You are on page 1of 128

WELDING CONSUMABLES

CLASSIFICATION,

STORAGE AND HANDLING
R.D.PENNATHUR
MAILAM INDIA LIMITED
CHOICE OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
IS MOST IMPORTANT STEP IN ACHIEVING SOUND WELDS TO
PERFORM SATISFACTORILY IN SERVICE

SELECTION BASED ON TECHNICAL ANALYSIS IS THE BEST
METHOD

SELECTION IS TO BE BASED ON BASE MATERIAL,WELDING
PROCESS ,SERVICE CONDITION & AVAILABILITY OF
CONSUMABLES.

COMMONLY USED CONSUMABLES ARE ELETRODES,SOLID
WIRE,FCAW & WIRE /FLUX COMBINATION FOR SAW PROCESS
TYPE OF WELDING CONSUMABLES
*FLUX COVERED STICK ELECTRODES
LIGHT COATED
MEDIUM COATED
HEAVY COATED
*BARE SOLID ROD (FILLER ROD)
*BARE SOLID WIRE (ELECTRODE / FILLER ROD)
*FLUX CORED WIRE (ELECTRODE)
*BARE SOLID STRIP (ELECTRODE)
*SHILEDING GAS (IN CYLINDERS)
*SHIELDING FLUX (GRANULAR POWDER)


WELDING PROCESS
GTAW

SMAW

GMAW

FCAW

SAW
GTAW CONSUMABLES
Gas tungsten arc welding is most commonly used to weld stainless steel and
nonferrous materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, but it can be applied to
nearly all metals, with notable exceptions being lead and zinc.

Its applications involving carbon steels are limited not because of process
restrictions, but because of the existence of more economical steel welding
techniques, such as gas metal arc welding and shielded metal arc welding.

Furthermore, GTAW can be performed in a variety of other-than-flat positions,
depending on the skill of the welder and the materials being welded.

GTAW requires in principle the filler wire of composition to be achieved
CONSUMABLES FOR SMAW
Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), also known as manual metal arc (MMA) welding or
informally as stick welding, is a manual arc welding process that uses a consumable
electrode coated in flux to lay the weld. An electric current, in the form of either alternating
current or direct current from a welding power source is used to form an electric arc between
the electrode and the metals to be joined.

As the weld is formed, the flux coating of the electrode disintegrates, giving off vapors that
serve as a shielding gas and providing a layer of slag, both of which protect the weld area
from atmospheric contamination.

Because of the versatility of the process and the simplicity of its equipment and operation,
shielded metal arc welding is one of the world's most popular welding processes

The SMAW is most versatile process as flux facilitates addition of alloying element to weld
metal & as such with same core wire many composition of weld metal can be obtained.





This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons. The description on its description page there is shown below.
Commons is a freely licensed media file repository. You can help.
Description Retrieved from [1] on en:March 20, en:2005 by Spangineer. Photo taken by Justin McGarry of Hull Technician Chris B. Millones
Source Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here.
Date 2005-03-21 (original upload date)
Author Original uploader was Spangineer at en.wikipedia
Permission
(Reusing this image)
PD-USGOV-MILITARY-NAVY.


[edit] License information












This image is a work of a sailor or employee of the U.S. Navy, taken or made during the course
of the person's official duties. As a work of the U.S. federal government, the image is in the
public domain.






Date/Time
current 20:55, 14 June 2007
File links
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SMAW.welding.navy.ncs.jpg"

Views
Image
Discussion

Personal tools
Log in / create account

Navigation
Main page
Contents
Featured content
Current events
Random article
Search


Interaction
About Wikipedia
Community portal
Recent changes
Contact Wikipedia
Donate to Wikipedia
Help

Toolbox
What links here
Upload file
Special pages
Printable version


Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers

Go Search
SCHMATIC REPRESENTATION OF SMAW
FLUXING AGENTS

SLAG FORMERS

ARC STABILISERS

GAS FORMERS

SLIPPING AGENTS

BINDING AGENTS

DEOXIDISERS AND ALLOYING ELEMNTS
FLUX INGRADIENTS
ADVANTAGES OF FLUX COATING
TO STRIKE AND MAINTAIN ARC

TO PROVIDE A GAS SHEILD OVER MOLTEN WELDPOOL

TO DEOXIDISE AND REFINE WELDMETAL

TO ADD ALLOYING ELEMENTS IN WELDMETAL

TO PROVIDE A SLAG BLANKET ON MOLTEN WELDPOOL

TO INCREASE DEPOSITION EFFICIENCY
GMAW CONSUMABLES
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), sometimes referred to by its subtypes metal
inert gas (MIG) welding or metal active gas (MAG) welding, is a semi-automatic
or automatic arc welding process in which a continuous and consumable wire
electrode and a shielding gas are fed through a welding gun.
A constant voltage, direct current power source is most commonly used with
GMAW.
There are four primary methods of metal transfer in GMAW, called globular, short-
circuiting, spray, and pulsed-spray, each of which has distinct properties and
corresponding advantages and limitations.
Originally developed for welding aluminium and other non-ferrous materials in the
1940s, GMAW was soon applied to steels because it allowed for lower welding time
as compared to other welding processes.
The welding consumable has to have same composition as that of expected of weld
metal..Hence,the consumable availability is a major limitation to process
application. Most popular application is limited to Corbon steel & Nonferrous
material.
GAS METAL ARC WELDING
GMAW SCHMATIC ARRANGEMENT

GMAW Circuit diagram. (1) Welding torch, (2) Workpiece, (3) Power source,
(4) Wire feed unit, (5) Electrode source, (6) Shielding gas supply
GMAW weld area. (1) Direction of travel, (2) Contact tube, (3) Electrode
(4) Shielding gas, (5) Molten weld metal, (6) Solidified weld metal, (7) Workpiece.
GMAW WELD AREA
FCAW CONSUMABLES
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semi-automatic or automatic arc welding
process. FCAW requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode
containing a flux and a constant electric current welding power supply.

An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often the flux itself is
relied upon to generate the necessary protection from the atmosphere.

The process is widely used in production/ construction because of its high welding
speed and portability.

FCAW was first developed in the early 1950s as an alternative to shielded metal
arc welding (SMAW).

The advantage of FCAW vs. SMAW is that FCAW is continuous consumable
process with high productivity.This in combination with addition of alloying elements
through flux has made it possible to manufacture various specifiction consumables
in economical quantity.
FCAW SCHMATIC REPRESENTATION
SAW CONSUMABLES
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) is a common arc welding process.
It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular (flux cored) electrode.
The molten weld and the arc zone are protected from atmospheric contamination
by being submerged under a blanket of granular fusible flux .
When molten, the flux becomes conductive, and provides a current path between
the electrode and the work.
This thick layer of flux completely covers the molten metal thus preventing spatter
and sparks as well as suppressing the intense ultraviolet radiation and fumes that
are a part of the other welding process..
SAW is normally operated in the automatic or mechanized mode.
Even though the flux in SAW can be used for alloying element tranfer,the process
is having limitation of positional limitation i.e most suitable for Flat/ Horizontal
position welding.
Extensively used in industries for welding of Long/Circumferential seams of
pressure vessels.



Mechanised SAW Welding - Single Wire
SAW TRAINING UNIT


IS (Indian)
AWS/ASME (American)
DIN (German)
EN (British)
National/International
Inspection/licenser
Specification

Welding consumable standards
CONSUMABLE SELECTION

The Welding consumables for welding of CS, LAS & SS are selected based on
guidelines provided in ASME II C. The relevant specification for the same are indicated
here below:

SFA 5.1 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
SFA 5.4 Stainless Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
SFA 5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Shielded Metal Arc Welding
SFA 5.9 Bare Stainless Steel Welding Electrodes and Rods
SFA 5.17 Carbon Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
SFA 5.18 Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Shielding Arc Welding
SFA 5.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
SFA 5.22 Stainless Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding and Stainless
Steel Flux Cored Rods for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
SFA 5.23 Low Alloy Steel Electrodes and Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
SFA 5.29 Low Alloy Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
SFA 5.01 Filler Metal Procurement Guidelines
TESTING OF ELECTRODES


PHYSICAL TEST

CHEMICAL TEST

MECHNICAL TESTS
PHYSICAL TEST
UNIFORMITY OF COATING
PROPER BRUSHING OF HOLDING &
STRIKING ENDS
CONCENTRIC COATING
STRIKING END FREE OF FLUX & RUST
ELECTRODES NOT DEFORMED
NO DAMAGE TO COATING IN TRANSIT

FOR COTINUOUS WIRE CHECK SPOOL DAMAGE
UNIFORMITY OF WIRE-LAYER WINDING
CAST & HELIX


PERFORMANCE CHARACTERS
UNIFORM COVERING
CONCENTRICITY
GRIP END/ARC END TRIMMING
CUP FORMATION
ARC INTENSITY/STABILITY
SMOOTH ARC
FLUIDITY/VISCOSITY
SLAG/OXIDE INCLUSIONS
MOISTURE ABSORPTION
LOW SPATTER
COVERING THICKNESS
CRATER CRACKING
IDENTIFICATION
SLAG DETATCHABILITY
FACTORS TO BE EVALUATED
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

NOTCH TOUGHNESS

ELCTRICAL CHARECTERISTICS

TYPE OF COVERING

OPTIONAL PARAMETERS
NOTCH TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS

MOISTURE CONTENT

DIFFUSIBLE HYDROGEN


SUPPLEMENTARY PARAMETERS
HARDNESS

CORROSION RESISTANCE

FERRITE CONTENT

HOT TENSILE TEST

WEAR RESISTANCE

HOT CRACKING TEST


SPECIFIC TESTS FOR WELDING CONSUMABLES
(CS&LAS)

CARBON STEEL CONSUMABLES

WELDMETAL CHEMISTRY
CVN IMPACT VALUE AT-SPECIFIED LOW TEMP.
TENSILE/YIELD AFTER PWHT
HARDNESS REQUIREMENT

LOW ALLOY STEEL CONSUMABLES

WELDMETAL CHEMISTRY
TENSILE/YIELD AFTER PWHT
HARDNESS REQUIREMENT
DIFFUSIBLE HYDROGEN CONTENT
CVN IMPACT AS SPECIFIED


SPECIFIC TESTS FOR WELDING
CONSUMABLES(SS&NF)

STAINLESS STEELCONSUMABLES

FERRITE CONTENT
WELDMETAL CHEMISTRY
CORROSION RESISTANCE
CVN IMPACT VALUE AT -196 DEG C

NON FERROUS CONSUMABLES

WELDMETAL CHEMISTRY
CORROSION RESISTANCE
WELDABILITY
AWS SFA 5.1 CLASSIFICATION FOR CARBON
STEEL ELECTRODE
E X X Y Y -1* HZ R

E DESIGNATES AN ELECTRODE
X X TENSILE STRENGH IN KSI
Y Y WELDING POSITION& TYPE OF COVERING
1 IMPROVED TOUGHNESS
HZ DIFFUSIBLE HYDROZEN 4/8/16
R MOISTURE RESISTANCE

*M MILITARY SPEC. AS AGREED TO

MOISURE RESISTANT ELECTRODES
THE ELECTRODES THAT CAN RESIST PICK OF MOISURE ARE CLASSIFIED WITH
SUFFIX R
THE CLASSIFICATION IS BASED ON EVALUATION OF MOISURE AS RECEIVED
CONDITION & AFTER EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHRE AT 80%RH /27 C FOR 9hrs
MAX. MOISURE CONTENT % BY WEIGHT
DESIGNATION AS RECD. AFTER EXPOSURE
E7016R
E7016-1R
E7018R 0.30 0.40
E7018-1R
E7028-R
E7048-R
E7018-M 0.10 0.40

E.G. E 70 1 8

AWS CLASSIFICATION FOR
CARBON STEEL ELECTRODE

E-Manual Metal Arc Welding Electrode
70- Minimum UTS of 70 Ksi(70000psi)
1- Usability of electrode in all positions
8- Basic type of covering with Iron powder
TYPES OF COVERING
0-HIGH CELLULOSE SODIUM
1-HIGH CELLULOSE POTASSIUM
2-HIGH TITANIA SODIUM
3-HIGH TITANIA POTASSIUM
4-IRON POWDER,TITANIA
5-LOW HYDROGEN SODIUM
6-LOW HYDROGEN POTASSIUM
7-HIGH IRON OXIDE,IRON POWDER
8-LOW HYDROGEN POTASSIUM,
IRON POWDER
9-IRON OXIDE TITANIA POTASSIUM

RUTILE Vs BASIC
GOOD PERFORMANCE
OPERATES ON AC/DC
GOOD OPERATOR APPEAL
IMPACT AT SUBZERO LOW
REBAKING NOT REQD
.
H2 LEVEL HIGH
POSITIONAL WELDING EASY
SATISFACTORY PERFORMANCE
NOT WELL ON AC
SATISFACTORY
GOOD IMPACT PROPERTIES
CAN NOT BE USED WITHOUT
REBAKING
H2 CAN BE CONTROLLED
POSSIBLE.HIGHER SKILL LEVEL
REQUIRED

AWS SFA 5.5 2007 CLASSIFICATION FOR
ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODE
E XX XX X* HZ R
E DESIGNATES AN ELECTRODE
X X TENSILE STRENGH IN KSI
X WELDING POSITIONX
X TYPE OF COVERING
X CHEMICAL COMP. OF WELD METAL
HZ DIFFUSIBLE HYDROZEN
R MOISTURE RESISTANCE

*M MILITARY SPEC. AS AGREED TO

SUFFIX ALPHABETS INDICATIONS

A C-Mo STEELS

B Cr-Mo STEELS

Ni Ni STEELS

D Mn-Mo STEELS

K Mn-Ni-Cr-Mo STEELS

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF LOW ALLOY STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

80-MINIMUM UTS OF 80KSI(80000 psi)

1-USABILITY OF ELECTRODE IN ALL POSITIONS

8-BASIC TYPE OF COVERING WITH IRON POWDER

B2-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 1CHROME - 1/2 MOLY STEEL
E.G. E 80 1 8 B2

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF LOW ALLOY STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

80-MINIMUM UTS OF 80KSI(80000 psi)

1-USABILITY OF ELECTRODE IN ALL POSITIONS

6-BASIC TYPE OF COVERING

G-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION -Ni,Cr &Mo
E.G. E 8016 G

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF LOW ALLOY STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

80-MINIMUM UTS OF 80KSI(80000 psi)

1-USABILITY OF ELECTRODE IN ALL POSITIONS

8-BASIC TYPE OF COVERING WITH IRON POWDER

D3-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MOLY STEEL
E.G. E 80 1 8 D3

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF LOW ALLOY STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

80-MINIMUM UTS OF 80KSI(80000 psi)

1-USABILITY OF ELECTRODE IN ALL POSITIONS

8-BASIC TYPE OF COVERING WITH IRON POWDER

C2-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 2%NICKEL STEEL
E.G. E 80 1 8 C2
SELECTION OF CONSUMABLES FOR SS

FOR JOINING OF SIMILAR MATERIAL

SELECTION BASED ON MATCHING OF MAJOR ALLOYNG
ELEMENTS.

CORBON MATCHING ;L OR H TYPE

STABILISED GRADES FOR STABILISED TYPES.

CORROSION &CRYOGENIC APPLICATION IF SPECIFIED
TESTED CONSUMABLES FOR SPECIAL APPLICATION

AWS SFA 5.4 2007 CLASSIFICATION FOR
STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODE
E XXX XX X-XX

E DESIGNATES AN ELECTRODE
X XX ALLOY COMPOSITION
XX ALLOY ADDITION
X L-LOW CORBON H-HIGH CORBON
XX 15-DCRP ( ALL POSITION )
16-AC/DCRP ( ALL POSITION )
17-AC/DCRP ( ALL POSITION )
25-DCRP(H & F)
26-AC/DCRP(H & F )



AWS CLASSIFICATION OF STAINLESS STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-Manual metal arc welding electrode

316-Chemical composition of 17 to 20 Chrome,11 to14
Nickel,2 to 3 Moly

L-low carbon variety
E.G. E 316 L

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF STAINLESS STEEL
ELECTRODE

E-Manual metal arc welding electrode

309Mo-Chemical composition of 22 to 25 Chrome,12 to14 Nickel,2 to 3
Moly

L-low carbon variety
E.G. E 309MOL-16
F
AWS SFA 5.9 2007 CLASSIFICATION FOR
BARE STAINLESS STEEL RODS
ER XXX XX X

ER DESIGNATES AN BARE ROD

X XX ALLOY COMPOSITION

XX ALLOY ADDITION

X L-LOW CORBON H-HIGH CORBON

AWS CLASSIFICATION OF STAINLESS
STEEL FILLER ROD
ER-ELECTRODE ROD

308-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 19 TO22 CHROME,9
TO 11 NICKEL,0.75 MOLY

L-LOW CARBON VARIETY
E.g. ER 308 L
AWS CLASSIFICATION OF STAINLESS
STEEL FILLER ROD
ER-ELECTRODE ROD

309-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 22%-25%
CHROME,12%-14% NICKEL,2%-3% MOLY

L-LOW CARBON VARIETY
E.g. ER 309 L Mo
AWSSFA 5.11-2007 CLASSIFICATION
OF NON FERROUS ELECTRODE
E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

XXXX- ALLOY SPECIFICATION
E.G. E XXXX
AWSSFA 5.11-2007 CLASSIFICATION
OF NON FERROUS ELECTRODE
E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

NICU7-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
MONEL(70%NICKEL&BALANCE COPPER)
E.G. E Ni Cu 7
AWSSFA 5.11-2007 CLASSIFICATION
OF NON FERROUS ELECTRODE
E-MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

NI Cr Fe3-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
INCONEL(60%NICKEL& 13-17% Cr, BALANCE FE)
E.G. E Ni Cr Fe3
ELECTRODES FOR CAST IRON

GENERALLY FOLLOWING TYPES ARE USED

LOW HYDROGEN TYPE

CAST IRON DEP.

NICKEL BASED

FERRO NICKEL BASED

MONEL BASED
CI CONSUMABLES
PROPERTY LH/CI NI DEP. FeNi DEP MONEL DEP
MACHINABILITY
NO GOOD GOOD GOOD
COLOUR MATCHING NO MATCH OK NO MATCH
STRENGH GOOD LOW
SATISFACTORY
LOW
TOLERANCE
TO IMPURITY
GOOD NOT GOOD
SATISFACTORY
NOT GOOD

SUITABILITY
RECOMMENDED
WHERE
MACHINING
IS NOT REQD.
FOR SMALL
REPAIR
WORK
BEST FOR
ALL JOBS
REQUIRING
MACHINING
FOR SMALL
REPAIR
WORK
AWS SFA 5.15-2007 CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTRODES &RODS FOR CAST IRON
E ELECTRODE

NI CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF NICKEL
BASED

CI CAST IRON

E.G. E Ni - CI
AWS SFA 5.15-2007 CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTRODES &RODS FOR CAST IRON
E MANUAL METAL ARC WELDING ELECTRODE

NI Fe CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
FERRO NICKEL BASED

CI CAST IRON


E.G. E Ni Fe - CI
AWS SFA 5.15-2007 CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTRODES & RODS FOR CAST IRON

E ELECTRODE

NI Fe CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FERRO NICKEL BASED

T TUBULAR/FCAW

3 SELF SHIELDING

CI CAST IRON



E.G. E Ni Fe T3- CI
AWS SPECIFICATION FOR
BARE RODS
A5.7-COPPER AND ALLOYS
A5.9-CHROMIUM AND CHROMIUM NICKEL STEELS
A5.10-ALUMINIUM AND ALLOYS
A5.13-SURFACING
A5.14-NICKEL AND ALLOYS
A5.15-CAST IRONS
A5.16-TITANIUM AND ALLOYS
A5.17-CARBON STEEL(SAW)
A5.18-CARBON STEEL(GTAW)
A5.23-LOW ALLOY STEEL(SAW)
A5.28-LOW ALLOY STEEL(GTAW)
CLASSIFICATION SFA 5.18 FOR
CORBON STEELBARE WIRE
ER XX S* X Y N HZ

ER INDICATES BARE WIRE
XX TESILE STRENGH IN KSI
S SOLID WIRE
*C COMPOSITE WIRE
X CHEMICAL COMP.(GS SINGLE)
Y TYPE OF GAS C-CO2/M-MIXED
N SPECIAL APPLICATION
HZ HYDROGEN LEVEL AT 4/8/16
AWS CLASSIFICATION OF
CARBON STEEL FILLER ROD
ER-Electrode Rod
70-minimum UTS of 70 Ksi
S-solid Rod
2-minimum CVN Impact Value of 20
Ftlb at Minus 20 Deg Fahrenheit



E.g. ER 70 S 2
CLASSIFICATION FOR LAS SFA 5.28
FOR BARE WIRE GMAW
ER XX S* X HZ

ER INDICATES BARE WIRE

XX TESILE STRENGH IN KSI

S SOLID WIRE

*C COMPOSITE WIRE

X CHEMICAL COMP.(G FOR MULTI PASS &GS SINGLE)

HZ HYDROGEN LEVEL AT 4/8/16
ER-ELECTRODE ROD

90-MINIMUM UTS OF 90KSI

S-SOLID ROD

B3-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF 2.25 CHROME-1 MOLY STEEL

L-LOW CARBON VARIETY
AWS Classification of Low Alloy Steel Filler
Rod
E.g. ER 90 S B3 L
AWS SFA 5.14-2007 CLASSIFICATION
OF NON FERROUS ELECTRODE
ER- ELECTRODE BARE ROD

XXXX-ALLOY SPECIFICATION
E.G. ER XXXX
AWS SFA 5.14-2007 CLASSIFICATION
OF NON FERROUS FILLER RODS
ER- ELECTRODE BARE ROD

NICU7-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF
MONEL(70%NICKEL&BALANCE COPPER)
E.G. ER Ni Cu 7
AWS CLASSIFICATION OF NON FERROUS
FILLER ROD

ER-Electrode Bare Rod

NiCr-3-Chemical composition of 70%Nickel and
20%Chromium
E.g. ER NiCr - 3
CARBON STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.20-2007
E X X T XX-JXHX
E-ELECTRODE
X-TENSILE IN KSI
X-POSITION DESIGNATOR
T-FCAW/TUBULAR
X-USABILITY DESIGNATOR
X-SHIELDING GAS C-CO2/M-MIXED
J-20 ftlb AT -40 C
X-D/Q INDICATES SPECIAL MECH.PROPERTIES
HX-HYDROGEN DESIGNATOR


CARBON STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.20-2007
E71 T 1C
E-ELECTRODE

7-TENSILE IN KSI(70)

1-ALL POSITION

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

1-USABILITY AS PER TABLE 2(MULTIPASS)

C-SHIELDING GAS C-CO2

E70 T 3C
E-ELECTRODE

7-TENSILE IN KSI(70)

0-FLAT/HORIZONTAL POSITION

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

3-USABILITY AS PER TABLE 2(SINGLE PASS)

X-SHIELDING GAS C-CO2

CARBON STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.20-2007
E70 T 8
E-ELECTRODE

7-TENSILE IN KSI(70)

0-FLAT/HORIZONTAL POSITION

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

8-USABILITY AS PER TABLE 2(MUTI PASS-SELF SHIELDING)



CARBON STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.20-2007
LOW ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.29-2007
E X X TX XX-JHX
E-ELECTRODE
X-TENSILE IN KSI
X-POSITION DESIGNATOR
T-FCAW/TUBULAR
X-USABILITY DESIGNATOR
X-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
X-SHIELDING GAS C-CO2/M-MIXED
J-IMPROVED TOUGHNESS -27JAT 10 C
HX-HYDROGEN DESIGNATOR


LOW ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.29-2007
E 8 X T1 Ni1C/M
E-ELECTRODE
8-TENSILE IN KSI(80)
X-POSITION DESIGNATOR
T-FCAW/TUBULAR
1-RUTILE TYPE
Ni1-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION-1%Ni
C-CO2 SHIELDING GAS
M-MIXED GAS
LOW ALLOY STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.29-2007
E 8X T5 B2CJH4
E-ELECTRODE
8-TENSILE IN KSI(80)
X-POSITION DESIGNATOR
T-FCAW/TUBULAR
5-BASIC TYPE
B2-CHEMICAL COMPOSITION- 2 Cr-1 Mo
C-CO2 SHIELDING GAS
J-IMPROVED TOUGHNESS - 27J AT 10 C
HX-HYDROGEN DESIGNATOR-4ml/100gms OF WELD METAL


STAILESS STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.22-2007
E X X XTX-X
E-ELECTRODE

XXX-COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

X-POSITIONAL WELDING DESIGNATOR 0-F/H;1-ALL POSITION

X-SHIELDING GAS 1-CO2/ 3-SELF SHIELDING/ 4-80-20 Ar-CO2/ 5-Ar

STAINLESS STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.22-2007
E 308T1-1
E-ELECTRODE

308-COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL-18%Cr/8%Ni

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

1-ALL POSITION

1-SHIELDING GAS 1-CO2

STAILESS STEEL ELECTRODES FOR
FLUX CORED ARC WELDING
AWS A5.22-2007
E 308T0-3
E-ELECTRODE

308-COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL-18%Cr/8%Ni

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

0-FLAT/HORIZONTAL

3-SELF SHIELDING

STAILESS STEEL
FLUX CORED RODS FOR GTAW WELDING
AWS A5.22-2007
R X X XT1-5
R-WELDING ROD

XXX-COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

1- ALL POSITION

5-100% ARGON

STAILESS STEEL
FLUX CORED RODS FOR GTAW WELDING
AWS A5.22-2007
R 308LT1-5
R-WELDING ROD

308L-COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL

T-FCAW/TUBULAR

1- ALL POSITION

5-100% ARGON

SAW
F-SAW FLUX
S- INDICATES FLUX BEING CRUSHED
SLAG/SLAG +VIRGIN FLUX
7-MINIMUM UTS OF 70 KSI(70000psi)
P- HEAT TREATMENT P-PWHT/A-AS WELDED
4-MINIMUM CVN IMPACT ENERGY OF 20 Ft Lb
AT MINUS 40F
EXXX-ELECTRODE WIRE
HX- HYDROGEN DESIGNATOR
E.g. F S7 P 4 EXXX HX
SAW
F-SAW FLUX

7-MINIMUM UTS OF 70 KSI(70000psi)

A- AS WELDED

6-MINIMUM CVN IMPACT ENERGY OF 20 Ft Lb AT MINUS 60F

EM12K-ELECTRODE SPECIFICATION

HX- NOT SPECIFIED

S-ABSENCE INDICATES VIRGIN FLUX
E.g. F 7 A6 EM12K
SHIELDING GASES

SELECTION OF SHIELDING GAS IS VITAL FOR GMAW/FCAW

GAS SELECTION CAN AFFECT ARC CHARACTERISTICS & ALSO
AFFECT MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.

THE GAS PLAYS IMPORTANT ROLE IN MODE OF METAL
TRANFER,BEAD PROFILE &PENETRATION.

THE COMMEN GASES USED ARE CO2,ARGON,HELIUM & MIXED
GASES.

COMPARISON OF INERT GASES Ar &He
ARGON
1.4 TIMES HEAVIER THAN AIR
QUANTUM OF SHIEDING GAS
REQD. IS LOW
DUE TO LOWER THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY FINGER TYPE
PENETRATION
PRODUCES SPRAY TRANFER

USED COMMENLY FOR WIDE
RANGE OF MATERIAL MOSTLY AS
MIXED GAS WITH CO2
HELIUM
0.14TIMES HEAVIER THAN AIR
QUAMTUM OF SHIELDING GAS REQD.
IS VERY HIGH
DUE TO HIGHER THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY DEEP BROAD
PARABOLIC TYPE PENETRATION
CAN PRODUCE SPRAY TRANFER
ONLY WHEN MIXED WITH ARGON
USED FOR HIGH CONDUCTIVITY
MATERIAL LIKE Cu ,Al etc


ACTIVE GAS-CO2

USED FOR CORBON & LAS
USED ALSO FOR SS IN FCAW
HIGHER SPED,ADEQUATE PENETRATION AT LOWER COST
ARE ITS SALIENT FEATURES.
FOR SOLID WIRE TRANFER MODE IS EITHER SHORT
CIRCUITING OR GLOBULAR
TRANFER TYPE LEADS TO HIGHER SPATTER & ROUGH BEAD
PROFILE
FOR FCAW SPRAY TRANFER IS ACHIVED HENCE MOST
COMMENLY USED GAS

GAS MIXTURES
Ar+CO2

Ar+O2

Ar+O2+CO2

Ar+He

AR+He+O2

Ar+He+O2+CO2

SHIELDING GASES
Arc Characteristics
Penetration Profile
Mode Of Transfer
Spatter Level
Alloy Recovery
Material Types
SHIELDING GAS COMPARISON
E 81T-1-Ni1 VERTICAL UP @21 KJ/CM
95Ar/5CO2
75Ar/25CO2 50Ar/50CO2
100CO2
TYPICAL
CHEMICAL
ANALYSIS
C
Mn
Si
.059
1.29.
.44
.055
1.29
.44
.042
1.24
.39
.041
1.16
.31
TYPICAL
MECH.
PROP(Mpa)
YS
UTS
540
603
531
586
502
568
457
565
TYPICAL
IMPACT
PROP(J)
0 Deg C
-40Deg C
123
91
125
84
109
48
104
40
BEAD
SHAPE
FLAT FLAT CONVEX CONVEX
IMPORTANT
Making a Gas Decision
Deciding on a particular shielding gas
should be based on the specific
manufacturers recommendation. Failure
to do so may result in weld metal defects
or in an deterioration in Mechanical
properties.The manufactures guaranteed
values are obtainable only when specified
technical parameters are followed in full .
STORAGE OF CONSUMABLES


SHELF LIFE OF WELDING CONSUMABLES DEPENDS ON THE
WAY THEY ARE STORED

IF THE ELECTRODES ARE STORED IN A DRY HUMIDITY
CONTROLLED ROOM WITHOUT OPENING THE ORIGINAL
PACKING,THEY CAN BE UTILISED EVEN UPTO 2 YEARS FROM
DATE OF PACKING.
STORAGE & RECONDITIONING FOR
SMAW /FCAW
SMAW
Low Hydrogen Store 100-150 Deg C
Recondition at 400 Deg C- 1Hr
Stainless Recondition at 200 Deg C- 1Hr
FCAW
Plastic Recondition at 50 Deg C- 48Hr Min
Coils Store 100-125 Deg C
Recondition at 150 Deg C- 6-8Hrs
Wire Spool Store 150 Deg C
Basket Recondition at 250 Deg C- 2-3Hrs
Higher Rebake Temperature , Faster Reconditioning

STORAGE AND DRYING OF CS&LAS
CONSUMABLES

CELLULOSIC TYPE-REDRYING TEMP-70 TO 80
DEG C/HR

BASIC TYPE-REDRYING TEMP- 260 TO 420 DEG C
/2HR ,HOLDING TEMP-30 TO 140 DEG C
REBAKING SCHDULE FOR LH ELECTRODES

REBAKE CONSUMABLES AT 250-300 C FOR ONE HOUR

TRANFER THEM TO HOLDING OVEN AT 100 C

TRANPORT HOLDING OVEN TO WORKING AREA &USE THE SAME FOR
FABRICATION

USE DIFFERENT COMPARTMENTS OF OVEN TO BAKE OTHER
SPECIFICATION OF CONSUMABLES.

CLEAN THE OVEN AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK.
STORAGE&DRYING OF SS&NF
CONSUMABLES

RUTILE TYPE- REDRYING TEMP-120TO150 DEG C /2HR

SEMI BASIC TYPE-REDRYING TEMP-180 TO 200 DEG
C/2HR

BASIC TYPE-REDRYING TEMP-200 TO 250 DEG C/2HR
VACCUM PACKING

SPECIAL PURPOSE MACHINES ARE AVILALE FOR VACUUME PACKING
ELECTRODES AS WELL AS WIRE SPOOLS.

IN THIS TYPE OF PACKING AS ALL AIR INSIDE THE PACKING ARE
REMOVED,THE CONSUMABLES DO NOT ABSORB ANY MOISTURE

THEY CAN BE USED WITHOUT REBAKING

THE PACKING QUANTUM CAN BE VARIED BASED ON SPECIFIC
APPLICATION

HIGHLY RECOMMENDED WHEN REBAKING IS NOT FEASIBLE
SOME COMMENLY ASKED
QUESTIONS
The E7018 welding rods I've been buying are now marked E7018 H4R. What
does the H4R mean? Are these rods different than the E7018 rods I've used
before?


H4R is an optional supplementary designator, as defined in AWS A5.1-91 (Specification for
shielded metal arc welding electrodes). Basically, the number after the "H" tells you the
hydrogen level and the "R" means it's moisture resistant.
"H4" identifies electrodes meeting the requirements of 4ml average diffusible hydrogen
content in 100g of deposited weld metal when tested in the "as-received" condition.
"R" identifies electrodes passing the absorbed moisture test after exposure to an environment
of 80F(26.7C) and 80% relative humidity for a period of not less than 9 hours.
The H4R suffix is basically just additional information printed on the rod, and does not
necessarily mean a change in an electrode previously marked E7018.
Why is hydrogen a concern in welding?

Hydrogen contributes to delayed weld and/or heat affected zone
cracking. Hydrogen combined with high residual stresses and crack-
sensitive steel may result in cracking hours or days after the welding has
been completed.
High strength steels, thick sections, and heavily restrained parts are
more susceptible to hydrogen cracking. On these materials, we
recommend using a low hydrogen process and consumable, and
following proper preheat, interpass, and postheat procedures. Also, it is
important to keep the weld joint free of oil, rust, paint, and moisture as
they are sources of hydrogen
What consumables are better for welding over rusty, dirty steel?

Steel should be cleaned of any oil, grease, paint, and rust before using any
arc welding process. However, if complete cleaning cannot be performed,
consumables that form a slag, have deeper penetration, are slower freezing,
or have higher Silicon and Manganese are recommended for dirty steels

Why are the Charpy impact values from my test welds
lower than that printed on your Certificate of
Conformance?

The test results on our Certificate of Conformance were obtained from
welding an AWS filler metal test plate. Any change in welding procedure
will affect Charpy impact values. Below are common practices for
welding test plates when Charpy impact specimens are required:
Controlled heat input
Controlled preheat and interpass temperature
Even number of passes per layer
Build-up cap pass to maximum allowed in specification

I'm using E71T-1 flux-cored wire with 75Ar/25CO2. Why am I
getting gas marks on the weld surface?

The fast freezing rutile slag on an E71T-1 wire gives it excellent out-of-position
characteristics, but can also trap gases under the slag as the weld solidifies,
resulting in gas marks. Gas marks are more commonly observed welding at
high procedures under a high Argon blend shielding gas. Gas marking and/or
can be minimized by:
1. Switching to 100% CO2 shielding gas
2. Lowering the welding current
3. Cleaning the weld joint of paint, rust, and moisture
4. Minimize any wind disturbance
5. Cleaning spatter from inside gas nozzle
6. Increasing the shielding gas flow rate

Why is preheat sometimes required before welding?

Preheating the steel to be welded slows the cooling rate in the weld area. This
may be necessary to avoid cracking of the weld metal or heat affected zone. The
need for preheat increases with steel thickness, weld restraint, the carbon/alloy
content of the steel, and the diffusible hydrogen of the weld metal. Preheat is
commonly applied with fuel gas torches or electrical resistance heaters
Carbon Equivalent
CE = C + +
Mn
20
Cr+Mo+V
10
Ni
15
+
Preheat Temperature
T
p
= 350 ( C ) - 0.25
( C ) = CE ( 1 + 0.005 x t )
CE - Carbon Equivalent
t - Thickness in mm
How should uniformity of preheat be measured?

AWS D1.1 Structural Steel Welding Code, Section 5.6 states: Preheat and all
subsequent minimum interpass temperatures shall be maintained during the
welding operation for a distance at least equal to the thickness of the thickest
welded part, but not less than 3 in. [75mm] in all directions from the point of
welding.
In general, when preheat is specified, the entire part should be thoroughly
heated so the minimum temperature found anywhere on that part will meet or
exceed the specified preheat temperature.

What is interpass temperature?

Interpass temperature refers to the temperature of the steel just prior to the
depositing of an additional weld pass. It is identical to preheat, except that preheating
is performed prior to any welding.
When a minimum interpass temperature is specified, welding should not be
performed when the base plate is below this temperature. The steel must be heated
back up before welding continues.
A maximum interpass temperature may be specified to prevent deterioration of the
weld metal and heat affected zone properties. In this case, the steel must be below
this temperature before welding continues.

Do I need an oven to store low hydrogen electrodes?

All low-hydrogen consumables must be dry to perform properly. Unopened hermetically
sealed containers provide excellent protection in good storage conditions. Once cans are
opened, they should be stored in a cabinet at 120-150C.
When the electrodes are exposed to the air, they will pickup moisture and should be redried.
Electrodes exposed to the air for less than 1 week with no direct contact with water should
be redried as follows:

E7018:
1 hour at 650-750F
E8018, E9018, E10018,
E11018:
1 hour at 700-800F
1. If the electrodes come in direct contact with water or have been exposed to high humidity,
they should be predried for 1-2 hours at 180-220F first before following the above
redrying procedure.
2. Standard EXX18 electrodes should be supplied to welders twice per shift.
3. Low hydrogen electrodes with the suffix "R" have a moisture resistant coating and may be
left out up to 9 hours or as specified by code requirements.
What precautions should I take when welding T-1 steels?

T-1 is a quenched and tempered steel. Welding quenched & tempered steels may be
difficult due its high strength and hardenability. The base steel around the weld is
rapidly being heated and cooled during welding, resulting in a heat affected zone
(HAZ) with high hardness. Hydrogen in the weld metal may diffuse into HAZ and cause
hydrogen embrittlement, resulting in delayed underbead or toe cracking outside of the
weld. To minimize heat affected zone cracking:
1. Use a low hydrogen consumable, like a -H4 or -H2.
2. Preheat. This slows the cooling rate. Note that excessive preheat may anneal the base
material.
3. Slow cool. More time at elevated temperatures allows the dissolved hydrogen to
escape.
4. Peen the weld beads to minimize residual weld stresses.
5. Use the lowest strength filler metal meeting design requirements. If making fillet welds,
the weld can be oversized to give the specified strength
6. Minimize weld restraint.

What electrode can I use to join mild steel to stainless steel?


Electrode selection is determined from the base metal chemistries and the percent weld
admixture. The electrode should produce a weld deposit with a small amount of ferrite (3-
5 FN) needed to prevent cracking. When the chemistries are not known, E 312 type
electrode, which produces a high ferrite number, is commonly used.

What consumable should be used to weld cast iron?


Cast irons are alloys which typically have over 2% carbon plus 1-3% silicon and are
difficult to weld. Electrodes with a high percentage of nickel are commonly used to repair
cast iron. Nickel is very ductile, making it a good choice to weld on cast iron, which is very
brittle. welding with Nickel(99%)l/Ferro Nickel(55%) are the recommended electrodes
designed for welding cast iron.

CASE STUDIES & FAILURE ANALYSIS

WITH STICK WELDING(SMAW) PROCESS

ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF MATERIAL


FAILURE OF TEST COUPENS OF DISHED END
PETAL
TYPE
HOT PRESSED/
COLD SPINNING
THE WPS/PQR ESTABLISHED USING E7018 ELETRODES FOR SA515Gr70
MATERIAL GAVE SATIASFACTORY RESULTS FOR PETAL D.E
THE SAME WPS FOUND TO VARIATION IN RESULT WHEN USED FOR
COLD SPUN /HOT PRESSED D.E. WITH WELD JOINT.
ANALYSIS
THE HOT PRESSED ./COLD SPUN D.E.UNDERGOES NORMALISING
OPERATION WHICH IS NOT ACCOUNTED IN WPS
WHEN USING E7018 ELECTRODES ,UTS DROPS BY 50-70 N/mm sq WITH
NORMALISING OPERATION
FAILURE OF TEST COUPENS OF DISHED END(CONTD)
SOLUTION
IT IS RECOMMENDED TO USE E7018A1 WELDING
CONSUMABLES.
PROPERTIES OF CONSUMABLES WITH TYPICAL H.T. CYCLES.

Sl.No CONSUMALE
TYPE
AS
WELDED
SR NORMALISED
1 E7018 530 525 480
2 E7018A1 540 535 530
FAILURE OF 5Cr-1/2 Mo SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER
PROBLEM:
THE SPIRAL COIL WELD JOINTS WERE FOUND TO BE LEAKING
AFTER SHORT SEVICE OF SIX MONTHS
ANALYSIS:
THE WELD JOINTS EXAMINED USING DP INDICATED SEVERE MICRO
FISSURING ON ALL THE JOINTS.
THE EXAMINATION OF WPS/PQR INDICATED ROOT RUN BY GTAW &
BALANCE BY SMAW OF E 8018-B6 CONSUMABLES.
FAILURE OF 5Cr-1/2 Mo SPIRAL HEAT EXCHANGER(CONTD)
ON EXAMINATION OF CONSUMABLE RECORDS ,BEING 2.5MM
IN SIZE ,NO MECHANICAL TEST RESULS WERE CALLED FOR &
HENCE NOT PROVIDED.
REVIEW
TAKING INTO CONSIDERATION TYPE OF BASE MATERIAL
WHICH IS PRONE FOR INTERMEDIATE HARDANABLE MICRO
STRUCTURE & MICRO FISSURING UNDER RESTRAIANT, IT
WAS RECOMMENDED TO USE E8018-B6 DULY QUALIFIED
WITH TEKKAN Y-GROOVE TEST

TEKKEN Y-GROOVE ASSEMBLY
20mm
CROYOGENIC APPLICATION
TYPICAL REQUIREMENT 15 mil LE AT MINUS 196 Deg.C

LOW CORBON(<0.04),NITROGEN(<0.05),

FERRITE(2%)

BASIC SLAG

SMAW 15 COATING TYPE

FCAW LIME/FLUORIDE COATING

E308L 15/16 FOR CRYOGENIC APPLICATION(CONTD)
PROBLEM
SELECTION OF PROPER CONSUMABLE FOR CRYOGENIC
APPLICATION
ANALYSIS
THE CONVENTIONAL E308L-16 ELECTRODES GAVE ERRATIC
RESULTS.
EVENTHOUGH THE E308L-15 ELECTRODES FOUND TO GIVE GOOD
RESULTS, RADIOGRAPHIC RESULTS WERE NOT CONSISTANT
IT WAS POSSIBLE TO OBTAIN GOOD PERFORMANCE AS WELL AS
CONSISTANT RESULT BY MODIFYING THE PRODUCT E308L-16 WITH
CONTROLLED FERRITE(<2%)
RESULTS OF E308L-16 BATCH TEST

BATCH CVN AT -196 C LE mil UTS
mpa
%E FN
%
A 32.3 17 536 45.4 2
B 40 19.2 543 49 1.5
C 35.3 19 564 47 1
THE RESULTS WITH MODIFIED PRODUCT FOUND SATISFACTORY
CORROSION APPLICATION


TYPICAL REQUIREMENTS 24 mpy
PRAC.B/15MPY ASTM A 262 PRAC. C


BASIC SLAG,LOW FERRITE(NIL)


HIGH NICKEL&/OR HIGH MANGANESE

E316LF WITH NIL FERRITE
PROBLEM
THE E316LF ELETRODES QUALIFIED FOR JOB GAVE MICRO
FISSURING IN ACTUAL FABRICATION PARTICULARLY ON
RESTRAIANT JOINTS.
ANALYSIS:
THE QUALIFIED CONSUMABLE ,EVENTHOUGH GAVE
SATISFACTORY RESULTS IN L-SEAMS,FOUND TO GIVE MICRO
FISSURING IN C-SEAM& NOZZLE JOINTS.
THE CRATER GRINDING THOUGH CONTROLLED THE
PROBLEM, IT WAS NOT DESIRED SOLUTION
SOLUTION:
BASED ON OBSERVATION & STUDIES ,IT WAS DECIDED
DEVELOP THE E316LF CONSUMABLE CAPABLE ON
WITHSTADING HEAVY RESTRAINANT. TO EVALUATE THE
CONSUMABLE ,THE THOMAS-SCHFFLER TEST WAS TAKEN
AS BASIS

E316LF WITH NIL FERRITE
TEST RESULTS OF CORROSION ON MOD.E316LF
BATCH
NO.
TEST
DURATION
CORR.RATE
mpy
REMARKS NO OF
CRACKS
FERRITE
NO.
A 48X5 14 FAIL 5 NIL
B 48X5 10.5 REVIEW 1 NIL
C 48X5 5.5 ACCPT. - NIL
THOMAS SCHFLLER TEST ASSEMBLY
WELDING OF DISSIMILAR STEELS
WELDING OF DISSIMILAR METALS
PROBLEM:
FOR WELDING OF CS &LAS TO SS THE COMMON
CONSUMABLES SELECTED LIKE E309/309L/309Mo GAVE
PROBLEMS WITH REGARD TO DUCTILITY
ANALYSIS
THE COMMONLY AVILABLE CONSUMABLES IN ABOVE
GRADES COMMONLY HAD FERRITE 8-16%
THESE CONSUMABLES EVEN THOUGH SUITABLE FOR THIN
SECTIONS,GAVE VERY LOW %E WHEN USED ON THICKER
JOINTS/SR APPLICATION
THE REASON FOR ABOVE WAS DUE TO FORMATION OF
INTERMEDIATE BAINITE(SIGMA) PHASE
SOLUTION
USE MODIFIED CONSUMABLES WITH CONTROLLED FERRITE
OF 6-9% & QUALIFY THE SAME WITH SR AT 680deg C FOR
1HOUR
WHEN WELDING JOINTS THICKER THAN 20mm ,BUTTER THE
CS/LAS WITH E309&WELD WITH SUITABLE SSCONSUMABLES.
EFFECT OF POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT ON E309 TYPE CONSUMABLES
POST WELD HT FOR 10 HOURS
POST WELD HT TEMP
C

6
0
0

C

D

7
0
0

C


A

5
5
0

C

B

5
0
0

C


%

A
G
E


E
L
O
N
G
.

W
I
T
H


R
E
F










T
O

O
R
I
G
I
N
A
L
%
E

4
8
16
Sl.
No
Type
T
e
c
h
n
I
c
a
l
C
o
n
d
i
t
I
o
n
Mech. Prop
(ASME Specified
Mech. Prop
(Actual)

As Welded PWHT As Welded PWHT

UTS
N/mm2
%
E
UTS
N/mm2
%
E
UTS
N/mm2

%
E
Ferrite UTS
N/mm2
%
E
Ferri
te
1 E309/E309MO

550 30 - - 550-650 30 16 650- 750 10 4
2 E310 550 30 - - 550-650 30 - 550- 650 30 -
3 ENiCrFe3 550 30 - - 550-650 30 - 550- 6O0 30 -
4 E309/E309MO
(Modified)
550 30 - - 550-650 30 8 580- 680 25 6
TYPICAL MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WELDING CONSUABLES
STEEL WELDING USED FOR DISSIMILAR
Undiluted E309 deposit
CS TO SS WELDING WITH
E309 TYPECONSUMABLES
CS TO SS WIELDING
WITH CS SIDE BUTTERING
E309 BUTTERING
SS18/8 TYPE
WELD METAL
40
20
10
PROBLEMS RELATED


TO CLAD STEEL WELDING
Barrier layer location
MISMATCH OF 1.2MM-CONVENTIONAL EDGE PREPARATION
1-2MM
Contamination of high
alloy steel With CS/LAS
5mm
STRIP BACK
& HIGH ALLOY WELD
NOZZLE TO SHELL WELD
FIRST SIDE
BASE METAL WELDING
BG &SECOND SIDE
BASE MEATL WELDING
BARRIER LAYER
FIRST LAYER
SEQUENCE OF WELDING
COMMON TYPES OF EDGE PREPARATIONS
3mm
5mm
3mm
LEVEL OF BARRIER LAYER
5mm DEPTH
CS/LAS WELDING TO BE RESTRITED
1MM BELOW ORIGINAL BARRIER LAYER
REPAIR WELDING
REPAIR FROM CS/LAS SIDE
T-Thickness

a-Clad thickness

b-High alloy steel
dep. Depth

c-Balance CS/LAS
weld metal

d-Gouging depth
BALANCE CS/LAS}
WELD METAL }
t- (d+b)




THANK YOU