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Design & Manufacturing an Inclined

Elevator
Ali Hussain 200000240
Mohammed Obaid 200000297
Habib Al-Saffar 200000318

United Arab Emirates University
College of Engineering
Project Advisor : Prof. Kamal Moustafa
Second Semester 2005/2006
Outline
Introduction
Objectives
Mechanical system
Control system
Results and discussion
Conclusion
Introduction
An elevator is a transporting device used to move
goods or people vertically, horizontally or inclined.

Inclined elevators are used in such places that can
not use vertical space or used by disabled persons
that can not use an escalator.


Objectives
GPI
Carrying out complete dynamic force analysis.
Applying engineering sciences.
Designing elevator components such as brakes,
roping system, buffers etc.

GPII
Selecting proper components according to the
design analysis.
Building a prototype with control devices.
Inclined Elevator
Project
Mechanical
System
Control
System
Mechanical System
Counterweight
Selection of suspension
rope
Traction drive
Elevator machine



Car
Door
Guiding rails


y
C
.W
C
.F

a
x
Sheave
Real Design Layout
Scaling
Scaling can be defined as the determination of the
interdependency of variables in a physical system.

Advantage
Used in solving cost effective problems.

A model was made with same geometric,
kinematics and dynamic similarities as the real
design.

The selected scaling factor was 1000:88.

2D AutoCAD drawings
Cont.
Cont. (Cabin)
Cabin mass= 1.13 Kg
Cont. (Counter-weight)
Kg .
. ) . ( .
rider kg X
kg X
m
m m
m per kg
03 2
13 1 4 5 0 45 0
ht cabin weig load rated of 45% mass weight - Counter
/ 5 . 0
) (Prototype ) (
4
085 . 0 085 . 0
(Real) 29 . 0 80
2
2
=
+ =
+ =
=

3D AutoCAD drawing
Prototype pictures
Motor recalculation
s cm V
s
V
R V
R
V
measured rpm
cm R
th
th
th
/ 2 . 20
60
2
110 75 . 1
) ( 110 motor wiper
75 . 1
2
2
2
=
=
=
=
=
=
t
e
e
e
Control System
Objectives:
Controlling DC motor (Up, Down).
Controlling motor acceleration & deceleration.
Controlling level stops.
Operating system accessories (fan, light and
door-lock).


Closed-loop control diagram
Sensor
Rotary optical encoder
It is a digital electronic device used to convert
the angular position of a shaft to a number of
pulses.

256 pulses.

The input voltage is 5 volts.
Cont.
Coupling
Sensor
Control device
Microcontroller unit (MCU):
Defined as a computer on a chip which is used to
control electronic devices.

Advantages:
A microcontroller unit can be a powerful tool when
building electro-mechanical systems.

It interacts with both hardware and user.
Atmega8 (MCU(
8-Kbyte self-programming Flash.
Two timers.
28 Input and Output Pins.
Input voltage between 4.5 to 5.5 V.
Output current is equal to 40 mA.
Operating at 4 MHz frequency.

Atmega8 (MCU( Pins Diagram
Actuator
Motor speed control:
A PWM technique works by making a
pulsating DC square wave with a variable on-
to-off ratio.

Duty cycle
The duty cycle of the pulses exiting the
MCU was calculated as following:
s cycle uty
s cycle uty
cycle uty
s

768 D
256 3 D
Pulses No. increment Timer D
3
12 / 4000000
1000
increment Timer
crystal in the increments of No. speed Crystal
t
increment Timer
=
=
=
= =
=
Motor direction controller
How does a motor turn in two directions ?
By two ways:
1) Manually.
2) Automatically by a computer or a
microprocessor.

Bipolar junction circuit
H-bridge technique has four switching elements at
its corners and the motor forms the cross bar.
Cont.
Relay H-Bridge
Relay operation
A current flows through the coil, the resulting
magnetic field attracts the armature.
The movement either makes or breaks a
connection with a fixed contact.
When the current to the coil is switched off, the
armature is returned to the first position.
At the switching off action, the collapsing
magnetic field will generate a spike of current that
could damage the rest of the circuit.
Single Pole Double Throw (SPDT)
Used to reduce the number of relays from four to
two.
Two relays with 20A current each were used.


Circuit components
Opto-coupler
An opto-coupler is an optical link and it connects two
circuits via this link.
Used as insulation and a switch for any circuit.



Cont.
Transistor array
Used to increase the current level in order to
operate the relays (amplifier).

MOSFET power transistor
Supplies 110 A current to the motor.
Cont.
Crystal filter
It provides a very exactly defined centre frequency which
leads to stabilize the input frequency.
Supply frequency equals to 4 MHz.

Voltage regulator
Automatically maintains a constant voltage level
Supplies 5 V after changing it from 12 V.
Cont.
And Gate

A logic gate is an arrangement
of controlled switches used to
calculate operations in digital
circuits.
It is a multiplication operation
between the three input
variables (A,B and D).
Input 1 Input 2 Input 3 Output
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1
Cont.
Diode
It allows an electrical current to flow in one
direction.
Seven-segment display
A method of displaying decimal numeric feedback
on the internal operations of devices.
Printed circuit board (PCB)
Used to mechanically support and electrically
connect electronic components using conductive
pathways made from copper sheets on a non-
coductive material.

PCBs are inexpensive, fast, and consistent in high
volume production.
Power supplying and direction schematic
Power supplying and direction circuit

MCU schematic

MCU circuit

Complete control system circuit

BASIC COMPILER
Cont
Cont
Results & Discussion


Cycle period:
% 35 100
256
90 256
=
|
.
|

\
|

= power persentage Minimum
KHz
s period Cycle
Frequency
s period Cycle
s s cycle duty of
003 . 2
2 . 499
1 1
2 . 499 8 . 268 768
8 . 268 35 . 0 768 % 35
= = =
= =
= =



Cont.
Acceleration operation
Cont.
The obtained frequency from the oscilloscope was
equal to 1.9 KHz.

The percentage error between the theoretical and
experimental values was equal to 5%.
Cont.
The velocity of the cabin was measured
experimentally after the acceleration and before
the deceleration operation periods.
s cm v
v
t
/ 5 . 17
6 . 1
28

t
x

cm 28 x
s 1.6
= =
=
=
=
Cont.
The percentage error of velocity was equal to
13%.

This error was formed by two factors;
The slip between the rope and the sheave
groove.
Random error.
Conclusion
All objectives of the project were met.
Modifying the project can be done by two ways:
Adding limit-switch at each floor.
Enhancing the sheave contact area with the
rope (V-groove).