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# TRANSFORMERS

SUBMITTED BY ,
GP - 4 ( IT - B )
GROUP MEMBERS
Ganga.S
Ritty.Theresa.Varghese
Shalu.Kumar
Safnitha.P.Y
Sojiya.P.R
Transform
• Atransformer ers
is a
stationary
electric machine which
transfers
electrical energy ( power )
from
one voltage level to another
voltage level .

## • Unlike in rotating machines ,

there is no electrical to
mechanical energy
conversion .

• A transformer is a static
device
and all currents and voltages
are
AC .

## • The transfer of energy

Transformer
Principles
• It has 2 electric circuits
called
primary and secondary.
• A magnetic circuit provides
the
secondary.

• When an AC voltage is
applied
to the primary winding (Vp)of
the transformer, an AC
current
will result (Ip). Ip sets up
a
time-varying magnetic flux φ
in
the core.

## • A voltage is induced to the

Transfers electric power from one circuit to
another

Does so without change in frequency

Accomplish this by electromagnetic induction

Where the two electric circuits are linked
by mutual induction.
Transformer
Construction
• 2 Type of Transformers :
1 - Core ( U / I ) Type : is constructed from a stack

## of U- and I-shaped laminations. In a core-type

transformer, the primary and secondary windings are
wound on two different legs of the core. Wounding
surrounds a considerable portion of the core.

## constructed from a stack of E- and I-shaped

laminations. In a shell-type transformer, the primary
and secondary windings are wound on the same leg of
the core, as concentric windings, one on top of the
other one. Core surrounds a considerable portion of
the winding
CORE TYPE TRANSFORMERS

Presented By,
Sojiya.P.R
FEATURES OF CORE TYPE:
1)Coils are form wound
and are of cylindrical
type.

## 2)General form of these

coils may be circular
or rectangular.

## 3)Cylindrical coils are

wounded in helical
layers with different
layers insulated from
each by suitable
insulating materials.
4)Low voltage winding and high voltage
winding are alternately wounded in
cylindrical form.

5)Since low voltage winding is easiest to
insulate it is placed nearest to the core.

6)Because of laminations and insulations
effective core area is reduced and the
reduction in the area approx of the order
of 10%
SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMER

Presented By,
Safnitha.P.Y
A shell type transformer may

## have a simple rectangular

form or may have a
distributed form.

## but are multi-layer disc type

& Usually wound in the form
of pan cakes.

## multi layer discs are

insulated from each other by
paper.

## of stacked discs with

insulation spaces b/w the
coils.
1)The cores and coils of transformers must
be provided with rigid mechanical bracing
inorder to prevent movement and possible
insulation damage
2)Good bracing reduces vibration and the
objectionable noise like a humming sound
during operation.
3)Transformers are generally housed in
tightly fitted sheet metal tanks filled
with special insulation oil.
4)This oil has been highly developed and its
function is two-fold
5)By circulation it not only keeps the coils
reasonably cool but also provides the
not obtainable when the transfomersis
left in the air.
FEATURE OF OIL:

## Good transformer oil should be

absolutely free from alkalies
sulphur and particularly from
moisture.
The presence of even an
extremely small percentage of
moisture in the coil is
highly detrimental from the
insulation view point because
it lowers dielectric strength
of oil considerably.

 The strong design of the shell-form
transformer causes high mechanical
strength. It also helps to short
circuit with stand strength.
 The shell-form transformer also has
high seismic withstand strength so
it is supplying to many areas of
the world that have a very high
probability of experiencing
earthquakes such as
Japan,California etc.
 These transformers offer an
applications.
 These withstand the demands of
transportation by various means.
 It has high dielectric strength and
low capacitance to ground.

Difference b/w SHELL & CORE:
Single phase core-type
transformers consist of two
windings and one core
whereas shell type consists
of one winding and two
cores.
Shell type provides a high
degree of mechanical
protection to the winding
because it is surrounded by
core.
On the other hand, core type
provides better insulation
b/w the primary and
secondary because of its
inherent two windings.
Slide show Presented By ,
Ritty . Theresa.Varghese