You are on page 1of 52

Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Bowmans lumen Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle

Distal convoluted tubule


Collecting Duct

Urine formation involving ultrafiltration, reabsorption and secretion


Learning outcome:
Explain the formation & concentration of urine involving ultrafiltration, reabsorption & secretion.

Overview
9.3.2 Kidney

Structure of kidney & nephron

Urine formation

counter current multiplier mechanism

Formation & Concentration of urine

Glomerular ultrafiltration
Selective tubular reabsorption

Tubular secretion

Capillary Filtrate Urine

1 Filtration

Excretory tubule

2 Reabsorption

3 Secretion

4 Excretion

2. reabsorbtion

3. secretion

1. ultrafiltration

Urine formation

1.

Glomerular Ultrafiltration (in Bowmans capsule)

ultrafiltration is a passive process Involves the forced removal of substances from the blood into the Bowmans capsule which are smaller than RBC and plasma proteins Occurs as blood pressure forces water Glucose; amino acids urea, Salts HCO3 H+ some drugs called filtrate

Afferent arteriole is wider than efferent arterioles glomerulus capillaries is highly coiled results in a higher hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus forces fluid from the blood in the glomerulus into the lumen of Bowmans capsule.

The porous capillaries, podocytes (in Bowman capsule) that surround glomerulus are permeable to H2O & small solutes but not to blood cells or large molecules such as plasma proteins.

Factors contribute to ultrafiltration process:


1.

High hydrostatic blood pressure in the glomerulus. Large amount of glomerulus filtrate High permeability of the glomerulus

2.

3.

Factors contribute to ultrafiltration process:


1.

High hydrostatic blood pressure in the glomerulus

higher than in other capillaries force substances in blood into Bowman capsule Due to the efferent arteriole smaller in diameter than afferent arteriole

Factors contribute to ultrafiltration process:


2.

Large surface area of glomerulus Due to the highly coiled glomerulus capillaries

Factors contribute to ultrafiltration process:


3.

High permeability of the glomerulus Glomerulus capillaries surrounded by specialized epithelial cell called podocytes Permits fluid and small solutes dissolved in the plasma, such as glucose, amino acids, to pass through and become part of the filtrate. Prevent blood cells, platelets, and most of the plasma protein to pass through

Structure of glomerular blood capillary & podocytes

2.

Selective tubular reabsorption

2.

Selective tubular reabsorption

1) At proximal convoluted tubule As glomerular filtrates flow through the nephron, various substances move back into the blood capillaries. Substances that reabsorbed back into the blood: glucose amino acids vitamins most of the water sodium and chloride ions

2.

Selective tubular reabsorption

Reabsorption occurs by both active & passive transport. passive transport - water, glucose, amino acids, HCO3 active transport - sodium & other mineral ions. As Na+, Cl- is actively transported out, the osmotic pressure of the blood rises and water is taken up by osmosis.

2.
i.

Selective tubular reabsorption

Factors to increase the reabsorption efficiency by tubule

Posses long and winding (proximal) tubule provide high surface area and longer time for reabsorption
The wall is one cell thick. - Diffusion is efficient The cells have microvilli which increase the surface area in contact with the fluid

ii.

iii.

iv. Abundant mitochondria supplying energy needed for active transport.

Microvilli

3) Tubular secretion

Passive transport
Active transport

3. Tubular secretion
occurs in the distal convulated tubule by active transport Secretion at distal convoluted tubule H+, and K+

like proximal tubule, the distal tubule contributes to pH regulation by secretion H+ and reabsorbtion HCO3-

The filtrate then flows from distal tubule to collecting duct The collecting duct carries the filtrate through the medulla to the renal pelvis The transport of the nephron and collecting duct processes the filtrate Forming the urine that is excrete through urinary system

9. 3. 2 KIDNEY
C.

Urine concentration by counter current multiplier mechanism

Learning outcome:a) Describe the concentration of urine by counter current multiplier mechanism.

How does the human kidney concentrates the urine?


Urine concentration occurs in Loop of Henle Function Loop of Henle: Conserve water Create a water potential gradient between the filtrate and the medulla Create a very high concentration of salts in the tissue fluid in the medulla of the kidney

Countercurrent multiplier mechanism


fluids past each other (moving) in opposite directions.

Fluid down at the loop of the descending limb and up the ascending limb

Countercurrent multiplier mechanism


filtrate flow down the descending limb, Increase osmotic concentration (high concentration of NaCl) due to water loss by osmosis fluid flow up the ascending limb,
Decreasing osmotic concentration Less concentrated of NaCl; hypotonic Most hypertonic at medulla

countercurrent multiplier mechanism


This mechanism based of i) ii) The descending limb The ascending limb

Counter current multiplier mechanism

i) The descending limb


thin walls high permeable to water but relatively impermeable to ions

water diffuse by osmosis.

Counter current multiplier mechanism

ii) The ascending limb


lower half of the ascending limb has thin wall like the descending limb.
impermeable to water but permeable to ions

pumping Na and Cl ions from the filtrate into peritubular fluid by passive transport

Counter current multiplier mechanism

ii) The ascending limb


upper half of the ascending limb has thick walls.
Impermeable to permeable to ions. water but

pumping Na and Cl ions from the filtrate medulla by active transport

Process
1 6 5

Counter current multiplier mechanism

There is a gradient of NaCl across the medulla *(about 300 1200mOsmdm-3 @ units). 1. Filtrate leaves proximal convoluted tubule enter descending limb. 2. Water leaves descending limb into medulla by osmosis

Counter current multiplier mechanism PROCESS

3. at the bottom of the descending limb it has lost a lot of water Has a lot of Na and Cl ions Filtrate more concentrated than at either end. 4. At the thin ascending limbs Na and Cl ions are pumped out by passive transport

4 3

Counter current multiplier mechanism PROCESS

5. At the thick ascending limbs Na and Cl ions are pumped out by active transport produce a high concentration of sodium and chloride ions around the descending limb As the fluid flows up the ascending limb, it continues to lose Na and Cl ions Therefore become less concentrated
6.

The filtrate entering the distal tubule is hypotonic than medulla

Process
1 6 5

Collecting Duct
How does this mechanism help to conserve water? The collecting duct, passes through the medulla of the kidney.

Permeable to water
In the inner medulla, duct becomes permeable to urea - contribute to high osmolarity of interstitial fluid in the medulla. water can be drawn out of them, by osmosis, into the concentrated interstitial fluid in the medulla.

TAKE NOTE: The more concentrated the tissue fluid, the more water can be drawn out, and the more concentrated the urine can be.

Water Regulation by ADH a) Concepts


The kidney play central role in the regulation of the water content of the body or osmoregulation. The water content of the blood is monitored by osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus

Water Regulation by ADH


When the water content in blood is BELOW normal
i) Low intake of water
Thirst Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus trigger release of ADH. Hypothalamus

Water content of the blood is lower than normal , causing the blood volume to decrease. -concentration of salts dissolved in the blood becomes greater, increasing the blood osmolarity
Osmoreceptor in hypothalamus are sensitive to these changes

ADH

Pituitary gland
STIMULUS: Increase in blood osmolarity (for instance, after sweating profusely)

stimulate the posterior of the pituitary to release MORE ADH into the blood
Homeostasis: Blood osmolarity (300 mOsm/L)

Water Regulation by ADH


When the water content in blood is BELOW normal
i) Low intake of water

When ADH reaches the kidney, its main targets are the collecting duct
makes the collecting duct wall more permeable to water

The resulting increase in water reabsorption


And concentrate the urine

Water Regulation by ADH

Small volumes of concentrated urine are produced This water retention helps to stop the solute concentration of the blood from becoming too high Lowers blood osmolarity back toward the set point

Thirst

Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus trigger release of ADH. Hypothalamus

Drinking reduces blood osmolarity to set point.

ADH Increased permeability Pituitary gland STIMULUS: Increase in blood osmolarity (for instance, after sweating profusely)

Distal tubule

H2O reabsorption helps prevent further osmolarity increase. Collecting duct Homeostasis: Blood osmolarity (300 mOsm/L)

Water Regulation by ADH


When the water content in blood is ABOVE normal.

ii. High intake of water


Water content of the blood is higher than normal, the body fluids begin to dilute, causing the blood volume to increase. - concentration of salts in the blood becomes less, causing a decrease in osmotic pressure. Osmoreceptor in hypothalamus are sensitive to this osmotic change and stimulate the posterior lobe of the pituitary to release LESS ADH ADH makes the collecting duct wall less permeable to water

Water Regulation by ADH

Less osmotic uptake of water is allowed (less water reabsorption) Large volumes of diluted urine are produced
This water loss increase the solute concentration of the blood

Summarize of ADH
Source Target tissue Actions Factors that Stimulate Release

Produced in hypothalamus; released by posterior pituitary gland

Distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

Increases permeability of the collecting ducts to water, increasing reabsorption and decreasing water excretion

Low fluid intake decreases blood volume and increases osmotic pressure of blood; receptors in hypothalamus stimulate posterior pituitary

9. 3. 2 e) Regulation of NA+ Reabsorption by Aldosterone

regulation of tissue fluid pH

Urine concentration by counter current multiplier mechanism


action of aldosteron on Na+ reabsorption function of kidney control
Regulation of blood water content

Osmoregulation of mineral ions by aldosterone


a) Concepts Plasma sodium level is controlled by hormone aldosterone. It is secreted by the cortex region of the adrenal gland. Aldosterone stimulates the distal tubule to increase sodium reabsorption and K+ secretion thereby maintains the balance of salt and water in the body fluids.

Osmoregulation of mineral ions by aldosterone

A decrease in blood sodium


Leads to a decrease in blood volume (less water enters the blood by osmosis). --reduces blood pressure. Decreasing in pressure and volume stimulates adrenal gland to release aldosteron

Aldosteron increase the rate of reabsorption of sodium ions and secretion of potassium ion from the distal convoluted tubules.
- fewer sodium ions are lost in the urine, and more are retained in the blood. - causes more water to enter the blood by osmosis, raising its volume and hence its pressure.