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Fluids and Electrolytes

Prepared by:

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
 To maintain good health, a balance of fluids and
electrolytes, acids and bases must be normally
regulated for metabolic processes to be in working
state.
 A cell, together with its environment in any part of
the body, is primarily composed of FLUID.
 Thus fluid and electrolyte balance must be
maintained to promote normal function. Potential
and actual problems of fluid and electrolytes happen
in all health care settings, in every disorder and with
a variety of changes that affect homeostasis.

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Definition of terms
Fluids
 a solution of solvent and solute

Solvent
 a liquid substance where particles can be dissolved

Solute
 a substance, either dissolved or suspended in a solution

Solution
 a homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances of dissimilar
molecular structure
 usually applied to solids in liquids but applies equally to
gasses in liquids

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Osmole
 the weight in grams of a substance producing an osmotic pressure of 22.4 atm.
when dissolved in 1.0 litre of solution
 (gram molecular weight) / (no. of freely moving particles per molecule)
Osmolality
 the number of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Osmolarity
 the number of osmoles of solute per litre of solution
Mole
 that number of molecules contained in 0.012 kg of C12, or,
 the molecular weight of a substance in grams = Avogadro's number
 = 6.023 x 1023
Molality
 the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
Molarity
 is the number of moles of solute per litre of solution

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


THE BODY FLUIDS
A solution of solvent and solutes
 Our body is made up of fluids and solids

 About 50-60% of the body weight is WATER

 In a 70 Kg adult male: 60% X 70= 40-42 Liters

 Note that 1 kg body weight= 1 liter of water

 The body has two major compartments:

1 Intracellular
2. Extracellular

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


The Proportion of Body Fluids

Interstitia
Intracellular l
fluid 15%
40% Intravascu
lar
5%
Transcellula
r
Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN
1-2%
TOTAL BODY WATER
(AS PERCENTAGE OF BODY WEIGHT)
IN RELATION TO AGE AND SEX

AGE MALE FEMALE


UNDER 18 65% 55%
18-40 60% 50%
40-60 50-60% 40-50%
OVER 60 50% 40%

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Electrolytes
 Active chemicals that carry positive (cations) and negative
(anions) electrical charges
 Major cations: • Major anions:
 Sodium – Chloride
 Potassium
– Bicarbonate
 Calcium
– Phosphate
 Magnesium
 Hydrogen ions – Sulfate
 Electrolyte – Proteinate
concentrations differ in the fluidions
compartments

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Electrolytes (cont.)
 Major cation in ECF
 Sodium
 Major cation in ICF
 Potassium

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Body Fluids

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Function
 Transporter of nutrients , wastes, hormones,
proteins and etc
 Medium or milieu for metabolic processes
 Body temperature regulation
 Lubricant of musculoskeletal joints
 Insulator and shock absorber

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


THE Normal DYNAMICS OF BODY FLUIDS
 The methods by which electrolytes and
other solutes move across biologic
membranes are Osmosis, Diffusion, Filtration
and Active Transport. Osmosis, diffusion and
filtration are passive processes, while Active
transport is an active process.

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Regulation of Fluid
 Movement of fluid through capillary walls depends
on:
 Hydrostatic pressure
 Pressure exerted on the walls of blood vessels
 Osmotic pressure
 Pressure exerted by the protein in the plasma
 The direction of fluid movement depends on the
differences of hydrostatic and osmotic pressure

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Regulation of Fluid (cont.)
 Osmosis

 Diffusion

 Filtration

 Active transport

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Osmosis
 Movement of fluid from and area of lower
solute concentration to an area of higher
solute concentration

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Diffusion
 Movement of molecules and ions from an
area of higher concentration to an area of
lower concentration

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Filtration
 Movement of water and solutes from an area of
higher hydrostatic pressure to an area of lower
hydrostatic pressure.
 Process where substances/solutes move from an
area of lower concentration to an area of higher
concentration with utilization of ENERGY
 It is called an “uphill movement”

 Usually, a carrier is required. An enzyme is utilized


also
Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN
Active Transport
 Physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of lower
concentration to one of higher concentration

 Movement against the concentration gradient

 Sodium-potassium pump maintains the higher


concentration of extracellular sodium and intracellular
potassium

 Requires adenosine (ATP) for energy

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN


Types of Active Transport:
 Primarily Active Transport
 Energy is obtained directly from the breakdown of
ATP
 One example is the Sodium-Potassium pump
 Secondary Active Transport
 Energy is derived secondarily from stored energy in
the form of ionic concentration difference between
two sides of the membrane.
 One example is the Glucose-Sodium co-transport;
also the Sodium-Calcium counter-transport

Mr. Nestlee S. Cabaccan RN, MSN, USRN