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You are on page 1of 9

4 day one

Improper

Integrals

Greg Kelly, Hanford High School, Richland, Washington

Until now we have been finding integrals of continuous

functions over closed intervals.

Sometimes we can find integrals for functions where

the function or the limits are infinite. These are called

improper integrals.

Example 1:

1

0

1

1

x

dx

x

+

}

The function is

undefined at x = 1 .

0

1

2

3

4

1

Since x = 1 is an asymptote, the

function has no maximum.

Can we find

the area under

an infinitely

high curve?

We could define this integral as:

0

1

1

lim

1

b

b

x

dx

x

}

(left hand limit)

We must approach the limit from

inside the interval.

0

1

1

lim

1

b

b

x

dx

x

}

1

1

1

1

x

x

x

dx

x

+ +

+

}

Rationalize the numerator.

2

1+x

1

dx

x

}

2 2

1 x

1 1

dx dx

x x

+

} }

2

1 u x =

2 du x dx =

1

2

du x dx =

1

1

2

1

sin

2

x u du

2 2

1 x

1 1

dx dx

x x

+

} }

2

1 u x =

2 du x dx =

1

2

du x dx =

1

1

2

1

sin

2

x u du

}

1

1

2

sin x u

1 2

1

0

lim sin 1

b

b

x x

( )

( )

1 2 1

1

lim sin 1 sin 0 1

b

b b

1

2

t

= +

2

t

0 0

This integral converges

because it approaches a

solution.

Example 2:

-1

0

1

2

3

4

-1 1

1

0

dx

x

}

1

0

limln

b

b

x

+

0

lim ln1 ln

b

b

+

0

1

lim ln

b

b

+

=

This integral diverges.

(right hand limit)

We approach the limit from inside

the interval.

1

0

1

lim

b

b

dx

x

+

Example 3:

( )

3

2

0

3

1

dx

x

}

The function

approaches

when .

1 x

0

1

2

3

4

1 2 3

( )

2

3

3

0

1 x dx

}

( ) ( )

2 2

3

3 3

0

1 1

lim 1 lim 1

b

c

b c

x dx x dx

+

+

} }

( ) ( )

3

1 1

3 3

1 1

0

lim3 1 lim3 1

b

b c

c

x x

+

+

( ) ( )

2 2

3

3 3

0

1 1

lim 1 lim 1

b

c

b c

x dx x dx

+

+

} }

( ) ( )

3

1 1

3 3

1 1

0

lim3 1 lim3 1

b

b c

c

x x

+

+

( ) ( ) ( )

1

1 1 1

3

3 3 3

1 1

lim 3 1 3 1 lim 3 2 3 1

b c

b c

+

(

(

+

(

(

0

0

3

3 3 2 +

Example 4:

1

P

dx

x

}

0 P >

1

P

x dx

}

1

lim

b

P

b

x dx

}

1

1

1

lim

1

b

P

b

x

P

+

+

1 1

1

lim

1 1

P P

b

b

P P

+ +

+ +

What happens here?

If then gets bigger

and bigger as , therefore

the integral diverges.

1 Ps

1 P

b

+

b

If then b has a negative

exponent and ,

therefore the integral converges.

1 P >

1

0

P

b

+

(P is a constant.)

t

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