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Shiphandling Part II

Introduction to Shiphandling
Part I - Forces affecting ships movement
Part II - Terminology
Part III - Mooring/Underway evolutions
Part IV - Bridge Equipment
Part V - Standard Commands
Part VI - Man Overboard maneuvers
Basic Boathandling Procedures
Stern moves first when rudder is put over
Ship turns faster at higher speeds
single screw most difficult to maneuver
Rudder effect minimal and propeller side force greatest
with low speeds
turn faster to port than starboard with headway
when operating astern propulsion, ship will walk to port
no matter how much right rudder applied
twin screw -
Ease of maneuvering with capability of manipulating
both engines
twist
Shiphandling Terms
Twist - a turn produced by opposing the ships
engines.

Port Twist
Port back 1/3
Starboard Ahead 1/3
Left Full Rudder
Thrust
Flow
(Reverse orders for
Starboard twist)
Twin-Screw Vessel
Use of various rudder-propeller
combinations can achieve practically any
maneuver
Turn a ship in its own water
Both screws working ahead at same speed,
vessel will move forward on straight course
Both screws backing, ship move astern
Propellers are offset from the centerline
One Screw Working Singly
Starboard screw working ahead and port
screw stopped, stern will swing to starboard


Port screw working ahead and the starboard
screw is stopped, the stern will swing to
port
Port screw backing and starboard screw
stopped, stern will swing to starboard
Screws Working in Same
Direction at Different Speeds
Both screws are working ahead at different
speeds, stern will swing to the side of the
screw working at higher speed


Both screws are backing at different speeds,
stern will swing in the direction of the
slower speed
Ahead 5 kts
Ahead 10 kts
All back full
All back 2/3
Screws Working in Opposite
Directions
Bow will swing toward the side of the screw
that is backing
Stern will swing toward side of screw
working ahead

All back Full
Ahead 5 kts
Port Back
Stbd Stop
Rudders amidships
Ship backs to starboard
(Bow swings port)
Port Stop
Stbd Back
Rudders amidships
Ship backs to port
(Bow swings starboard)
Port Ahead
Stbd Stop
Rudders amidships
Ship turns starboard
Port Stop
Stbd Ahead
Rudders amidships
Ship turns Port
Torque
Mooring Evolutions

Run either port or starboard bow alongside
ship/pier you wish to dock
slow approach at appropriate angle
back down to stop at a good position
single screw - easier port-side-to vice stbd-
side-two because side force of screw will
walk ship over
Single-Screw problems
Port-side-to Stbd-side-to
Mooring to a Pier
No set on or off the pier.
a. Approach at 10 to 20 degrees, bare
steerageway.
b. Stop engines and drift closer.
c. Put rudder over away from the pier.
d. Back down as needed to stop forward
motion.
Mooring to a Pier
Being set on the pier.
a. Bring the ship to a stop parallel to the
pier, half a beams width away.
b. Let current or wind push the ship in.
c. Use engines to control position along
the pier.
Wind /
Current
Mooring to a Pier
Being set off the pier.
a. Approach at faster speed.
b. Put over lines as soon as possible, put
rudder over away from pier to bring in
the stern.
c. Stop headway by backing outboard
engine.
Mooring for Single Screw

Mooring port-side-to:
Approach at angle of 20 degrees with pier
head for spot slightly forward of position where you
intent to stop
put rudder to stbd several feet feet from point to
bring boat parallel with pier and commence backing

Mooring stbd-side-to:
Approach pier at less of an angle and at a slower speed
so wont have to back down as much
Stern line put over asap because when engine backed,
side force will push stern away from pier

Single up and slack off remaining mooring lines
Vessel may drift out, take in all lines and proceed
to get underway
Vessel may not drift out, stern can be kicked out
by going ahead slowly on outboard engine while
taking strain on after bow spring line
Stern swings out, bow come up next to pier protected
by fenders
Soon as stern is clear, take in all lines and back ship out
Steer with engines until there is enough sternway for
rudders to take effect
Getting Underway
U/w for Single Screw
Stbd-side-to:
hard right rudder and back until stern walks itself away
from dock
use bow line to prevent ship from moving back
Port-side-to:
get stern out first but if back down, tend towards dock
use bow line as spring line and hold
cast off stern, left full rudder and stern will walk out
Bridge Equipment
Variety of equipment available to help conning
officer direct the movements of a ship
Perform following functions
Steering
Indicating ships heading, speed, and rudder angle
Indicating relative wind direction and speed
Transmitting engine orders to engine rooms
Indicating propeller revolutions
Taking bearings and ranges
Plotting ships position and course
Controlling external lights
Internal and external communications
Bridge Equipment
Two enlisted bridge watchstanders directly
involved with ship control
Helmsman
Steers ship based on gyrocompass repeater
Uses magnetic compass as back-up
Lee Helmsman
Operates speed control equipment
On some ships, one person can perform both
duties
STEERING CONTROL CONSOLE
SHIP CONTROL CONSOLE
MODERN HELM CONSOLE
Bridge Equipment for Gas
Turbine Ships
Ships Control Console (SCC) - contains
principle controls and displays necessary to
provide operator control of ships speed and
heading
Steering Controls and Indicators:
wheel
rudder angle order indicator - shows ordered vs.
actual rudder w/ 2 degree lag
emergency steering w/ control knob
auto pilot
steering pump and cable controls
Rudder Angle Order Indicator
Engine Order Telegraph
allows operator inputs of pitch and RPM values to
be transmitted to CCS
Indicates location of throttle control and plant mode
status
Integrated Throttle
throttle like device that gives operator the ability to
directly control speed of ship
each shaft can be controlled separately or together
Propulsion Indicators
shaft performance data (RPM/Pitch)
pit log repeater/dummy log control
speed light control

Engine Order Telegraph
Engine Order Telegraph
Course Indicators
right hand gyro repeater used to steer ordered
headings
left hand gyro unit is a course-to-steer unit
Power Panel
controls power to SCC
allows tests of displays and alarms
illumination controls
steering alarm indicator
Course Indicator
STANDARD COMMANDS
To avoid any possible confusion between
the Conning Officer and the Helm or Lee
Helm, all steering and engine orders are
given using standard phraseology and
format.
A new order should never be given until
previous one has been acknowledged

Standard Commands
The Basic Format for a standard command is
common throughout the Navy to minimize
confusion in shiphandling. The four parts of
a standard command are:
1. Command
2. Reply
3. Report
4. Acknowledgment

HELM/LEE HELM
CONNING OFFICER
Command
Reply
Report
Acknowledgement
FORMAT
Command
From Conning Officer
crisp, loud voice
voice level and control should indicate
confidence
command must be heard by
Helmsman/Lee Helmsman
QMOW/Navigator
OOD
CO (when on bridge)
Reply
From Conning Station (SCC)
Verbatim restatement of Conning Officers
command
reply given in loud, clear voice
Report
From Conning Station (SCC)
Not given until command has been carried out
completely
Report given in loud, clear voice
Report repeated until acknowledged by
Conning Officer
Report will also include the equivalent
magnetic course when an ordered course has
been steadied on
Steady on course 270 checking 269, Sir
Acknowledgement
From Conning Officer
Always very well
HELM
CONNING OFFICER
Command
Reply
Report
Acknowledgement
Example
Right standard rudder,
steady on course 250
Right std rudder, stdy
on course 250, aye.
Sir, my rudder is
right std, coming
to course 250.
Very well
COMMANDS TO THE HELM
Basic Format
Example
-Direction of Rudder "Right.. Come right
"Left. . ."
-Amount
". . standard rudder. . ."
". . .ten degrees rudder. . ."
-Course ". . .steer course two zero zero."
". . .steady on course one one five."
COMMANDS TO THE HELM
Direction of Rudder: Either left or right
Amount of Rudder: Expressed as a number
of degrees of rudder (5, 10, 20, 25), or one
of the following: (nominal values given)
Standard: 15
Full: 30
Hard: 35(maximum rudder angle)
COMMANDS TO THE HELM
Direction and rudder angle together
comprise the first portion of the command.
Right ten degrees rudder
Left full rudder
Two exceptions to the phraseology:
Rudder amidships
Hard rudder: Hard right rudder instead of Right
hard rudder
COMMANDS TO THE HELM
Course to steer: This portion of the
command is not required. If not given, the
Helm maintains the rudder at the ordered
angle until another order is given.
Steady on course ___
Course read as three digits
Do not say degrees true after course
This order tells the Helm to adjust the rudder
and steady on a final course.
COMMANDS TO THE HELM
Examples:
Left 5 rudder
Right standard rudder, steady on course 260
Hard left rudder

Practice Commands
Turn the ship to starboard using 15 degrees of
rudder
Command: Right Standard Rudder.
Turn the ship to port using 20 degrees of rudder,
steadying on a course of 180 degrees true
Command: Left 20 degrees rudder, steady on
course 1-8-0
Turn the ship to port using hard rudder
Command: Hard left rudder
Standard Steering Commands to
the Helm
Course changes of less than 10:
For small course changes, a specific rudder
angle is not given. This allows the Helm to use
up to 10 of rudder to make the course change.
The standard command is:
Direction/amount: Come right/left
Course to steer: Steer course ___
Example
Course change from 270 degrees true to 274
degrees true
Command: Come right, steer course 274

Course change from 150 degrees true to 145
degrees true
Command: Come left, steer course 145
Practice Commands
Course change from 090 to 097 degrees true
Command: Come right, steer course 097
Course change from 355 to 352 degrees true
Command: Come left, steer course 352
Course change from 187 to 198 degrees true
Command: Right ten degrees rudder,
steady on course 198
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: Increase or decrease rudder angle
from a previously ordered angle
Command:
Increase your rudder to right/left _____ degrees
Ease your rudder to right/left ___ degrees
Note: Anytime a new rudder angle is ordered, a
steering/steady course must be repeated if it is
desired.
Command:
Steady on course ________
Examples
Desire to change your rudder from right standard
to right full, no course given
Command: Increase your rudder to right full
Desire to change your rudder from left full to left
standard
Command: Ease your rudder to left standard
Desire to increase your rudder from right 10
degrees to right standard, steadying on a course of
180 degrees true
Command: Increase your rudder to right
standard, steady on course 180
Practice Commands
Desire to change rudder from left 20
degrees to left 15 degrees, no course
Command: Ease your rudder to left 15
degrees
Desire to change rudder from right 10
degrees to right 15 degrees, no course
Command: Increase your rudder to right
standard

Practice Commands
Desire to change rudder from right 20
degrees to right 30 degrees and steady on a
course of 120 degrees true
Command: Increase your rudder to right
full, steady on course 120

Homework
Review standard commands for in-class
practical on Wednesday
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: Steady the ship on the
current heading
Command: Steady as she goes
When given, the Helm immediately determines
ships head at the instant of the command, and
steadies the ship on that course.
This should normally be given only with the
rudder at or near amidships.
Example
While entering port, conn sees the range
markers lined up in position
Command: Steady as she goes
Reply: Steady as she goes, course _____
sir
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: Check but not stop the swing of
the ship
Command: Meet her
Note: Helmsman immediately puts on opposite but
not equal rudder to check but not stop the swing of
the ship
Order given to prevent ship from swinging past its
desired course
Follow command with a course to steady on
Example
During MOB in which right full rudder is
given, man is sighted off stbd bow while
ship is still swinging right with full rudder.
Rate of swing must be slowed while still
allowing the ship to continue right to the
bearing of the man
Command: Meet her
Command: Steady on course _____
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: Change rudder angle to an
equal amount of rudder in the opposite
direction
Command: Shift your rudder
Note: Again, if desired, course to steer must
be repeated.
Example
You order a right full rudder on accident
and realize this when the helmsman makes
his report and is starting to carry out the
action. You meant to order a left full rudder.
What do you say??
Command: Shift your rudder
Reply: Shift your rudder, aye, sir
Report: Rudder is left full, sir
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: To put rudder on zero
angle.
Command: Rudder amidships
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: To know exact heading of
the ship at the moment

Command: Mark your Head
Note: Helmsman reports exact heading
indicated on gyro (not ordered course) at
moment of command Again, if desired,
course to steer must be repeated.
Example
While proceeding down a channel on course
108 degrees it is observed by watching the
bridge wing gyro repeater that the
helmsman is steering a course other than
ordered yet the ships head follows the
course of the channel. To check is there is
an error between your repeater and his, give
the command
Command: Mark your head
Report: Head is ______
OTHER HELM COMMANDS
Desired action: Warn
the Helm to steer more
exactly
Command: Mind your
helm

Desired action:
When in close
maneuvering
situations that
require precise
course
Command: Steer
nothing to the
left/right of ____
Note: Helmsman
must not steer
anything .


Tips for Conning Officer prior to
conducting course changes
Before giving command, visually check
water to the side of the turn
amount (degrees) of rudder given for a
course change should never exceed the
number of degrees of course change
course change from 270 to 285.not done with
more than std rudder!!
Oversee helmsman through entire turn via
remote rudder angle indicators
Check water during turn as well
Avoid giving too many commands
When ordering turn w/o a course, helmsman
is required to sound off ships heading
every 10 degrees - Belay your headings
To cancel or correct a command, simply
state the correct or new command
Do not say Belay my last
ENGINE ORDERS
For fixed pitch propellers, ship speed is
dependent on shaft rpm only.
For controllable pitch propellers, ship speed
is dependent on shaft rpm and, below 10
knots, propeller blade pitch.
For gas turbines, the shaft is always spinning
when the engine is on line. All engines stop
is achieved by a blade pitch of 0.
Commands to the Lee Helm
All Engine Orders to the lee helmsman are
issued using the same basic format. The four
parts of an engine order are:
1. Engine desired
2. Direction desired
3. Amount (bell) of speed
desired
4. Revolutions desired


ENGINE ORDERS
Ahead
Bell Speed
1/3 5
2/3 10
Std 15
Full 20
Flank 25
Typical Prescribed
Standard Speeds
Astern
Bell Speed
1/3 5
2/3 10
Full Max
speed
Stop!
ENGINE ORDERS
Predetermined ships speeds for ahead bell:
1/3 - one third of standard speed
(1-7 knots)
2/3 - two thirds of standard speed
(8-12 knots)
Standard - 15 knots
(13-17 knots)
Full - 20 knots
(18-22 knots)
Flank - 25+ knots (maximum speed)
Flank 1 (23-27 knots)
Flank 2 (28-30 knots)
Engine Orders
More precise control of speed accomplished
with shaft rpm indicator
Two rows of numbers in three small windows
Upper row: actual propeller speeds
Lower row: ordered propeller speeds
Conn orders a change in rpms, lee
helmsman sets new figures in lower row by
means of hand knob
Engine Order Telegraph
ENGINE ORDERS
Format
Example
-Engines All engines. . .
-Direction ". . ahead full. . ."
". . .back 2/3. . ."
-Speed
". . for 17 knots."
". . .indicate 60 rpms and 28%
pitch for 3 knots."
ENGINE ORDERS
Engines Desired: Port, starboard, all, or
engine (single screw ship).
Direction Desired: Ahead, back or stop
ENGINE ORDERS
Amount of bell/speed desired:
Ahead bells are 1/3, 2/3, standard, full, and
flank
Backing bells are 1/3, 2/3, and full
OR Revolutions Desired
Specified as three digit revolutions for ___
knots
For controllable pitch propellers 10 knots and
below:
..indicate ___rpms, ___pitch for __ knots.



REPLIES AND REPORTS
Reply: Verbatim repeat back is required.
Reports: Lee Helm reports when action is
completed.
Note: Every report must include the complete
status of all engines, even if only one was
changed
engine that was changed is first followed by other
engines status
Acknowledgement: Conn will acknowledge
all reports with Very well
EXAMPLES
Order: All engines ahead one-third


Order: All engines ahead one-third, indicate
060 rpms, 37 percent pitch for four knots
EXAMPLES
Order: Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard
engine back 2/3.
Reply: Port engine ahead 1/3, starboard
engine back 2/3, aye.
EXAMPLES
(Continued from previous slide)
Order: Starboard engine stop.
Reply: Starboard engine stop, aye.
Report: Maam, starboard engine stop, port
engine ahead 1/3.
UNREP
Speed required 13 knots
13 knots - 72 rpms
14 knots - 77 rpms
Command: Indicate zero seven five
revolutions.
Examples
All engines ahead one-third
All engines back two-thirds
All engines ahead standard, indicate 072
rpms, 100 percent pitch for 13 knots
All engines ahead 1/3, indicate 060 rpms,
37 percent pitch for 4 knots
All engines stop
Practice Examples
Increase fwd speed on both engines to
fifteen knots
Command: All engines ahead standard
Decrease fwd speed on both engines to
eight knots on fixed propeller ship
Command: All engines ahead two-thirds,
for eight knots.
Practice Examples
Order four knots ahead on both engines
with a CRP prop
Hint: Shaft RPMs = 060 and pitch = 37%
Command: All engines ahead one-third,
indicate 060 rpms and 37% pitch for 4
knots.
Order a backing bell of 1/3 on all engines
Command: All engines back one-third
Practice Examples
Twist the ship to port using 1/3 back on port
engine and 2/3 forward on starboard engine
Command: Starboard engine ahead two-
thirds, port engine back one-third.
Stop the port engine but continue 2/3
forward on starboard engine
Command: Port engine stop. Stbd engine
ahead two-thirds.
Increase revolutions to 78 during unrep
Command: Indicate zero-seven-eight
revolutions
Man Overboard Procedures
IMMEDIATE MANEUVERS
Anyone sighting person overboard call out Man
Ovbd, stbd/port side and immediately pass
information to the bridge
Throw the lifebuoy out at person
Aft lookout or Lifebuoy Watch throw lifebuoy
out at person if in sight or smoke flare at night.
Conning Officer order rudders over to the side man
went overboard (if known)
Conning Officer increase speed to full
Sound 6 or more short blasts with ships whistle
Daytime: Break Oscar flag
Nighttime: 2 pulsating red-over-red all around lights
IMMEDIATE MANEUVERS
Have word passed over 1MC twice: Man overboard,
port/starboard side
aft lookout throw life ring to man or smoke float
from bridge
secure active sonar
ensure CIC is actively plotting MOB and giving
recommendations
notify ships in company and OTC
inform CO, XO, and Flag Duty Officer if appropriate
Keep Sight on the Man at all times!!! Assign
lookout to put eyes on man overboard and point in
his general direction


IMMEDIATE MANEUVERS
establish comms with deck recovery detail by sound
powered phones
keep deck recovery detail informed of recovery side
of ship
have life raft or lifesaving devices ready for release
upon COs orders
SAR swimmer with tending lines and nets over side
Receive muster reports to determine who fell
overboard
Make deck log entry
MOB in Formation
ATP 1 Vol 1 has maneuvering rules
Column formation
odd ships clear to stbd, even to port
ship in best position picks up man
Recovery Methods
Helicopter
Small Boat
Shipboard
Williamson Turn
Anderson Turn
Race Track
Y-Turn
Recovery Maneuvers



Helicopter:
provide quickest rescue
pick up man who is disabled
primary means for carrier if helo available
OTC may prescribe helo recovery if assets available
ship stay clear of helo during rescue


Small Boat
Recovery



Used by larger, less maneuverable ships
Used by smaller ships when seas are too rough
and little chance to get close to man
Used when ship is DIW and man is close but
not alongside
Can be used in conjunction with shipboard
recovery method
Small Boat Recovery
Procedure:
put rudder over in direction that man fell from
once man clear, back engines full to stop ship
slow and maintain slight headway, launch rhib
Advantages:
simple
ship remain closer to man
Disadvantages:
man must be in sight
sea conditions may prevent boat recovery
time consuming/preps

Shipboard Recovery
Basic principles:
Full rudder to side of ship where person fell overboard
in order to kick stern away from them
All engines ahead full when clear of man ovbd
Ring up maneuvering combinations for engine orders
Final position desired
ship upwind of man, dead in water with man alongside
keep man well forward of propellers
WIND
Right Full Rudder
All Engines Ahead Full
Kicks Stern Away
Man Overboard
Starboard Side
Man Overboard, Starboard Side!!!!!
Williamson Turn
Shift Rudder
When 60 Off Course
Williamson Turn
Primary use:
used at night and in reduced visibility
conditions because it makes good the original
track (*favorite for large ships)
used when it is believed that a man fell
overboard some time previously and he is not
in sight

Advantages:
simple
makes good original track

Williamson Turn
Disadvantages:
slow
takes ship a relatively great distance from man,
when sight may be lost
WILLIAMSON TURN
Put rudder over full toward
side man went over
Increase speed to full
When heading is 60 degrees
beyond original course shift
rudder and steady on
reciprocal of original course
Adjust engines and rudders as
necessary upon approach
Place ship between man and
wind to create a lee
Anderson Turn
Primary use:
used by destroyers, cruisers, etcships that
have considerable power available and tight
turning characteristics
during good visibility, keep man in sight at all times
Advantages:
fastest recovery method
Disadvantages:
requires high degree of proficiency in
shiphandling due to lack of straight-a-way
approach to man
often impossible for single screw ship

ANDERSON TURN
Put rudder over full toward
side man went over
stop inboard engine
when clear of man, increase
speed to full on outboard
engine only
when about 2/3 way around,
back all engines 1/3
all engines stop when man is
15 degrees off bow
adjust engines and rudders
as necessary upon approach
Place ship between man and
wind to create a lee
Note: several variations to
method used
Anderson Turn
Racetrack Turn
Primary use:
used in good visibility at high speeds when a
straight final approach leg is desired
used by small ships proceeding at high speeds
in clear weather
Advantages:
straight final approach leg facilitates more
calculable approach
ship will return to man if he is lost from sight
effective when wind was from abeam on
original course
Disadvantages:
slower than one turn method
RACETRACK RECOVERY
Put rudder over full toward side man
went over
Increase speed to full
Continue at full rudder until on
reciprocal of original course
Steady for a distance that will give a
good run at the man
Full rudder to turn to the man
Adjust engines and rudders as
necessary
Racetrack Turn
Two 180 degrees turns
Y Backing
Primary use:
used by submarines because the ship remains
comparatively close to man
ships with large turning circles and greater backing
power at slow speeds
Advantages:
ship remains close to man
Disadvantages:
most ships back into wind/seas, resulting in
poor control while backing
Y Backing


Put rudder over full toward side man
went over
Back engines to full, using opposite
rudder when clear of man
Move ahead, adjusting engines and
rudders as necessary for final
position
Y-Turn
Homework
Read
Seamanship Cpt. 6
Surface Ship Ops Cpt 2 (review)
In-class std commands practical