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BITUMINOUS MIX DESIGN


AND
SUPERPAVE MIXES


BY
CHANDRA SEKHAR PASUPULETI
B.Tech(CIVIL)

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Objective
To understand
What are the mix design methods.
Marshall method of mix design.
Limitations of Marshall method
Superpave mixes
Importance of other methods

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Mix design
Objective: To determine an economical blend
of aggregates (gradation within the limits of
project specifications), and asphalt that yields a
mix of having?
Sufficient asphalt to ensure a durable pavement
Sufficient stability to satisfy the demands of traffic
without distortion or displacement
Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow
secondary compaction and temperature variations.
Sufficient workability for efficient placement without
segregation.

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Various methods of mix design
Marshall Method
Hveem Method
Refusal Density Method
Superpave method
Film Thickness Method
Etc.

Mix design contd

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Definitions:
Bulk Specific Gravity (Gsb)
Apparant Specific Gravity (Gsa)
Effective Specific Gravity (Gse)
Marshall Method

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Specific gravity :

Voids absorbed
bitumen
Marshall Method contd

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Solid rock Vr
Water permeable porosity
but not filled by bitumen
Vw

Pores filled by bitumen
Vb
Bulk SG = W/(Vr+Vw+Vb)

Effective SG = W/(Vr+Vw)

Apparent SG = W/Vr
Phase Diagram
Marshall Method contd

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Definitions:
Stability (60
O
c, 30 min, 50.8 mm/min)
Flow
Air Voids
Voids Filled with Bitumen
Voids in Mineral Aggregates
Percentage of absorbed asphalt
Marshall Method contd

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Vse
Va
Mineral
Aggregate
Asphalt
Air voids
Vsb
Vma
Vfa
Vba Vb
Vmm
Vmb
Phase Diagram :
BC-ID 9 for presentation.xls
Marshall Method contd

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Marshall Method contd

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1. PROPERTIES OF INGREDIENTS
Individual gradation of aggregate
Other properties of aggregate
Properties of bitumen

See sheet properties of aggr. bit in
BC-ID 9 for presentation.zip
Marshall Method contd

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2. BLENDING (HOT & COLD)

See sheet blend cold & blend hot in

BC-ID 9 for presentation.zip


Marshall Method contd

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3. MARSHALL MOULD PREPARATION
Get all the sizes ready for trial
Determining the total required weight
Proportioning and mould preparation
mould preparation.xls

4. MARSHALL PROPERTIES

..\BC-ID 9 for presentation.zip

5. STUDY THE TREND OF PROPERTY CURVES
Marshall Method contd

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6. OBC SELECTION AND CONFIRMATION
7. PLANT CONTROL
Cold bin calibration
It ensures correct hot bin proportioning
It helps to ensure nil balance between
production at quarry and consumption at site
Reduces the overflow in hot bin
Reduces the re-handling operations
Reduces the segregation in the final mix
Increases the production capacity
How to calibrate?
Marshall Method contd

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Hot bin calibration
To ensure the correct proportions in the mix
To ensure the weighing balances being used
are correct
8. SITE TRIAL
To check the workability
To establish the rolling pattern
Marshall Method contd

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JMF : Job Mix Formula
It defines the tolerance limits for grading of
aggregate as well as binder content.
Tolerances for gradation as well as binder
content is given in MOST, but apart from this
still mix should be produced as per the limits
specified in design criteria.
see sheet JMF graph in the following slide
JMF graph.xls
Marshall Method contd

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Sieve Limits
Size
37.5 +8
26.5 +8
13.2 +8
4.75 +7
2.36 +6
0.300 +5
0.075 +2
Binder +3
JMF Limits as per MOST :
Marshall Method contd

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Grading chart with JMF
Grading chart for BC
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0.01 0.1 1 10 100
Sieve size in mm
%

o
f

P
a
s
s
i
n
g
UL LL Designed JMF LL JMF UL

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What is most commonly used design method
and Why?
Marshall Method, Because
Simple technique
Simple, inexpensive, and portable
equipment
Less time consumable
Marshall Method contd

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Characteristics of Marshall method:
Unconfined test and maximum failure load in
the test is recorded as stability.
Shortfalls in Mrashall method:
It measures merely the adhesive strength of
bitumen-filler mortar.
It can not predict the fatigue behavior of the
bitumen.
Irrespective of traffic its design blows are 75
only
Marshall Method contd

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Shortfalls in Mrashall method:
It is unconfined but at field it is not so
Empirical and parameters are not directly
related to field performance (Deformation,
Fatigue resistance etc.)
Wide range of grading limits
It doesn't explain about easily compactable
mixes
Compaction (Impact method)
It doesnt guarantee the minimum air voids
Marshall Method contd

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Due to above said limitations and shortfalls there
has been a growing feeling among the Highway
engineers, Which led them to other methods like
Superpave Mix
Refusal Density Method
Film Thickness Method
etc.


Marshall Method contd
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SUPERPAVE MIX
This method can measure the fundamental
properties like fatigue , rutting and low
temperature resistance.
Developed by SHRP , USA
This is also recommended by (FHWA).
This method consists of
1. Selection of material
2. Selection of design aggregate structure
3. Selection of design asphalt binder content, and
4. Evaluation of moisture susceptibility

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Notes for Design :
Filler to binder ratio : 0.6 to 1.2
Air voids : 3 to 5 %
Min. VMA w.r.t. nominal maximum size
VFB w.r.t. traffic volume
Asphalt film thickness : 6 to 8 micro meter.

Superpave Mix Design Criteria.zip
SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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1. Selection of materials:
Binder : PG64-22
Aggregate:
Restrictions on angularity, flaky and elongated
particles of CA and FA
Restrictions on clay content
Aggregate Requirements.doc
Maximum density line
0.45 power chart
Gradation control mechanism.
Nominal maximum size and maximum size
SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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Maximum density line :

Maximum density(P) = 100X(d/D)
0.45
where :
P = Total % passing given sieve
d = Size of sieve opening
D =Max. size of aggregate
(mentioned in sieve size)

SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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0.45 power chart
Nijboer, a person working for Bureau of Public
Roads in Netherlands was done lots of
investigation and found that the densest
configuration occurs for a straight line gradation
plotted on a 0.45 power chart.
This is also recommended by Federal Highway
Administration(F HWA).
SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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0.45 power chart
It is a graphical representation of sieve sizes
raised to power 0.45 in x-axis and % passing in y-
axis.
This curves are helpful in making necessary
adjustments in mix designs.
The grading line matching with this line gives the
mix, which is having maximum density and min.
VMA.
The air voids of the mix shall become very low
that is why this type of mix can not be used.
SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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0.45 power chart
The line deviates from this either finer side or
coarser side shall make a mix having more air
voids and adjustment can be done based on
the requirements.
To determine the line easily just draw a line
from % passing the 0.075mm sieve to the
sieve first passing 100%
It is always advisable to avoid the design
grading which matches the maximum density
grading line.
SUPERPAVE MIX contd

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Gradation control mechanism:
It specifies the detailed grading limits which
gives better quality mixes. Restricted zones
of gradation is specified based on the
maximum nominal size of the aggregate in the
mix.
The mix design which by-pass this restricted
zone shall always gives better results with
respect to workability stability and surface
texture etc.
restricted zone as per superpave.htm

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Sieve
size in
mm
For 37.5 mm nomi.
Size(% passing)
For 25.0 mm nomi.
size(% passing)
For 19.0 mm nomi.
size(% passing)
4.75 34.7 34.7 39.5 39.5
2.36 23.3 27.3 26.8 30.8 34.6 34.6
1.18 15.5 21.5 18.1 24.1 22.3 28.3
0.600 11.7 15.7 13.6 17.6 16.7 20.7
0.300 10.0 10.0 11.4 11.4 13.7 13.7
Restricted zones for diff. sizes

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Importance of restricted zone:
The restricted zone has been specified to ensure
adequate aggregate structure is developed in the
mixture.
Gradation requirements specify that mixes must plot
either above the restricted zone or below the
restricted zone.
Gradation control points on the 2.36 mm sieve control
the amount of sand sized particles in the mixture.

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Importance of restricted zone:
The upper control point limits the sand, in the
mixture to exclude sand-asphalt mixes which are
quite difficult to compact.
The lower control point ensures adequate sand in
contained in the mix to ensure a dense graded
mixture.
Mixes which passes above the restricted zone will
tend to be sandier and have a weaker aggregate
structure than mixes which pass below the restricted
zone.

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Importance of restricted zone:
Mixes which pass below the restricted zone are gap
graded.
They develop an aggregate structure with the load
carrying capacity provided by the large aggregate
particles.
Sand size particles play more passive role.
If additional sand is added, then the gradation will
enter into the restricted zone, and sand particle would
begin to separate the coarse aggregate particles
reducing the load carrying capability of the mixture.

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Importance of restricted zone:
Which structure can bear more load?
Below the
restricted zone
Through & above
the restricted zone
Gap graded
Dense graded

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Various types of gradations:
Maximum density graded: This is the gradation,
which will give the maximum density for the specified
maximum size of aggregate.
Dense graded: Refers to a gradation that is near
maximum density grading line.
Gap graded: Refers to a gradation that contains only
a small percentage of aggregate particles in the mid-
size range. The curve is flat in mid-size range. These
mixes can be prone to segregation during placement.

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Various types of gradations:
Open graded: Refers to a gradation that contains
only a small percentage of aggregate particles in
the small-rang. This results in more air voids,
because there are not enough small particles to fill
in the voids between larger particles. The curve is
flat and near zero in the small-size range.

Uniform graded: Refers to a gradation that
contains most of the particles in a very narrow size
range. In essence, all the particles are the same
size. The curve is steep and only occupies the
narrow size range specified.

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Grading chart with all details
0
20
40
60
80
100
0.01 2.01 4.01
Sieve sizes raised to 0.45 power
%

a
g
e

p
a
s
s
i
n
g
spec LL
spec UL
max density
restric LL
restric UL
BC9
BC 7

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Nominal Max. & Max size:
Nominal maximum size = one size larger than the
first sieve to retain more than 10%
Maximum size = one size larger than nominal
maximum size
Ex: 12.5 nominal maximum size aggregate
Sieve size in
mm
%age
passing
Remarks
19 100 Max. size
12.5 90 - 100 Nom. Max. size
10.0 <90 One size smaller than
nom.mx.size

SUPERPAVE MIX contd
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Bitumen content:
which project consumes more bitumen per cu.m.?

PROJECT A
% bitumen in
DBM 4.2%

PROJECT B
% bitumen in
DBM 4.0%

Density : 2.450 g/cc Density : 2.680 g/cc
102.9 kg/ cu.m
107.2 kg/ cu.m
OTHER METHODS

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Right or wrong???
Binder content in DBM:
Min. 4.0% by wt. Of total mix.
Rock
A













Rock
A
Rock
B
Volume : 1 cu.m. Volume : 1 cu.m.
Specific gravity : 2.45 Specific gravity : 2.95
Bitumen required =
2.45X4/100 = 98 kg/cu.m
Bitumen required =
2.95X4/100 = 118 kg/cu.m
OTHER METHODS CONTD

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Coating thickness??





Bitumen is not to increase the volume
It may require to give adequate coat to the aggregate.
Rock
A
Rock
B
Coating
thick ness
Coating
thick ness

OTHER METHODS CONTD
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Conclusions:

It may be wrong perception to express the
bitumen content based on the total weight of mix.

Another method to arrive at optimum bitumen
content Asphalt film coating thickness


OTHER METHODS CONTD
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OBC based on Asphalt film thickness:

b = (100-b) x A x t x r
b

where,
b = % binder content
A = surface area of the aggregate, m2/kg
t = Asphalt film coating thickness, m
r
b
= Unit weight of asphalt, kg/m3



OTHER METHODS CONTD
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OBC based on Asphalt film thickness:
Example:
A = 4.620 m2/kg
b = 4.8%
r
b
=1050 kg/m3
Film thickness, t = =

T = 10.4 microns

6 8 mic. asphalt film thickness is advisable
OTHER METHODS CONTD
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Refusal Density Method:
Keeping the bitumen content same establish
number of blows required to achieve
maximum density/minimum air voids for the
given mix.
Use that number of blows for mix design
All the remaining steps would be same.

OTHER METHODS CONTD
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ANY QUESTIONS ??




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THANK YOU