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A change in the atomic or molecular


configuration of a matter will give rise to
electric and magnetic fields called
electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic
radiation.
These electromagnetic waves transport
energy at a speed of light.
These waves are characterized by their
wavelength and frequency f.

2
(5.1)

3
f
c
=
Fig. 5.1 Electromagnetic wave spectrum

The type of electromagnetic radiation
pertinent to heat transfer is the thermal
radiation emitted as a result of vibrational
and rotational motions of molecules, atoms
and electrons of a substance.
Every substance at temperature above
absolute zero emits thermal radiation.
An ideal body that emits the maximum
amount of thermal radiation that a surface
can emit is called black body.
A black body is an ideal absorber of thermal
radiation also.
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The amount of radiation energy emitted by a
black body is given by the Stefan-Boltzmann
equation,
(5.2)
Thermal radiation is considered as a surface
phenomenon for opaque materials.
For semi transparent materials like glass and
water radiation is considered as volume
phenomena.
5
4
T E o =
The radiation energy emitted by a real
object is less than that emitted by a black
body at the same temperature.
(5.3)
Emissivity is dependent on wavelength and
direction of radiation.
But to simplify radiation calculations,
emissivity is assumed to be independent of
wavelength and direction of radiation.

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4
T E co =
A surface is said to be gray if its properties
are independent of wavelength and diffuse if
its properties are independent of direction.
The radiation energy incident on a surface is
called irradiation (G).
Radiation energy striking a surface can be:
Reflected,
Absorbed,
Transmitted, or
Combination of the above.
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8
Fig. 5.2 Incident radiation on surface can be reflected,
absorbed and/or transmitted

The reflectivity , absorptivity and
transmitivity t are defined as




(5.4)



From Fig. 5.2 it can be seen that
(5.5)


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G
G
Radiation Incident
Radiation d Transmitte
G
G
Radiation Incident
Radiation Absorbed
G
G
Radiation Incident
Radiation f lected
tra
abs
ref
= =
= =
= =
t
o

Re
1 = + +
= + +
t o
G G G G
tra abs ref
For opaque material, t=0, and +o=1
For black material, t= = 0, and o=1
t, and o are dependent on wavelength and
direction of radiation.
In radiation heat transfer and are
assumed to be equal to each other
(Kirchhoffs law) to simplify analysis
problems.
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In radiation heat transfer analysis
understanding the interaction between two
or more surfaces is very important.
The radiation heat transfer depends on:
Orientation of surfaces relative to each other,
Radiation properties of surfaces, and
Temperature of surfaces.
View factor is a geometric property that is
used to account for the effect of relative
orientations on radiation heat transfer.

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The technical definition of view factor F is
given by
F
ij
=fraction of radiation leaving surface i that
strikes surface j directly.
View factor ranges between 0 and 1.
F
ij
=0radiation leaving surface i will not strike
surface j directly or the two syrfaces do not have
a direct view of each other.
F
ij
=1radiation leaving surface i will be totally
intercepted by surface j directly or surface j
completely surrounds surface i.

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Analytical evaluation of view factors is
complex and sometimes difficult to perform.
Therefore, the results of view factors of
various geometries are given in different
forms (Fig.5.3 through 5.5 and Table 5.1 and
5.2).


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14
Table 5.1 View factors for two dimensional shapes (infinite length in to the paper)
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Table 5.1 View factors for two dimensional shapes (infinite length in to the paper)
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Table 5.2 view factors for three dimensional configurations

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Table 5.2 view factors for three dimensional configurations

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Fig. 5.3 View factor between identical, parallel, directly opposed rectangles
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Fig. 5.4 View factor between perpendicular rectangles with common edge
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Fig.5.5 View factor between parallel coaxial disks of unequal radius
Directly evaluating the view factors for all
surfaces forming enclosure is very tedious
and time consuming.
Once view factors of some surfaces are
evaluated, some relations will be used to
obtain that of others in the enclosure.
The four common relations are given below.

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Reciprocity rule

(5.6)
Summation rule (enclosed surfaces)

(5.7)
Superposition rule

(5.8)
Multiplying by A
i
,
(5.9)
Applying reciprocity rule,
(5.10)

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i j j j i i
F A F A

=

=

=
N
j
j i
F
1
1
k i j i k j i
F F F

+ =
) , (
k i i j i i k j i i
F A F A F A

+ =
) , (
i k k i j j i k j k j
F A F A F A A

+ = +
) , (
) (
Symmetry rule
If the surfaces involved in radiation posses
symmetry, the determination of view factors is
simplified (Fig. 5.6).
In general if surfaces 2 and 3 are symmetrical
about surface 1, then F
12
= F
13
and from the
reciprocity rule, F
21
= F
31
.
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Fig. 5.6 Symmetric surfaces
The crossed-strings method
The crossed-strings method is the simplest
way of determining view factors between
surfaces that are assumed to be infinitely
long in one dimension.
Referring to Fig.5.7, the view factor between
surfaces 1 and 2 is given by

(5.11)

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1
4 3 6 5
2 1
2
) ( ) (
L
L L L L
F
+ +
=








Equation (5.11) can be expressed verbally as

(5.12)

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Fig. 5.7 Crossed- Strings method
) ( * 2
) ( ) (
i surface on string
strings uncrossed strings crossed
F
j i


=

Example 5.1
Determine the view factors F
13
and F
23

between the rectangular surfaces shown.

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Solution
From Fig. 5.4,
F
13
=0.27 and F
(1,2)3
=0.15.
From equation (5.10),


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3 2 2 3 1 1 3 ) 2 , 1 ( 2 1
) (

+ = + F A F A F A A
( )
( )
03 . 0
2
3 1 1 3 2 , 1 2 1
3 2
=
+
=

A
F A F A A
F
If a body can be approximated as a black
body, the heat transfer analysis will greatly
be simplified because of absence of
reflection.
(5.13)

Most enclosures encountered in practice
involve non-black surfaces and the radiation
heat transfer is very complicated.


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=

= =
N
j
j i j i i i j i
T T F A Q Q
1
4 4
. .
) ( o
To simplify the analysis, the surfaces can be
assumed to be
Opaque,
Diffuse,
Gray, and
Isothermal.
Radiosity (J
i
) - is the total energy leaving a
surface (emitted, reflected).

(5.14)

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i i bi i
i i bi i
i
)G (1 E
G E
Reflected Radiation Emitted Radiation J
+ =
+ =
+ =
Net radiation leaving surface i is given by




But

(5.15)

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) G (J A
i surface entire on incident radiation
i surface entire leaving Radiation Q
i i i
i
.
=

=
i
bi i i
i
E J
G
c
c

=
1
( )
i
i bi
i bi
i
i i
i
bi i i
i i i
R
J E
J E
A E J
J A Q

=
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
c
c
c
c
1 1
.
Where

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radiation to resistance surface
A
1
R
i i
i
i
=

=




(5.16)

Where

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( )
( )
j i
j i
j i j i i
j i j j i j i i
j i
.
R
J J
J J F A
J F A J F A
i surface strikes that
j surface leaving Radiation
j surface strikes that
i surface leaving Radiation
Q

= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
radiation to resistance space
F A
1
R
j i i
j i
= =

For more than two surfaces,



(5.17)

For two surface enclosures
(5.18)

is the net radiation leaving surface 1.


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( )
( )

=

=


= =
N
j
j i
j i
N
j
j i j i i j i
R
J J
J J F A Q
1 1
.
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1 1 2 1
.



= =
R
J J
J J F A Q
2 1
.

Q
(5.19)

For two surface enclosures net radiation
leaving surface 1 is the same as net radiation
entering in to surface 2.
(5.20)



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( )
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
.
2 1
.
1
J E
A
R
J E
Q Q
b
b

= =

c
c
( )
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
.
2 1
.
1
J E
A
R
J E
Q Q
b
b

= =

c
c
Combining equations (5.18), (5.19) and
(5.20),
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) (
2 1 2 1
.
2 1
2
.
2 2
1
.
1 1
2 1
.
2 1
R R R Q E E
R Q E J
R Q J E
R Q J J
b b
b
b
+ + =

=
=
=
+

Then the net radiation heat transfer


becomes,



(5.21)

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( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
1
2 1 1
1
4
2
4
1 1
2 2
2
2 1 1 1 1
1
4
2
4
1
2 1 2 1
4
2
4
1
2 1 2 1
2 1
.
1 1 1
1 1 1
c
c
c
c
o
c
c
c
c
o
o

+ +

+ +


=
+ +

=
+ +


A
A
F
T T A
A F A A
T T
R R R
T T
R R R
E E
Q
b b
Example 5.2
Consider a hemispherical furnace of diameter
D=5m with a flat base. The dome of the
furnace is black and the base an emissivity of
0.7. the base and the dome of the furnace
are maintained at uniform temperatures of
400 and 1000K, respectively. Determine the
net rate of radiation heat transfer from the
dome to the base surface during steady state
operation.

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Solution
The net radiation heat transfer, from
equation (5.21), is
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39
( )
2
2
2
1
2 1 1
1
4
2
4
1 1
2 1
.
1 1 1
c
c
c
c
o

+ +

A
A
F
T T A
Q
2
2 2
1
27 . 39
2
5
2
m
D
A = = =
t t
2
2 2
2
64 . 19
4
5
4
m
D
A = = =
t t
7 . 0 , 1
2 1
= = c c
Where
,
,
Assuming the external surface to be
insulated,
F
22
+F
21
=1 and from geometry of surface 2,
F
22
=0F
21
=1
From reciprocity rule,
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5 . 0 1 5 . 0
1 2
1
2
2 1 2 1 1 1 2 2
= = = =

F
A
A
F F A F A
( )
( )
W
A
A
F
T T A
Q
7 . 759362
7 . 0
3 . 0
2
5 . 0
1
0
400 1000 10 67 . 5 27 . 39
1 1 1
4 4 8
2
2
2
1
2 1 1
1
4
2
4
1 1
2 1
.
=
+ +

=

+ +

c
c
c
c
o
In analyzing radiation processes between
surfaces, the media between the surfaces
have to be taken in to consideration.
These media can be participating (emit,
absorb or reflect thermal radiation) or non-
participating (transparent to thermal
radiation).

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The following are non-participating
(transparent) media
Vacuum,
Monatomic molecules (such as Argon and Helium),
Symmetric diatomic molecules (such as N
2
and O
2
)
except at extremely high (ionization) temperatures,
Atmospheric air.
Gases with asymmetric molecules such as H
2
O,
CO
2
, CO, SO
2
, and hydrocarbons H
n
C
m
may
participate in the radiation process at moderate
and high temperatures.
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Radiation analysis with participating gases is
very complicated due to the fact that
Gaseous radiation is a volumetric phenomena,
Gases emit and absorb radiation at a number of
narrow wavelength bands, and
The emission and absorption characteristics of
the constituents of a gas mixture also depend on
the temperature, pressure, and composition of
the gas mixture.

43
In radiation calculations, the gases are
usually assumed to be gray where the total
emissivity and absorptivity of a gas depends
on the geometry of the gas body as well as
the temperature, pressure, and composition.
Gases that participate in radiation exchange
such as CO
2
and H
2
O typically coexist with
nonparticipating gases such as N
2
and O
2.
The emissivity and absorptivity of a gas
component in a mixture depends primarily on
its density.
44
The emissivity of H
2
O vapor in a mixture of
nonparticipating gases is plotted in Fig.5.8
for a total pressure of P=1atm.

45
46
Fig. 5.8 Emissivities of H
2
O and CO
2
gases in a mixture of nonparticipating gases
at a total pressure of 1 atm for a mean beam length of L (1m.atm = 3.28 ft .atm)
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Fig. 5.9 Correction factors for the emissivities of H
2
O and CO
2
gases at
pressures other than 1atm for use in the relations c
w
=C
w
c
w,1atm
and c
c
= C
c
c
c,1atm

Emissivity at a total pressure P other than
P=1atm is determined from
c
w
=C
w
c
w,1atm
and

c
c
= C
c
c
c,1atm
(5.22)
If the CO
2
and H
2
O gases exist together in a
mixture, effective emissivity will be
c
g
=c
w
+

c
c
-Ac
=C
w
c
w,1atm
+ C
c
c
c,1atm
Ac (5.23)
Ac is the emissivity factor which accounts for
overlap of emission band
48
49
Fig. 5.10 Emissivity correction Ac for use in equation (5.23)

The emissivity of gas also dependent on the
mean length an emitted radiation beam
travel in the gas before reaching a bounding
surface , and thus the shape and size of gas
body involved.
The emissivity data was first formulated
based on a hemispherical gas body of radius L
emitting thermal radiation towards the
center of the base of the hemisphere.

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The emissivity data is extended to other
geometries by introducing the mean beam
length L, which is the radius of an equivalent
hemisphere.
The mean beam lengths for various gas
geometries are listed in Table 5.3.

51
52
Table 5.3 Mean beam length L for various gas volume shapes

The absorptivity of a gas mixture that
contains CO
2
and H
2
O at a source
temperature T
s
is given by
o
g
=o
w
+

o
c
-Ao (5.24)
Where Ao=Ac and is determined from Fig.
5.10 at the source temperature T
s
.
The absorptivities of CO
2
and H
2
O can be
determined from the emissivity charts
(Fig.5.8 and 5.9) as
o
c
=C
c
(T
g
/T
s
)
0.65
c
c
(T
s
, P
c
LT
s
/T
g
) (5.25)
o
w
=C
w
(T
g
/T
s
)
0.45
c
w
(T
s
, P
c
LT
s
/T
g
) (5.26)

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When the total emissivity of a gas e
g
at
temperature T
g
is known, then the rate of
radiation energy emitted by a gas to a
bounding surface of area A
s
becomes
(5.27)
If the gas is bounded by a black body at
surface temperature T
s
, the net radiation
heat transfer will be
(5.28)


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4
,
.
g s g e g
T A Q o c =
( )
4 4
.
s g g g s net
T T A Q o c o =
If the surface is not black, the analysis
become more complicated because of the
radiation reflected by surface.
But the bounding body nearly black (
s
>0.7),
the net radiation heat transfer is
approximated by


(5.29)

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( )
4 4
,
.
,
.
2
1
2
1
s g g g s
s
black net
s
gray net
T T A
Q Q
o c o
c
c

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
Example 5.3
A cubic furnace whose side length is 6m
contains combustion gases at 1000K and a
total pressure of 1atm. The composition of
the combustion gases is 75 percent N
2
, 9
percent H
2
O, 6 percent O
2
, and 10 percent
CO
2
. Determine the effective emissivity of
the combustion gases.

56
Solution
All the gases in the mixture are ideal gases.
The emissivity determined is the mean
emissivity for radiation emitted to all
surfaces of the cubical enclosure.
The volumetric analysis of a gas mixture
gives the mole fractions y
i
of the
components, which are equivalent to
pressure fractions for an ideal gas mixture.
Therefore, the partial pressures of CO
2
and
H
2
O are

57





58
atm 09 . 0 atm) 1 ( 09 . 0
atm 10 . 0 atm) 1 ( 10 . 0
2
2
H
CO
= = =
= = =
P y P
P y P
O w
c
6 m
Combustion
gases
1000 K
The mean beam length for a cube of side length 6 m for radiation emitted
to all surfaces is, from Table 5.3,
L = 0.66(6 m) = 3.96 m
Then,


The emissivities of CO
2
and H
2
O
corresponding to these values at the gas
temperature of T
g
= 1000 K and 1atm are,
from Fig. 5.8,

and

59
atm ft 1.57 atm m 48 . 0 m) atm)(3.96 09 . 0 (
atm ft .30 1 atm m 396 . 0 m) atm)(3.96 10 . 0 (
= = =
= = =
L P
L P
w
c
17 . 0
atm 1 ,
= c
c
26 . 0
atm 1 ,
= c
w
Both CO
2
and H
2
O are present in the same
mixture, and we need to correct for the
overlap of emission bands. The emissivity
correction factor at T = T
g
= 1000 K is, from
Fig. 5.9,

60
039 . 0
474 . 0
10 . 0 09 . 0
09 . 0
87 . 2 57 . 1 30 . 1
= c A

=
+
=
+
= + = +
c w
w
w c
P P
P
L P L P
Note that we obtained the average of the
emissivity correction factors from the two
figures for 800 K and 1200 K. Then the
effective emissivity of the combustion gases
becomes


Note that the pressure correction factor is 1
for both gases since the total pressure is 1
atm.

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0.391 = + = c A c + c = c 039 . 0 26 . 0 1 17 . 0 1
atm 1 , atm 1 , w w c c g
C C