeling the gravity force of a much larger mass M Newtons law in this situation can now be written: F = -GMm r2 Substituting F from the 2nd equation into the 1st: g = - G M m r2 m

g=-GM r2

Question

Calculate the mass of the Earth, M. Earth surface g = 9.81 Nkg -1 Earth radius, r = 6400 km g= -GM r2 r = distance from Earth centre = 6 400 000 m = 6.4 x 10 6 m 9.81 = (6.672 x 10 -11) x (M) (6.4 x 10 6 m )2 M = 9.81 x (6.4 x 10 6 m )2 / (6.672 x 10 -11) = 4.404 x 1013 / 6.672 x 10 -11 Earth mass = 6.02 x 10 24 kg

Question

Calculate the gravitational field strength due to the Earth at: (a) the top of Snowdon in Wales (height 1000m) (b) the top of Mount Everest (height 10 000m) (c) the height of the orbit of the International Space Station (height 300 km) Earth mass = 6.0 x 10 24 kg Earth radius = 6400 km G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg - 2

g=-GM r2 (a) Snowdon: r = distance from Earth centre = (6400 + 1) km g = (6.672 x 10 -11) x (6.0 x 10 24 kg) (6401 x 10 3 m )2 = 4.003 x 1014 / 4.097 x 1013 g, Snowdon = 9.77 Nkg-1 (b) Everest: r = 6410 km g, Everest = 9.74 Nkg-1 (c) ISS: r = 6700 km g, International Space Station = 8.92 Nkg-1

Calculate the gravitational field strength due to the Earth at the Moon and hence calculate the expected orbital period of the Moon. Earth mass = 6.0 x 10 24 kg; Earth radius = 6400 km Moon orbital radius = 400 000 km; G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg 2 g=-GM r2 g = (6.672 x 10 -11) x (6.0 x 10 24 kg) (400 000 x 10 3 m )2 = 4.0 x 1014 / 1.6 x 1017 g, at the Moon due to the Earths gravity = 0.0025 Nkg-1

The force exerted on the Moon by the Earth, F = mg, where m = the mass of the Moon. This force is a centripetal force which = mr2 And so: mg = mr2 g = r2 but: = 2 / T, where T = the orbital period of the Moon And so: g = r 42 / T2 T2 = r 42 / g = [(4.0 x 108m) x 42] / (0.0025 Nkg-1) = 1.579 x 1010 / 0.0025 T2 = 6.317 x 1012 T = 2.51 x 106 seconds Orbital period of the Moon = 29.1 days NOTE: This result agrees with the observed period of the Moon and therefore supports Newtons law of gravitation.

Variation of g with r

INSIDE PLANET g r OUTSIDE PLANET g 1 r2

Gravitational potential (V )

The gravitational potential of a point within a gravitational field is equal to the work that must be done per kilogram of mass in bringing the mass from infinity to the point.

Notes: 1. The gravitational potential at infinity is ZERO. 2. All other points will have negative potential values. 3. Gravitational potential is measured in joules per kilogram (J kg-1). 4. Gravitational potential is a SCALAR quantity

V= -GM r

Gravitational equipotentials

These are surfaces that join up points of equal potential.

No work is done by gravitational force when a mass is moved along an equipotential surface. Equipotentials are always perpendicular to field lines. Examples include: contour lines on maps, sea level, the floor of a room, the bench top surface.

When a mass, m is moved through a gravitational potential difference of V the work done W is given by:

W = m x V

Question

Calculate the minimum work required to lift an astronaut of mass 80kg from the Earths surface to the height of the ISS (300 km). Earth radius, r = 6400 km Earth mass, M = 6.0 x 10 24 kg G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg - 2

V= -GM/ r V at Earth surface: r = 6.4 x 10 6 m = - (6.672 x 10 -11) x (6.0 x 10 24 ) / 6.4 x 10 6 = - 6.26 x 10 7 Jkg -1 V at ISS: r = 6.7 x 10 6 m = - 5.97 x 10 7 Jkg -1 V = (6.26 5.97) x 10 7 Jkg -1 = 2.9 x 10 6 Jkg -1

W = m x V = 80 kg x 2.9 x 10 6 Jkg -1 Work = 2.32 x 10 8 J = 232 MJ

Further questions

(a) What work would be needed to remove the astronaut completely from the Earths gravitational field? (b) If this work came from a conversion of initial kinetic energy (the astronaut is projected from the Earths surface), what would be the astronauts initial speed?

(a) V = (6.26 0) x 10 7 Jkg-1 = 6.26 x 10 7 Jkg-1 W = m x V = 80 kg x 6.26 x 10 7 Jkg-1 Work = 5.01 x 10 9 J = 5 010 MJ

(b) m v 2 = W = 5.01 x 10 9 J v2 = (2 x 5.01 x 10 9 J) / 80 kg v2 = (10.02 x 10 9 J) / 80 kg v2 = 1.25 x 10 8 speed, v = 1.12 x 104 ms-1 (11 kms-1) This is called the escape speed.

Potential gradient (V / r)

This is the change in potential per metre at a point within a gravitational field. potential gradient = V r unit: J kg-1 m-1 Near the earths surface the potential gradient = 9.81 J kg-1 m-1 g = - V r There is a negative sign because g acts in the opposite direction to the potential gradient.

The definition of field strength: g = F / m can be rearranged: F = mg Newtons 2nd law: F = ma If the only force acting on a mass is gravitational then: F = ma = mg and so: a = g Therefore in a condition of free fall (only force gravity) the downward acceleration is numerically equal to the field strength. Near the Earths surface: Gravitational field strength, g = 9.81 Nkg-1 Gravitational acceleration, (also called g) = 9.81 ms-2

Satellite Orbits

A satellite is a smaller mass orbiting a larger one. e.g. The Moon is a satellite of the Earth whereas the Earth is a satellite of the Sun. In the simplest case the orbit is circular and the centripetal acceleration (v2 / r ) of the satellite is numerically equal to the gravitational field strength (GM / r2 ) of the larger mass at the position of the satellite.

Projectile & Satellite Orbits - NTNU

v2 = GM r r2 rearranging gives: v = (GM / r) The orbital speed is inversely proportional to the square root of the orbital radius. For example: Jupiter travels more slowly about the Sun than the Earth.

Centripetal acceleration also = r 2 Where the angular speed = 2 / T T = the period, the time for one complete orbit Therefore centripetal acceleration = r 42 / T2 But for an orbit: 42 r = GM T2 r2 Hence: T = (42 r 3/GM) The orbital period is directly proportional to the square root of the orbital radius cubed. For example: Jupiter takes longer to orbit the Sun than the Earth.

Question

Calculate (a) the orbital speed and (b) period of the International Space Station. Earth radius, R = 6400 km Orbital height of the ISS, H = 300 km Earth mass, M = 6.0 x 10 24 kg G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg - 2

(a) Orbital speed v = (GM / r) BUT: r = R + H = (6400 + 300)km = 6700 km = 6.7 x 106 m and so: v = (6.672 x 10 -11 x 6.0 x 10 24 / 6.7 x 106) = (4.003 x 10 14 / 6.7 x 106) = (5.975 x 10 7) orbital speed = 7.73 x 103 ms-1 = 7.73 kms-1 (b) Orbital period T = (42 r 3 / GM) = (42 x (6.7 x 106)3 ) / (6.672 x 10 -11 x 6.0 x 10 24) = (1.187 x 10 22 / 4.003 x 10 14) = (2.966 x 10 7) orbital period = 5.45 x 103 s = 90.8 minutes = 1h 30 mins

Question

Calculate the orbital radius of an Earth satellite having an orbital period of 24 hours. Earth mass, M = 6.0 x 10 24 kg; G = 6.672 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg - 2 T = (42 r 3 / GM) rearranged becomes: r 3 = T 2 GM / 42 r 3 = (24 x 60 x 60)2 x (6.672 x 10 -11 x 6.0 x 10 24 ) / 42 r 3 = (86400)2 x (4.003 x 10 14) / 42 r 3 = (7.465 x 10 9 ) x (4.003 x 10 14) / 42 r 3 = 7.570 x 10 22 r = 4.23 x 10 7 m = 42 300 km This is 35 900 km above the Earths surface

Geosynchronous orbit

Such an orbit will: This is an orbit about the Earth 1. HAVE A PERIOD OF 24 HOURS where a satellite 2. BE OF HEIGHT ABOUT 36 000 KM ABOVE THE remains above a EARTHS SURFACE constant point on 3. BE CIRCULAR the Earths surface Use: Satellite TV transmissions

4. BE EQUATORIAL (in the plane of the equator) 5. BE IN THE SAME DIRECTION AS THE EARTHS ROTATION

Most orbits are elliptical. The total energy of the satellite remains constant so that at all times: KE + PE = a constant

at perihelion (closest approach) the KE is max and the PE min resulting in the satellite moving at its highest speed. at aphelion the PE is max and the KE is min - the satellite moves at its lowest speed.

Internet Links

Projectile & Satellite Orbits - NTNU Newton's Cannon Demo - to show how orbits occur - by Michael Fowler Kepler Motion - NTNU Two & Three Body Orbits - 7stones Multiple planets - 7stones Orbits - Gravitation program Space craft control - NTNU Slingshot from Jupiter Mars Shot - try to rendezvous with Mars Black Hole Gravity Game - Explore Science

1. 2. Define what is meant by gravitational field strength. State an equation and unit. Draw diagrams to explain what is meant by (a) uniform and (b) radial fields. What information can be gained from the field line patterns? Define what is meant by gravitational potential. State an equation and unit. Define what is meant by gravitational potential gradient. State an equation and unit. How is gravitational potential gradient related to gravitational field strength? Why does the equation contain a negative sign? State Newtons law of gravitation both in words and mathematically. 7. Do, showing your working fully, summary question 1 on page 61. 8. Draw a diagram showing the gravitational field pattern around a planet. 9. State how gravitational field strength, g related to the gravitational constant G. 10. Draw a graph showing how the value of g varies with distance from the centre of a planet of radius R. 11. How does gravitational potential vary with distance from the centre of a planet ABOVE the planets surface? 12. Explain how the orbital speed and orbital period of a satellite depends on G and the mass of the planet. 13. What is a geostationary satellite? What conditions must be met for a geosynchronous orbit?

3. 4. 5.

6.

1. 2. Define what is meant by gravitational field strength. State an equation and unit. Draw diagrams to explain what is meant by (a) uniform and (b) radial fields. What information can be gained from the field line patterns? Explain how free fall acceleration is related to gravitational field strength. Explain whether or not the Earths gravitational field is uniform. Try the summary questions on page 55

3. 4. 5.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define what is meant by gravitational potential. State an equation and unit. Define what is meant by gravitational potential gradient. State an equation and unit. How is gravitational potential gradient related to gravitational field strength? Why does the equation contain a negative sign? What are equipotentials? Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer. Derive: g = - V / r Try the summary questions on page 58

1. State Newtons law of gravitation both in words and mathematically. 2. Do, showing your working fully, summary question 1 on page 61.

3. Explain how G was measured by Cavendish in 1798. 4. Explain how Newton derived his law from Keplers third law. 5. Try the other summary questions on page 61

1. 2. 3. Draw a diagram showing the gravitational field pattern around a planet. State how gravitational field strength, g related to the gravitational constant G. Draw a graph showing how the value of g varies with distance from the centre of a planet of radius R. How does gravitational potential vary with distance from the centre of a planet ABOVE the planets surface? Derive: V = - GM / r Try the summary questions on page 65

4.

5. 6.

1. Explain how the orbital speed and orbital period of a satellite depends on G and the mass of the planet. 2. What is a geostationary satellite? What conditions must be met for a geosynchronous orbit?

- Major Testing 2014-2015 Physics Part I Test 5 Chapter 5Uploaded byhassan
- GravitationUploaded byExamville.com
- MAE 241 - Lec1Uploaded bykostas.sierros9374
- 17076591Uploaded byRitesh Singh
- Rules of AnimationUploaded byavnika sogani
- w1d2Uploaded byAndika Surya Brata
- Project Ppt Vtu DbitUploaded byNithin
- Jest 2012 Physics PaperUploaded byiswaleha
- 05 Free Fall SVUploaded bySamaher Abu
- 'a' Level - Physics Vol 1Uploaded byvishal_kalra
- Optional Challenge 1Uploaded byeminadz
- Albert EinsteinUploaded bykyler0106
- gloss-o.pdfUploaded byDavidroy Munim
- 10 23 18 unit 2 introUploaded byapi-372548146
- Quality of Fantastic and Good Team LeadersUploaded byARJARIWALA
- The Basal PrincipleUploaded bypepi rahmayani
- A New Universe III. New Magnetic Permeability of Vacuum.Uploaded byJosé Luís Pereira Rebelo Fernandes
- STEMJOBS LessonPlan InterstellarUploaded bySergio Villalobos Flórez
- Chapter 7 DynamicUploaded byFarah Ida
- EIK Session One TextUploaded byKike Tellez
- Space and WeightlessnessUploaded byChikoy Añonuevo
- How Gauss Determined the Orbit of CeresUploaded byDamián Neri
- Kerr Orbit ProjectUploaded byagapi2302
- Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control (9027709599)Uploaded byanterog6
- GCSE P2 2.1.4 Forces and Terminal VelocityUploaded bykarendbrooks
- Exam1_2009_Solution2Uploaded byRick Andrews
- Practical 2Uploaded bypersonwithheart
- SkilMaria and Elena are preparing for a party. Maria realizes she forgot to fill the ice cube trays in order to have ice for the punch. Elena says that she remembers reading somewhere that hot water freezes faster than cold water. Maria is skeptical. She learned in her physics class that the hotter the liquid, the faster the molecules are moving. Since hot water molecules have to slow down more than cold water molecules to become ice, Maria thinks that it will take hot water longer to freeze than cold water. The girls decide to conduct a scientific experiment to determine whether it is faster to make ice cubes with hot water or cold water.l and PracticeUploaded byBryant Ville
- Kinetika PartikelUploaded byDeo Sadewo
- GravitationUploaded byAditya Bansal

- 0625_w15_qp_63Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration MenUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration MenUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_63Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration Essential Color and MediumUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_61Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_33Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_11Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_31Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration DetailsUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- Essential Fashion Illustration DigitalUploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_13Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_qp_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_31Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_ms_62Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_52Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_22Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_33Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_32Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_qp_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_12Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_11Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_61Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_m15_ms_52Uploaded byHany ElGezawy
- 0625_w15_ms_13Uploaded byHany ElGezawy

- A MATLAB Script for Creating Pork Chop Plots of Ballistic Earth-to-Mars TrajectoriesUploaded bycdeaglejr
- GravityAndOrbits-StudentActivity.docUploaded byPatricia López
- practice questions on gravitational potentialUploaded byapi-377518221
- 5 Earth gravitation g and lift .pptUploaded byRamachandranPerumal
- Solar EclipseUploaded byPrachi Bisht
- Sun Synchronous OrbitsUploaded byRicardoRocha
- Date of Mahabharata War using planetarium softwareUploaded bySrini Kalyanaraman
- kepler_law.pptUploaded bydeomonhunter1
- Islamic Praying Time CalculationUploaded byAnonymous 8bDAHYT6T
- Newton and GravitationUploaded byPrasad Shah
- GravitationUploaded bythinkiit
- Revised Dulakara Ayanamsha, Zodiacal Ages and Yuga CyclesUploaded byDr B. Sri Harsha Indrasena MBBS, MS(Surgery), MSc(Statistics), MRCS(Ed), FMAS(India), GradStat(RSS)
- Planet TableUploaded bySameen Shahgir
- g484 module 2 4 2 2 gravitational fields aUploaded byapi-236179294
- 2 Solar RadiationUploaded byqwerty
- AstrologyUploaded bysnraju_lib
- Six Easy Leactures on Ancient Mathematical Astronomy - D. Duke [Univ of FL Lecture Mtls] WWUploaded bywebdrifter
- Observational Astronomy 1Uploaded byNilesh Gupta
- Lunar Eclipses 2001-2100Uploaded bysidhanti26
- The Tropical and Sidereal ZodiaksUploaded byTemple of the stars
- Astronomy Ch 2 Vocab-1Uploaded byDan O
- An Early Instance of Deductive Discovery Tycho Brahe's Lunar TheoryUploaded byCarolina Garcia Sanchez
- Astrology, Astronomy and the Solar SystemUploaded byRajender Saluja
- Gravitation (Theory) Part IUploaded byHrithik Verma
- Derivation of E- Eccentric Anomaly and M Mean AnomalyUploaded byjadaayu
- Solutions Manual for Satellite Communications Second Edition Timothy Pratt Charles Bostian Jeremy AllnuttUploaded bymaurinkrsitel05
- 11 Sat OrbitsUploaded byAbhishek Sharma
- Mekanika Benda Langit_Gerak Dalam Orbit & Transfer OrbitUploaded byafaqihudin
- 2nd-Dispatch-DLPD_IIT-JEE_Class-XII_English_PC-(Physics).pdfUploaded byShorya Kumar
- Gravity - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byboypardede