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Digital

Transmission
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Line Coding

Some Characteristics

Line Coding Schemes

Some Other Schemes

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Line coding

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DC component

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Lack of synchronization

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Line coding schemes

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Note:

Unipolar encoding uses only one


voltage level.

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Unipolar encoding

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Note:

Polar encoding uses two voltage levels


(positive and negative).

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Types of polar encoding

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Note:

A good encoded digital signal must


contain a provision for
synchronization.

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Manchester encoding

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Note:

In Manchester encoding, the


transition at the middle of the bit is
used for both synchronization and bit
representation.

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Differential Manchester encoding

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Note:

In differential Manchester encoding,


the transition at the middle of the bit is
used only for synchronization.
The bit representation is defined by the
inversion or noninversion at the
beginning of the bit.

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Transmission
Media

McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000


Transmission medium and physical layer

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Classes of transmission media

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Guided Media

Twisted-Pair Cable

Coaxial Cable

Fiber-Optic Cable

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Twisted Pair

 Consists of two insulated copper wires: one for


carrying signal the other for ground reference
 Twisted together to decrease the crosstalk
interference between adjacent pairs in a cable

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Unshielded versus Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable
 Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP)
 Most commonly used
 Cheaper than STP
 Shielded Twisted-Pair Cable (STP)
 Has a metal foil or braided-mesh covering that
encases each pair of insulated conductors

Bulkier and more expensive

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Categories of unshielded twisted-pair cables
Category Bandwidth Data Rate Digital/Analog Use

1 very low < 100 kbps Analog Telephone

2 < 2 MHz 2 Mbps Analog/digital T-1 lines

3 16 MHz 10 Mbps Digital LANs

4 20 MHz 20 Mbps Digital LANs

5 100 MHz 100 Mbps Digital LANs

6 (draft) 200 MHz 200 Mbps Digital LANs

7 (draft) 600 MHz 600 Mbps Digital LANs

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UTP connector

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UTP performance

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TWISTED PAIR – Transmission Characteristics

 Analog
 Amplifiers every 5km to 6km
 Digital
 Use either analog or digital signals
 repeater every 2km or 3km
 Limited distance
 Limited bandwidth (1MHz)
 Limited data rate (100Mbps)
 Susceptible to interference and noise

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TWISTED PAIR - Applications

 Most common medium


 Often used in buildings for LAN and PBX
station connections
 Also used in telco outside plant (local loops)
 For local area networks (LAN)
 10Mbps or 100Mbps
 Can carry both voice and data

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Telephone channel
bandwidth

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Coaxial Cable

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BNC connectors

•Terminator is used to prevent the reflection

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Coaxial cable performance

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Transmission Characteristics

 Analog
 Amplifiers every few km
 Closer if higher frequency
 Up to 500MHz
 Digital
 Repeater every 1km
 Closer for higher data rates
 Less susceptible to interference and
crosstalk than twisted pair

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Application

 Most versatile medium


 Television distribution
 Ariel to TV
 Cable TV
 Long distance telephone transmission
 Can carry 10,000 voice calls simultaneously
 Being replaced by fiber optic
 Short distance computer systems links
 Local area networks

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Bending of light ray

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Optical fiber

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Fiber construction

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Propagation modes

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Modes

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Fiber types
Type Core Cladding Mode

50/125 50 125 Multimode, graded-index

62.5/125 62.5 125 Multimode, graded-index

100/125 100 125 Multimode, graded-index

7/125 7 125 Single-mode

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Fiber-optic cable connectors

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Optical fiber performance

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Advantages and disadvantages

 Advantages:
 Higher bandwidth
 Less signal attenuation
 Less interference
 Resistance to corrosive materials
 Light weight
 More immune to tapping
 Disadvantages
 Expensive to install

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Application

 Long-haul trunks
 Metropolitan trunks
 Rural exchange trunks
 Subscriber loops
 LANs
 Other
 Backbone networks
 TV distribution

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Guided transmission media summary
Type Advantage Disadvantage
Twisted Pair Wire Very inexpensive Doesn’t pass high
Easy to install frequencies well
Already installed in
many locations

Coaxial cable Shielded Bulky and somewhat


Fairly inexpensive inflexible
Moderately high
bandwidth

Fiber optic cable Transmission Expensive to install


unaffected by noise
Very high bandwidth
Great repeater
spacing

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The Data Link
Layer
Data Link Layer Design
Issues
• Services Provided to the
Network Layer
• Framing
• Error Control
• Flow Control

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Functions of the Data Link
Layer
• Provide service interface to the
network layer
• Dealing with transmission errors
• Regulating data flow
• Slow receivers not swamped by fast
senders

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Functions of the Data Link
Layer (2)
Relationship between packets and
frames.

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Services Provided to
Network Layer

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Services Provided to
Network Layer (2)
Placement of the data link protocol.

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Framing
A character stream. (a) Without
errors. (b) With one error.

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Framing (2)
(a) A frame delimited by flag bytes.
(b) Four examples of byte sequences
before and after stuffing.

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Framing (3)
Bit stuffing
(a) The original data.
(b) The data as they appear on the line.
(c) The data as they are stored in receiver’s
memory after destuffing.

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Error Detection and
Correction
• Error-Correcting Codes
• Error-Detecting Codes

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CRC generator and checker

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Binary division in a CRC generator

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Binary division in CRC checker

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10.10 A polynomial

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10.11 A polynomial representing a divisor

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Standard polynomials
Name Polynomial Application

CRC-8 x8 + x2 + x + 1 ATM header


CRC-10 x10 + x9 + x5 + x4 + x 2 + 1 ATM AAL
ITU-16 x16 + x12 + x5 + 1 HDLC

ITU-32 x32 + x26 + x23 + x22 + x16 + x12 + x11 + x10 + LANs
x8 + x7 + x5 + x4 + x2 + x + 1

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Example
It is obvious that we cannot choose x (binary 10) or x2 + x
(binary 110) as the polynomial because both are divisible
by x. However, we can choose x + 1 (binary 11) because
it is not divisible by x, but is divisible by x + 1. We can
also choose x2 + 1 (binary 101) because it is divisible by
x + 1 (binary division).

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Example
The CRC-12

x12 + x11 + x3 + x + 1
which has a degree of 12, will detect all burst errors
affecting an odd number of bits, will detect all burst
errors with a length less than or equal to 12, and will
detect, 99.97 percent of the time, burst errors with a
length of 12 or more.

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Checksum

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Data unit and checksum

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Note:

The sender follows these steps:


•The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.

•All sections are added using one’s complement to get


the sum.

•The sum is complemented and becomes the checksum.

•The checksum is sent with the data.

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Note:

The receiver follows these steps:


•The unit is divided into k sections, each of n bits.

•All sections are added using one’s complement to get


the sum.

•The sum is complemented.

•If the result is zero, the data are accepted: otherwise,


rejected.

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Example
Suppose the following block of 16 bits is to be sent using a
checksum of 8 bits.
10101001 00111001
The numbers are added using one’s complement
10101001
00111001
------------
Sum 11100010
Checksum 00011101
The pattern sent is 10101001 00111001 00011101

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Example
Now suppose the receiver receives the pattern sent in previous
Example and there is no error.
10101001 00111001 00011101
When the receiver adds the three sections, it will get all 1s, which,
after complementing, is all 0s and shows that there is no error.
10101001
00111001
00011101
Sum 11111111
Complement 00000000 means that the pattern is OK.
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Example
Now suppose there is a burst error of length 5 that affects 4 bits.
10101111 11111001 00011101
When the receiver adds the three sections, it gets
10101111
11111001
00011101
Partial Sum 1 11000101
Carry 1
Sum 11000110
Complement 00111001 the pattern is corrupted.
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Correction

Retransmission

Forward Error Correction

Burst Error Correction

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Data and redundancy bits
Number of Number of Total
data bits redundancy bits bits
m r m+r
1 2 3
2 3 5
3 3 6

4 3 7

5 4 9

6 4 10

7 4 11

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Positions of redundancy bits in Hamming code

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Redundancy bits calculation

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Example of redundancy bit calculation

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Error detection using Hamming code

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Burst error correction example

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