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Transmission

1

Line Coding

Some Characteristics

2

Line coding

3

DC component

4

Lack of synchronization

5

Line coding schemes

6

Note:

voltage level.

7

Unipolar encoding

8

Note:

(positive and negative).

9

Types of polar encoding

10

Note:

contain a provision for

synchronization.

11

Manchester encoding

12

Note:

transition at the middle of the bit is

used for both synchronization and bit

representation.

13

Differential Manchester encoding

14

Note:

the transition at the middle of the bit is

used only for synchronization.

The bit representation is defined by the

inversion or noninversion at the

beginning of the bit.

15

Transmission

Media

Transmission medium and physical layer

17

Classes of transmission media

18

Guided Media

Twisted-Pair Cable

Coaxial Cable

Fiber-Optic Cable

19

Twisted Pair

carrying signal the other for ground reference

Twisted together to decrease the crosstalk

interference between adjacent pairs in a cable

20

Unshielded versus Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable

Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)

Most commonly used

Cheaper than STP

Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STP)

Has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that

encases each pair of insulated conductors

Bulkier and more expensive

21

Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables

Category Bandwidth Data Rate Digital/Analog Use

22

UTP connector

23

UTP performance

24

TWISTED PAIR – Transmission Characteristics

Analog

Amplifiers every 5km to 6km

Digital

Use either analog or digital signals

repeater every 2km or 3km

Limited distance

Limited bandwidth (1MHz)

Limited data rate (100Mbps)

Susceptible to interference and noise

25

TWISTED PAIR - Applications

Often used in buildings for LAN and PBX

station connections

Also used in telco outside plant (local loops)

For local area networks (LAN)

10Mbps or 100Mbps

Can carry both voice and data

26

Telephone channel

bandwidth

27

Coaxial Cable

28

BNC connectors

29

Coaxial cable performance

30

Transmission Characteristics

Analog

Amplifiers every few km

Closer if higher frequency

Up to 500MHz

Digital

Repeater every 1km

Closer for higher data rates

Less susceptible to interference and

crosstalk than twisted pair

31

Application

Television distribution

Ariel to TV

Cable TV

Long distance telephone transmission

Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously

Being replaced by fiber optic

Short distance computer systems links

Local area networks

32

Bending of light ray

33

Optical fiber

34

Fiber construction

35

Propagation modes

36

Modes

37

Fiber types

Type Core Cladding Mode

38

Fiber-optic cable connectors

39

Optical fiber performance

40

Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages:

Higher bandwidth

Less signal attenuation

Less interference

Resistance to corrosive materials

Light weight

More immune to tapping

Disadvantages

Expensive to install

41

Application

Long-haul trunks

Metropolitan trunks

Rural exchange trunks

Subscriber loops

LANs

Other

Backbone networks

TV distribution

42

Guided transmission media summary

Type Advantage Disadvantage

Twisted Pair Wire Very inexpensive Doesn’t pass high

Easy to install frequencies well

Already installed in

many locations

Fairly inexpensive inflexible

Moderately high

bandwidth

unaffected by noise

Very high bandwidth

Great repeater

spacing

43

The Data Link

Layer

Data Link Layer Design

Issues

• Services Provided to the

Network Layer

• Framing

• Error Control

• Flow Control

45

Functions of the Data Link

Layer

• Provide service interface to the

network layer

• Dealing with transmission errors

• Regulating data flow

• Slow receivers not swamped by fast

senders

46

Functions of the Data Link

Layer (2)

Relationship between packets and

frames.

47

Services Provided to

Network Layer

48

Services Provided to

Network Layer (2)

Placement of the data link protocol.

49

Framing

A character stream. (a) Without

errors. (b) With one error.

50

Framing (2)

(a) A frame delimited by flag bytes.

(b) Four examples of byte sequences

before and after stuffing.

51

Framing (3)

Bit stuffing

(a) The original data.

(b) The data as they appear on the line.

(c) The data as they are stored in receiver’s

memory after destuffing.

52

Error Detection and

Correction

• Error-Correcting Codes

• Error-Detecting Codes

53

CRC generator and checker

54

Binary division in a CRC generator

55

Binary division in CRC checker

56

10.10 A polynomial

57

10.11 A polynomial representing a divisor

58

Standard polynomials

Name Polynomial Application

CRC-10 x10 + x9 + x5 + x4 + x 2 + 1 ATM AAL

ITU-16 x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 HDLC

ITU-32 x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10 + LANs

x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1

59

Example

It is obvious that we cannot choose x (binary 10) or x2 + x

(binary 110) as the polynomial because both are divisible

by x. However, we can choose x + 1 (binary 11) because

it is not divisible by x, but is divisible by x + 1. We can

also choose x2 + 1 (binary 101) because it is divisible by

x + 1 (binary division).

60

Example

The CRC-12

x12 + x11 + x3 + x + 1

which has a degree of 12, will detect all burst errors

affecting an odd number of bits, will detect all burst

errors with a length less than or equal to 12, and will

detect, 99.97 percent of the time, burst errors with a

length of 12 or more.

61

Checksum

62

Data unit and checksum

63

Note:

•The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.

the sum.

64

Note:

•The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.

the sum.

rejected.

65

Example

Suppose the following block of 16 bits is to be sent using a

checksum of 8 bits.

10101001 00111001

The numbers are added using one’s complement

10101001

00111001

------------

Sum 11100010

Checksum 00011101

The pattern sent is 10101001 00111001 00011101

66

Example

Now suppose the receiver receives the pattern sent in previous

Example and there is no error.

10101001 00111001 00011101

When the receiver adds the three sections, it will get all 1s, which,

after complementing, is all 0s and shows that there is no error.

10101001

00111001

00011101

Sum 11111111

Complement 00000000 means that the pattern is OK.

67

Example

Now suppose there is a burst error of length 5 that affects 4 bits.

10101111 11111001 00011101

When the receiver adds the three sections, it gets

10101111

11111001

00011101

Partial Sum 1 11000101

Carry 1

Sum 11000110

Complement 00111001 the pattern is corrupted.

68

Correction

Retransmission

69

Data and redundancy bits

Number of Number of Total

data bits redundancy bits bits

m r m+r

1 2 3

2 3 5

3 3 6

4 3 7

5 4 9

6 4 10

7 4 11

70

Positions of redundancy bits in Hamming code

71

Redundancy bits calculation

72

Example of redundancy bit calculation

73

Error detection using Hamming code

74

Burst error correction example

75

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