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Chapter

SIX

Motivation Concepts

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What Is Motivation?

Direction

Intensity

Persistence

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What Is Motivation?
Motivation
The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

Key Elements 1. Intensity: How hard a person tries 2. Direction: Toward beneficial goal 3. Persistence: How long a person tries

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Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)


Hierarchy of Needs Theory
There is a hierarchy of five needs: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant.

Self-Actualization
The drive to become what one is capable of becoming
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Lower-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs

Higher-Order Needs
Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

Self Esteem

Social
Safety Physiological
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Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


Physiological hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs Safety Protection from physical and emotional harm Social Affection, belongingness, acceptance & friendship Esteem Self-respect, autonomy, achievement, status, recognition and attention Self-actualization drive to become what one is capable of becoming; growth, achievement, self-fulfillment
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Assumptions of Maslows Hierarchy


Movement Up the Pyramid
Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied. Individuals therefore must move up the hierarchy in order.

Maslow Application
A homeless person will not be motivated to

meditate!

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ERG Theory
E Existence (equivalent to physiological & safety needs of Maslows theory) R Relatedness (equivalent to social and esteem needs of Maslows theory) G Growth (equivalent to self-actualizaton needs of Maslows theory)

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Having Little Ambition


Disliking Work

Theory X
Managers See Workers as

Avoiding Responsibility
Lazy & must be coerced to perform

Self-Directed

Theory Y
Managers See Workers as

Enjoying Work Accepting Responsibility

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Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory


Bottom Line: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are Hygiene not opposites of the same thing!
Factors
Salary Work Conditions Company Policies Security, status, relationshi p, personal life
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Separate Constructs
Hygiene Factors Extrinsic and Related to

Motivators
Achievement

Dissatisfaction

Responsibility
Growth, advancement, recognition, work itself

Motivation Factors Intrinsic and Related to

Satisfaction

Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers


Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction

Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction

Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg, SeptemberOctober 1987. Copyright 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College: All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 62

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Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

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David McClellands Theory of Needs


Need for Achievement
The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed

Need for Affiliation


The desire for friendly and close personal relationships

Need for Power


The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise

Bottom Line Individuals have different levels of needs in each of these areas, and those levels will drive their behavior.

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Matching High Achievers and Jobs

E X H I B I T 64 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation


Cognitive Evaluation Theory

Goal-Setting Theory
Self-Efficacy Theory Reinforcement Theory Equity Theory Expectancy Theory
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Cognitive Evaluation Theory


Cognitive Evaluation Theory
Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation

The theory may be relevant only to jobs that are neither extremely Hint: For this theory, dull nor extremely interesting.

think about how fun it is to read in the summer, but once reading is assigned to you for a grade, you dont want to do it!

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What Would Herzberg Say? What Would Maslow Say?

E X H I B I T 65 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke)


Basic Premise: That specific and difficult goals, with
self-generated feedback, lead to higher performance.

But, the relationship between goals and performance will depend on:

Goal commitment
I want to do it & I can do it Task characteristics (simple, well-learned, independent) National culture

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Goal Setting in Action: MBO Programs


Management By Objectives Programs A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress
Company wide goals and objectives Goals aligned at all levels

Based on Goal Setting Theory

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What Is MBO?
Management by Objectives (MBO)
A program that encompasses specific goals, participatively set, for an explicit time period, with feedback on goal progress

Key Elements
1. Goal specificity (clearly defined goals) 2. Participative decision making

3. An explicit time period


4. Performance feedback

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Cascading of Objectives

E X H I B I T 61 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory


MBO Goal-Setting Theory

Goal Specificity
Goal Difficulty Feedback Participation

Yes
Yes Yes Yes

Yes
Yes Yes No (qualified)

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Why MBOs Fail


Unrealistic expectations about MBO results Lack of commitment by top management Failure to allocate reward properly Cultural incompatibilities

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Self-Efficacy an individuals belief that he/she is capable of performing a task

An individuals feeling that s/he can complete a task (e.g. I know I can!)

Enhances probability that goals will be achieved

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Self-Efficacy and Goal Setting

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Four Ways of Increasing Self-efficacy (Bandura)


1. Enactive Mastery gaining experience with the task 2. Vicarious Modeling becoming more confident by seeing someone else doing the task 3. Verbal Persuasion someone convinces you that you have necessary skills to be successful in a task 4. Arousal pysched up Note: Basic Premise/Mechanism of Pygmalion and Galatea Effects = believing that something to be true can make it true 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Reinforcement Theory
Argues that behavior is a function of its consequences

Assumptions:
Behavior is environmentally caused.
Behavior can be modified (reinforced) by providing (controlling) consequences. Reinforced behavior tends to be repeated.

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Equity Theory
Equity Theory
Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities

Referent Comparisons:
Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside
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Equity Theory (contd)

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Equity Theory (contd)

Choices for dealing with inequity:


1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Change outcomes (increase output)

3. Distort/change perceptions of self


4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person

6. Leave the field (quit the job)

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Equity Theory (contd)


Propositions relating to inequitable pay:
1. Overrewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. 2. Overrewarded piece-work employees produce less, but do higher quality piece work. 3. Underrewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. 4. Underrewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees.

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Justice and Equity Theory

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Three Types of Justice


Distributive Justice
Perceived fairness of the outcome (the final distribution) Who got what?

Procedural Justice
Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the outcome (the final distribution) How was who gets what decided?

Interactional Justice
The degree to which one is treated with dignity and respect. Was I treated well?
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Expectancy Theory
The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual

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Expectancy Theory

Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders

Bottom Line
All three links between the boxes must be intact or motivation will not occur. Thus, Individuals must feel that if they try, they can perform and If they perform, they will be rewarded and When they are rewarded, the reward will be something they care about.

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Putting It All Together

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