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BIOREACTOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUSPENSION, IMMOBILIZED, ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL CULTURES

ERT 314 BIOREACTOR SYSTEM

Dr. Saleha Shamsudin

(Shuler & Kargi)

Course Contents
Differences between batch and continuous system based on productivity, modifications for batch and continuous bioreactor, simple bioreactor design for immobilized cell systems, animal and plant cell cultures, solid state fermentation process.
Chapter 9
Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concepts Michael L. Shuler/Fikret Kargi Prentice Hall International Series in the Physical and Chemical Engineering Sciences

INTRODUCTION
The choice of reactor will determined: Product concentrations and purity Degree of substrate conversion/yield Whether sustainable/reliable performance

The bioreactor consideration must be made in the context of the total process: Biocatalyst Reactor Separation Purification

Choosing the cultivation method (batch or continuous) -based on productivity


-Production of cell mass or primary products BATCH
1. 2. 3. 4. FOUR CHARACTERISTIC PHASES OF THE GROWTH CYCLE Lag Phase adaptation of the cells to the new environment minimal increase in cell density Exponential (log) Growth Phase cells are dividing regularly cells divide at a constant rate (Harvesting) Stationary Phase cells stopped growing and dividing production of secondary metabolites (Preparation for new batch) Death Phase (Cleaning, sterilizing, filling) viable cell population declines viable cells decreases geometrically

t1 Sum of times required for the lag phase, harvesting and


tc
Total time to complete a batch cycle

preparation (vary with size and nature of fermentation) 3 to 10 h

tc
Xm

Xm ln t1 X0

The maximal attainable cell concentration The cell concentration at inoculation

X0

Total amount of mass cell =

X m X 0 YX S S 0
rb

The rate of cell mass production in one batch cycle,

1 m ln X m

YX S S0

X 0 t1

Based on productivity, most of commercial bioprocesses are batch system. Why?


*Applied to growth associated product *Genetic instability *Operability and reliability *Market economics

Chemostat
Operated by supplying an essential growthlimiting nutrient at a constant rate with the result that the culture density and growth rate adjust themselves to the supply.

Turbidostat
Operated by maintaining a constant cell density by supplying fresh medium as required. It possesses a photocell system which continuously monitors the cell density and maintains this constant by controlling the medium inlet flowrate.