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High Pressure and efficient Boilers for

Cogeneration applications
By

B. Shukla

MD and Chief Consultant,
WHITE POWERCON
#2082,1stmain 4
th
cross Judicial Layout,
GKVK Post
BANGALORE-560065


What is CO-GENERATION?
This is a combined / integrated System of
production of Electrical power and useful heat by
sequential use of energy from a common fuel source
generally bagasse).

To generate surplus power
For Best Utilization of resources
. To have Independency in power and steam
The Major advantage of Co- Gen
power is ;-

A-Most techno- commercial viable Projects with short pay back.
B-Cost of power production is very cheap compare to that of
purchase power.
C-Dependability and reliability with quality of power.
D-Quick return on investments.
E-Restore ecological imbalance.
F-Ability to use Bio-Mass and organic matters like wood, grass and
agro wastes and also municipal wastes.
G-Availability of power between Nov. to May when Hydel power availability
less.
H-provides ecmomical and timeluy solution of Power problems.
CO-GENERATION in SUGAR MILLS
How Cogeneration Saves Energy
BOILER
ALTERNATOR TURBINE
TO
PROCESS
TO PROCESS
Fuel
Air
TO
POWER
SUPPLY
CONDENSER
TO COOLING
TOWER
COGENERATION PLANT LAYOUT
Feed water
PRDS
Better Power Quality
Improved Reliability and run ability
Lower Energy Costs
Reduction CO2 in the environment
Conserve Natural Resources
Support Grid Infrastructure
Fewer T&D Constraints
Defer Costly Grid Upgrades
Price Stability

Benefits of cogeneration
Steps for conservation
1.Government of India enforced the
energy conservation act 2001 with effect
from 1.3.2002.
2.The initial phase of 5 years would be
implementation of the act .
3.The act provides mainly for efficient use
of energy and its conservation.
4.Industry using

Mandatory Requirement of Act

Those unit having connected load of 5000 KWh
are called as Designated Energy Consumer.
As per the act it is mandatory for all designated
Energy Consumers to get Energy Audit
conducted by an Accredited Energy Auditor. And
to designate or appoint an Energy Manager.

Energy Saving potential areas in sugar industries
1.Convertion from low Pressure to HP
Boilers
2.Steam Boilers (Reducing moisture percentage
in Bagasse)
3.Crushing section
4.Evaporator section

FEASIBILITY STUDY (TYPICAL STEPS)



Energy auditing
Technical Analysis
Inception
Implementation Planning
Financing
Operation and maintenance
CASE STUDIES
A-IMPROVEMENT PROJECT By
I-BY RETROFITTING
II- -RENOVATION &TECHNOLOGICAL
UPGRADATION
B-INITIATING NEW PROJECTS
RETROFITTING
Replacement of old 18/21Kgs/cm to HP >100bars
boilers
A-Provision of Better control system.
B-Efficiency improvement by Automation
C-Reduction of unaccountable losses by
providing dust extraction system
D-Reduction of Boiler & TG down time &
efficiency improvement by water & steam
quality control

Case Studies
Introducing New HP Boiler without affecting
Present Existing System


2002-03 2001-02 2000-01 1999-00 1998-99 Max Min Diff
%
Saving
scope
SL
NO
. PARTICULARS UOM Actual Actual Actual Actual Actual
1 Cane Crushed MT 729598 736838 646051 700916 736663
2 No. of Crop Days 173 191 159 165 188
3 Crushing Rate/22 hours MT 4162.95 3951 4194.98 4385.11 4230.29
4 Crushing Rate/24 hours MT 4541.39 4311.12 4576.34 4783.32 4614.77
5 Crop Day Average MT 4217.33 3857 4063.22 4247.98 3918.42
6 Recovery % 9.51 9.11 9.758 9.23 8.187
7 Bagasse Moisture % 50.66 50.56 50.11 50.4 51.3 51.3 50.11 1.19 2.32
8 Steam % Cane % 48.76 50.71 48.75 49.45 49.74
9 Power / Ton of Cane KWH 24.68 25.46 25.18 25.8 24.68 1.08 4.19
DOWN TIME ANALYSIS
Rs
51.57
lakhs
per
season
10 No Cane Hrs-Mts 6.-00 57-50 142-15 154-55 204-10
11 Mechanical Hrs-Mts 64-35 59-30 4.-30 24-55 180-45 181 4.5 176 97.5
12 Electrical Hrs-Mts 11.-10 53-55 4.-00 24-25 70-00 70 4 66 94.3
13 General Cleaning Hrs-Mts 97-10 97-15 109-25 110-25 51-05 110 51.08 59.3 53.7
14 Lost % on Available Hours % 7.06 10.3 11.23 8.96 11.9 11.9 7.06 4.84 40.7
Comparison of performance during various seasns from 1998 to 2002
SL
NO

PARTICULAR UOM 2002-03 2000-01 1994-95 Max Min %saving scope

Plant Sanctioned Capacity MT 5000 5000 2500

1 Cane Crushed MT 729598 646051.4 721475.5
2 No. of Crop Days 173 159 258
3 Crushing Rate / 22 hours MT 4162.9 4149.982 2819.806
4 Crushing Rate / 24 hours MT 4541.4 4576.344 3076.152
5 Crop Day Average MT 4217.3 4063.216 2796.416
6 Recovery % 9.51 9.758 9.357
7 Pol in Cane % 11.5 11.618 10.963
8 Total Losses % 2 1.871 1.617
a)Bagasse % 0.55 0.541 0.54
b)Filter Cake % 0.08 0.07 0.05
c)Final Molasses % 1.27 1.211 0.99
d)Unknown Loss % 0.1 0.049 0.037
9 Molasses % Cane % 4.52 4.449 4.415
10 Bagasse % Cane % 29.56 30.32 31.22
11 Cane Preparatory Index % 78.18
12 Bagasse Moisture % 50.66 50.11 50.52
13 Pol % Bagasse % 1.86 1.78 1.73
14 Sugar quality ICUMSA % 90to130 80-120
15 Total Available Hours HRS 4148-39 3816-33 6173-40
Coomparison of performance with best two seasons
16 Down Time Hours HRS 292-55 428-25 544-45
17 Imbibition% Fiber % 259.14 293.58 295.62
18 Milling Loss 4.12 3.78 3.69
19 Reduced Mill Extraction % 95.73 96.02 95.89
20 Reduced B.House Extraction % 91.27 91.66 93.43
21 Steam % Cane % 48.76 48.75 47.41 48.76 47.41 2.77
22 Power / Ton of Cane KWH 24.68 25.18
Rs 21.62
lakhs/seaso
n
23 Peak Period Recovery % 9.68 9.923 9.83
DOWN TIME ANALYSIS
24 No Cane HRS 6.-00 142-15 54-15
25 Mechanical HRS 64-35 4.-30 152-15 64.58 4.5 93
26 Electrical HRS 11.-10 4.-00 5.-30
27 General Cleaning HRS 97-10 109-25 164-00 109.416 97.16 11.2
28 Others HRS 112-10 167-50 168-45 167.83 112.166 33.17
29 Lost % on Avaible Hours % 7.06 11.23 8.82
30 Process Stock-Brown Sugar Qtls 2325 1477.49 694.65
341.8 213.8 128 hours
Remarks:Possible saving of running hours =128 hours
Possible increased in crushing of cane per season= 24220 MT/season
ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE FOR THE SEASON 2002-2003(MONTH WISE)
S
L

N
O PARTICULARS UOM DEC.02 JAN.03 FEB.03 MAR.03 APL.03 MAY.03 JUNE.03 TOTAL Max Min
%savi
ng

1 Cane Crushed MT 48558.3 128742 134980 140288 127097 128072.4 21860 729598
2 Recovery % 8.05 8.84 10.06 10.66 10.14 8.75 6.68 9.61
3 Sugar Production Qtls 3100 113875 13227.5 14747 13123.3 114975 25397 696220
4 Season Days-Crop Day Days 14 31 28 31 30 31 8 173
5 Season Days-Crushing Day Days 14 27 27 31 29 31 8 167
6 Total Available Hours HRs 332-36 744-00 672-00 744-00 720-00 744-00 192-03 4148-39
7 Total Working Hours HRs 330-51 641-40 636-35 705-45 676-15 692-10 172-28 3855-44
8 Stoppage Hours HRs 1.-45 102-20 35-25 38-15 43-45 51-50 19-35 292-55
a)Want of Cane HRs 0-00 6.-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 0-00 6.-00
b)Engineering(Mech&Elec) HRs 0-00 5.-00 5.-55 20-45 12.-40 21-35 10.-20 75-45

c)Proces
s HRs 0-00 0-50 0-00 0-30 0-00 0-00 0-00 1.-20
d)General Cleaning HRs 0-00 41-40 26-15 0-00 29-15 0-00 0-00 97-10
e)Others HRs 1.-45 48-50 3.-15 17-00 1.-50 30.15 9.-15 112-10
9 Down Time % Available % 0.53 13.75 5.27 5.14 6.08 6.97 10.-20 7.06
10 Crushing Rate / 22 hours MTs 3228.9 4414 4664.88 4373.12 4134.77 4617.712 2504.2 4162.95
11 Crushing Rate / 24 hours MTs 3522.43 4815.3 5088.96 4771 4510.66 5037.504 2731.8 4541.39
12 Crop Day Average MTs 3468.45 4153 4820.73 4525.41 4236.57 4131.368 2732.5 4217.33
13 Crushing Day Average MTs 3468.45 4768.2 4999.27 4525.41 4382.66 4131.368 2732.5 4368.85
14 Pol % Cane % 9.844 10.656 11.947 12.627 12.14 11.025 9.11 11.5
15 Total Losses % 1.8 1.828 1.898 1.993 2.01 2.284 2.443 2
a)Final Molasses % 1.13 1.143 1.218 1.306 1.31 1.369 1.45 1.27
b)Bagasse % 0.521 0.543 0.54 0.545 0.56 0.57 0.6 0.55
c)Filter Cake % 0.08 0.081 0.083 0.084 0.08 0.087 0.105 0.08
d)Unknown % 0.069 0.062 0.057 0.058 0.06 0.263 0.288 0.1
16 Reduced Mill Extraction % 94.79 95.31 95.88 96.12 96.02 95.64 94.48 95.73
17 Reduced BH. Extraction % 91.66 91.49 91.39 91.15 91.19 91.14 90.46 91.27
18 Pol % Bagasse % 1.89 1.88 1.86 1.85 1.84 1.84 1.9 1.86
19 Bagasse % Cane % 27.53 28.82 29.06 29.42 30.19 30.75 31.63 29.56
20 Final Molasses Purity % 29.6 30.45 30.99 31.71 31.51 31.55 34.15 31.35
21 Molasses % Cane % 4.26 4.17 4.37 4.61 4.66 4.85 4.93 4.52
22 Steam % Cane % 49.47 47.69 47.62 48.37 47.96 48.18 70.91 48.76
23 Power per Ton of Cane Units 23.61 23.61 23.27 24.69 25.13 25.57 34.3 24.63 34.3 23.27 32.2
Remarks: Saving of power in terms of money will be Rs 77.15 lakhs /month. @Rs 5.00/KWH
% Recovery during 2002-03
8.05
8.84
10.06
10.65
10.14
8.75
6.68
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun
R
e
c
o
v
e
r
y
%bagasse moisture
27.53
28.82 29.06 29.42
30.19 30.75
31.63
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun
%
b
a
g
a
s
s
e

m
o
i
s
t
u
r
e
Column 7
29
28.6
28.2
27.8
27.4
power consumption per ton of cane
crushed
23.61 23.61
23.27
24.69 25.13
25.57
34.3
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Dec Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun
p
o
w
e
r

c
o
n
s
u
m
e
d

p
e
r

t
o
n

o
f

c
a
n
e
BY Technological Up gradation
A-Replacement of old low pressure Boilers to
High pressure to get the benefits
improved cycle efficiency.
B-Providing Topping up TG Set to optimize
expenses on Electrical system.
C-Better environments by Providing
Emission monitoring.
Acquire Best Available Technology in
New Projects
A-Select Most modern and reliable
equipments
B-Design Tailor make System.
C-Select Flexible System for Better
utilization of resources and Better economy.
KCP Boiler
70 TPH, 43.4ata &
400C
TBW Boiler
70 TPH, 67ata & 485C
Comparison
Prevailing System Proposed System
Multi fuel Boiler
105ata, 525 C, 88%
GEC Turbine
SIEMENS Turbine
C
C
11 KV BUS
C
C
GEC Turbine
SIEMENS Turbine
Actual Thermal Efficiency of existing power plant
on date
Heat value of KPC boiler 767 Kcal/kg (from steam table)
(at 43.4 ata and 400C)
Then net heat value of KPC boiler 767 105 662 Kcal/kg.

Thermal efficiency of KPC boiler =
th
= (Net heat value * Total Steam generation) / (CV of
the bagasse * total bagasse consumption)

th
= (662 * 122759) / (2277 * 61672)
= 57.99% 58% ( against 69% of design)

Heat value of TBW boiler = 807.7 Kcal/kg (From steam table)
(at 67 ata and 485C)
Then net heat value of TBW boiler 807.7 105 702.7 Kcal/kg

GCV of coal = (CV of coal * total coal consumption) / Total fuel consumption
= (5500 * 4622) / 56213 = 452.22 Kcal/kg
GCV of Bagasse = (CV of bagasse * total bagasse consumption) / Total fuel consumption
= (2277 * 51591) / 56213 = 2089.77 Kcal/kg

Then net GCV = 452.22 + 2089.77 = 2542 Kcal/kg


Then net heat gain = heat gain * steam required for cane * efficiency of Topping TG set
= 13.8 * 125*10
3
* 0.9
= 1552.5 Kcal/kg

Total power generation = 1552.5/860 = 1.8 MW

Transfer rate = 1800 * 24 * 330 * 1.96 = 2.79 crore.
Thermal efficiency of TBW boiler =
th
= (Net heat value * Total Steam generation) /
(Net GCV * total fuel consumption)
= (702.7 * 129399) * 100 / (2542 * 56213)

th
= 63% (against 71.75% of design)

Average thermal efficiency of KPC & TBW boiler = (58+63) / 2 = 60.5%

Expected direct efficiency of multifuel boiler = 84%
Then fuel saving = 84 60.5 = 23.5%

Cost of fuel saving = Actual cane crushed * % of fuel caned * % fuel save
for 02-03 = 729598 * 0.3 * 0.235
= Rs. 51436.65

Then total saving of bagasse = 51437 * 500
= Rs. 2,57,815
= 2.57 crore

Net gain in power = 2.79 crore
Net gain in fuel save = 2.57 crore

Then total gain = 2.79+2.57 = 5.36 crore
Heat value of AFBC boiler = 821.5 Kcal/kg (from steam table)
(at 515 C and 105 kg/cm
2
)

Then net heat gain = 821.5 807.7
= 13.8 Kcal/kg

From data
Budgeted crane crushed/year = 775000 M.T
Actual crane crushed/year = 72598.401 M.T
No. of crop days = 170 days
% Steam required for crane = 48%
% of bagasse in cane = 30%

Then steam required for cane/hr. = (budgeted cane crushed * %steam reqd. for cane) /
(No. of days * 24)
= (775000 * 0.48) / (170*24)
= 91.176 tph
100 tph
For maximum efficiency
steam required for cane/hr = 100/0.80 = 125 tph

The Major advantage of Co- Gen
power is ;-
A-Most techno- commercial viable Projects with short pay back.
B-Cost of power production is very cheap compare to that of purchase
power.
C-Dependability and reliability with quality of power.
D-Quick return on investments.
E-Restore ecological imbalance.
F-Ability to use Bio-Mass and organic matters like wood, grass and agro
and
municipal wastes.
G-Availability of power between Nov. to May when Hydel power availability
less.

Continue---
H-provides ecmomical and timeluy solution of Power problems.
STEPS FOOR SAVINGS
!-Saving of Bagasse by adopting high technology HP Boilers
2-Reduction of moisture in bagasse 50 to 45% by improving Milling
Technique.
3-Reduction in Process steam consumptions in evaporator and Prime
movers
BLTFF evaporators
4- Reduction in live s team consumption by using multi stage reaction
Turbines.
5- Reduction in over consumptions of power TCH using new technique of

Variable drives and high efficient auxiliaries.
6-improve crushing rate by having quality power