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Chapter 3

Identify and inspect Relay, Sensor


and Fuse
BASIC HYDRAULIC & PNEUMATIC SYSTEM 2
CE 2463
Prepared by:
Pn. Zainon Sharmila Shamsuddin
What is Relay ?
A relay is usually an electromechanical device that is
actuated by an electrical current.

The current flowing in one circuit causes the opening or
closing of another circuit.

Relays are like remote control switches and are used in
many applications because of their relative simplicity, long
life, and proven high reliability.

Relays are used in a wide variety of applications throughout
industry, such as in telephone exchanges, digital computers
and automation systems.
What is Relay ?
Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power
systems against trouble and power blackouts as well as to
regulate and control the generation and distribution of power.

In the home, relays are used in refrigerators, washing machines
and dishwashers, and heating and air-conditioning controls.

Although relays are generally associated with electrical circuitry,
there are many other types, such as pneumatic and hydraulic.
Input may be electrical and output directly mechanical, or vice
versa.
Types of Relays
There are two basic classifications of relays: Electromechanical
and Solid State.

Electromechanical relays have moving parts, whereas solid state
relays have no moving parts.

Advantages of Electromechanical relays include lower cost, no
heat sink is required, multiple poles are available, and they can
switch AC or DC with equal ease.
Electromechanical Relays
General Purpose Relay:
The general-purpose relay is rated by the amount of current
its switch contacts can handle. Most versions of the general-
purpose relay have one to eight poles and can be single or
double throw. These are found in computers, copy
machines, and other consumer electronic equipment and
appliances.

Power Relay: The power relay is capable of handling larger power loads 10-50
amperes or more. They are usually single-pole or double-pole units.

Contactor: A special type of high power relay, its used mainly to control high voltages
and currents in industrial electrical applications. Because of these high power
requirements, contactors always have double-make contacts.

Solid State Relays
These active semiconductor devices use light instead of
magnetism to actuate a switch. The light comes from an LED,
or light emitting diode.

When control power is applied to the devices output, the
light General Purpose Relay is turned on and shines across
an open space. On the load side of this space, a part of the
device senses the presence of the light, and triggers a solid
state switch that either opens or closes the circuit under
control.
Often, solid state relays are used where the circuit under control must be protected
from the introduction of electrical noises.

Advantages of Solid State Relays include low EMI/RFI, long life, no moving parts, no
contact bounce, and fast response. The drawback to using a solid state relay is that it
can only accomplish single pole switching.
Sensors
A sensor is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a
signal which can be read by an observer or by an (today mostly electronic)
instrument.

A sensor is a device, which responds to an input quantity by generating a
functionally related output usually in the form of an electrical or optical signal.
Thermocouple sensor for high
temperature measurement
Fuses
In electronics and electrical
engineering, a fuse is a type
of low
resistance resistor that acts
as a sacrificial device to
provide overcurrent protect
ion, of either the load or
source circuit.

Its essential component is a
metal wire or strip that
melts when too much
current flows, which
interrupts the circuit in
which it is connected.

Short circuit, overloading, mismatched
loads or device failure are the prime
reasons for excessive current.
A fuse is a device
that is rated in amps
and design for the
circuit its being used
in.
Never install a larger
fuse than is
recommended is any
electrical circuit
Fuse Construction
A fuse consists of a metal strip or wire fuse element, of small cross-section
compared to the circuit conductors, mounted between a pair of electrical
terminals, and (usually) enclosed by a non-combustible housing.

The fuse is arranged in series to carry all the current passing through the
protected circuit. The resistance of the element generates heat due to the current
flow.

The size and construction of the element is determined so that the heat produced
for a normal current does not cause the element to attain a high temperature.

If too high current flows, the element rises to a higher temperature and either
directly melts, or else melts a soldered joint within the fuse, opening the circuit.

Fuse Construction
The fuse element is made of zinc, copper, silver, aluminum, or alloys to provide
stable and predictable characteristics. The fuse ideally would carry its rated
current indefinitely, and melt quickly on a small excess. The element must not be
damaged by minor harmless surges of current, and must not oxidize or change its
behavior after possibly years of service.

The fuse elements may be shaped to increase heating effect. In large fuses,
current may be divided between multiple strips of metal. A dual-element fuse
may contain a metal strip that melts instantly on a short-circuit, and also contain a
low-melting solder joint that responds to long-term overload of low values
compared to a short-circuit. Fuse elements may be supported by steel or
nichrome wires, so that no strain is placed on the element, but a spring may be
included to increase the speed of parting of the element fragments.

The fuse element may be surrounded by air, or by materials intended to speed
the quenching of the arc. Silica sand or non-conducting liquids may be used.


Type of Fuses
Low voltage fuses
In this category all fuses up to 1.5 kV can be included. But the most typical voltage
levels for low voltage fuses are 500 V, 690 V and 750 V.

LV HRC fuses are used for installation systems in non-residential, commercial and
industrial buildings, as well as in the switchboards of power supply companies. They
therefore protect essential building parts and installations.

LV HRC fuse links are available in the following operational classes:
gG (previously gL) for cable and line protection
aM for the short-circuit protection of switching devices in motor circuits
gR or aR for the protection of power semiconductors
gS operational class combines cable and line protection with semiconductor
protection.
Type of Fuses
Type of Fuses
All fuses used on power systems from 1.5 kV up to 138 kV are categorized as high
voltage fuses. High voltage fuses are used to protect instrument transformers used for
electricity metering, or for small power transformers where the expense of a circuit
breaker is not warranted. For example, in distribution systems, a power fuse may be
used to protect a transformer serving 13 houses. A circuit breaker at 115 kV may cost
up to five times as much as a set of power fuses, so the resulting saving can be tens of
thousands of dollars. Pole-mounted distribution transformers are nearly always
protected by a fusible cutout, which can have the fuse element replaced using live-line
maintenance tools.
Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable
and predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with
gas-evolving substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc
causes the boric acid to evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure
(often greater than 100 atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly quench the resulting arc.
The hot gases are then explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Such fuses can
only be used outdoors.
Type of Fuses
Type of Fuses
Resettable fuses
So-called self-resetting fuses use a thermoplastic conductive element known as a
Polymeric Positive Temperature Coefficient (or PPTC) thermistor that impedes the
circuit during an overcurrent condition (by increasing device resistance). The PPTC
thermistor is self-resetting in that when current is removed, the device will cool and
revert back to low resistance. These devices are often used in aerospace/nuclear
applications where replacement is difficult, or on a computer motherboard so that a
shorted mouse or keyboard does not cause motherboard damage.
Type of Fuses
Thermal fuse
A thermal fuse is often found in consumer equipment such as coffee makers or hair
dryers or transformers powering small consumer electronics devices. They contain a
fusible, temperature-sensitive alloy which holds a spring contact mechanism normally
closed. When the surrounding temperature gets too high, the alloy melts and allows
the spring contact mechanism to break the circuit. The device can be used to prevent a
fire in a hair dryer for example, by cutting off the power supply to the heater elements
when the air flow is interrupted (e.g., the blower motor stops or the air intake
becomes accidentally blocked).