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Measures of Variability

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 1

Range

Preferred measure

SW388R6

Measures of Variability

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 2

dispersion) use a single number or data value to

indicate variability, or differences between individual

scores and the measure of central tendency.

central to describe or summarize a distribution. Like

measures of central tendency, the preferred measure

of variability is based on the level of measurement of a

variable.

the errors we making in using a measure of central

tendency as the best estimate of the data value for all

subjects in a distribution.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 3

that is paired with the mean as the measure of central

tendency.

and the mean is called the deviation. The sum of all

the deviations is equal to zero.

distribution, we produce a measure of error called the

total sum of squares. If we divide the total sum of

squares by the number of cases, we produce the

variance. The square root of the variance is the

standard deviation.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 4

computed for interval level variables.

preferred measure of central tendency for an

interval level variable, unless the variable is badly

skewed. The standard deviation is more frequently

used.

SW388R6

The Range

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 5

and smallest value in a distribution.

interval level variables.

tendency for ordinal level variables and interval level

variables that are badly skewed.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 6

of the distribution of cases not in the modal

category.

the variable is a continuous interval level variable,

values should be grouped before computing the

mode.

for nominal level variables.

compute it.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 7

To compute measures of

central tendency in SPSS,

select the Descriptive

Statistics | Frequencies

command from the Analyze

Other SPSS procedures also menu.

calculate measures of central

tendency, but include a

somewhat different list.

procedure calculates the mean

and median, but not the mode,

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 8

variable “sex” to the

list of Variable(s).

Statistics… button to

select the specific

measures we want.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 9

checkboxes for

Standard Deviation,

Variance, and Range.

for this command is Third, click on

not unwieldy, is is the Continue

easiest to request all button to

measures that we complete the

might possibly need. specifications.

checkbox for Skewness

which we will need for

interval level variables.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 10

measures of central

tendency, click on the OK

button.

clear the Display frequency

tables checkbox and the

frequency distribution will not

be included in the output.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 11

the measures of variability and

skewness that we will need to

solve our homework problems.

SW388R6

Problem 1

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 12

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 1

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 13

the variable be ordinal or

interval. The variable "RS

HIGHEST DEGREE" is

ordinal, satisfying this

requirement.

HIGHEST DEGREE" is 4.

SW388R6

Problem 2

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 14

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

1.16.

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 2

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 15

variable be interval. The variable "RS

HIGHEST DEGREE" is ordinal, which does

not meet this requirement.

application of a statistic.

SW388R6

Problem 3

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 16

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

HIGHEST DEGREE".

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 3

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 17

variable be ordinal or

interval. The variable "RS

HIGHEST DEGREE" is

ordinal, satisfying this

requirement.

an ordinal level variable. The range for

the variable "RS HIGHEST DEGREE" is 4.

SW388R6

Problem 4

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 18

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 4

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 19

variable be ordinal or

interval. The variable "AGE

OF RESPONDENT" is

interval, satisfying this

requirement.

RESPONDENT" is 70, not 16.81.

SW388R6

Problem 5

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 20

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 5

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 21

the variable be interval. The

variable "AGE OF

RESPONDENT" is interval,

satisfying this requirement.

RESPONDENT" is 282.46, not 70.

SW388R6

Problem 6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 22

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

of the variable "AGE OF RESPONDENT".

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 23

the variable "AGE OF

RESPONDENT" is 16.81.

requires that the variable is true.

be interval. The variable

"AGE OF RESPONDENT" is

interval, satisfying this

requirement.

level variable whose distribution is not badly skewed. The

skewness for this variable is 0.595, not badly skewed by the

rule of thumb that the distribution of a variable is not badly

skewed if its skewness is between -1.0 and +1.0.

SW388R6

Problem 7

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 24

true, false, or an incorrect application of a statistic?

"NUMBER OF BROTHERS AND SISTERS".

1. True

2. False

3. Incorrect application of a statistic

SW388R6

Solution 7

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 25

variable be ordinal or

interval. The variable

"NUMBER OF BROTHERS

AND SISTERS" is interval,

satisfying this requirement.

The range best represents

variability for an interval level

variable whose distribution is

badly skewed.

is 2.391, badly skewed by the

rule of thumb that the

distribution of a variable is

badly skewed if its skewness

is less than or equal -1.0 or

greater than or equal to +1.0.

BROTHERS AND SISTERS" is 22.

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 26

central tendency homework problems.

required for the statistic of a statistic

satisfied?

Yes

statistic reported? False

Yes

True

SW388R6

Data Analysis

and Computers I

Slide 27

Is the Is the

Is the No No

variable variable

variable

interval nominal

ordinal level?

level? level?

Yes SPSS does

for the range variable

Falsebadly not calculate

correct? the IQV

skewed?

No

Yes No

False True

Is the value for the

standard deviation or

variance correct?

No

Yes

False

True

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