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TRANSFORMERS

SUBMITTED BY ,
GP - 4 ( IT - B )
GROUP MEMBERS
Ganga.S
Ritty.Theresa.Varghese
Shalu.Kumar
Safnitha.P.Y
Sojiya.P.R
Transform
• Atransformer ers
is a
stationary
electric machine which
transfers
electrical energy ( power )
from
one voltage level to another
voltage level .

• Unlike in rotating machines ,


there is no electrical to
mechanical energy
conversion .

• A transformer is a static
device
and all currents and voltages
are
AC .

• The transfer of energy


Transformer
Principles
• It has 2 electric circuits
called
primary and secondary.
• A magnetic circuit provides
the
link between primary and
secondary.

• When an AC voltage is
applied
to the primary winding (Vp)of
the transformer, an AC
current
will result (Ip). Ip sets up
a
time-varying magnetic flux φ
in
the core.

• A voltage is induced to the


Transfers electric power from one circuit to
another

Does so without change in frequency

Accomplish this by electromagnetic induction

Where the two electric circuits are linked
by mutual induction.
Transformer
Construction
• 2 Type of Transformers :
1 - Core ( U / I ) Type : is constructed from a stack

of U- and I-shaped laminations. In a core-type


transformer, the primary and secondary windings are
wound on two different legs of the core. Wounding
surrounds a considerable portion of the core.

2 - Shell Type : A shell - type transformer is


constructed from a stack of E- and I-shaped


laminations. In a shell-type transformer, the primary
and secondary windings are wound on the same leg of
the core, as concentric windings, one on top of the
other one. Core surrounds a considerable portion of
the winding
CORE TYPE TRANSFORMERS

Presented By,
Sojiya.P.R
FEATURES OF CORE TYPE:
1)Coils are form wound
and are of cylindrical
type.

2)General form of these


coils may be circular
or rectangular.

3)Cylindrical coils are


wounded in helical
layers with different
layers insulated from
each by suitable
insulating materials.
4)Low voltage winding and high voltage
winding are alternately wounded in
cylindrical form.

5)Since low voltage winding is easiest to
insulate it is placed nearest to the core.

6)Because of laminations and insulations
effective core area is reduced and the
reduction in the area approx of the order
of 10%
SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMER

Presented By,
Safnitha.P.Y
ABOUT SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMERS
A shell type transformer may

have a simple rectangular


form or may have a
distributed form.

In this, the coils are wound


but are multi-layer disc type


& Usually wound in the form
of pan cakes.

The different layers of such


multi layer discs are


insulated from each other by
paper.

The complete winding consist


of stacked discs with


insulation spaces b/w the
coils.
1)The cores and coils of transformers must
be provided with rigid mechanical bracing
inorder to prevent movement and possible
insulation damage
2)Good bracing reduces vibration and the
objectionable noise like a humming sound
during operation.
3)Transformers are generally housed in
tightly fitted sheet metal tanks filled
with special insulation oil.
4)This oil has been highly developed and its
function is two-fold
5)By circulation it not only keeps the coils
reasonably cool but also provides the
transformers with additional insulation
not obtainable when the transfomersis
left in the air.
FEATURE OF OIL:

Good transformer oil should be


absolutely free from alkalies
sulphur and particularly from
moisture.
The presence of even an
extremely small percentage of
moisture in the coil is
highly detrimental from the
insulation view point because
it lowers dielectric strength
of oil considerably.


ADVANTAGES OF SHELL TYPE:
 The strong design of the shell-form
transformer causes high mechanical
strength. It also helps to short
circuit with stand strength.
 The shell-form transformer also has
high seismic withstand strength so
it is supplying to many areas of
the world that have a very high
probability of experiencing
earthquakes such as
Japan,California etc.
 These transformers offer an
advantage for extra high voltage
applications.
 These withstand the demands of
transportation by various means.
 It has high dielectric strength and
low capacitance to ground.

Difference b/w SHELL & CORE:
Single phase core-type
transformers consist of two
windings and one core
whereas shell type consists
of one winding and two
cores.
Shell type provides a high
degree of mechanical
protection to the winding
because it is surrounded by
core.
On the other hand, core type
provides better insulation
b/w the primary and
secondary because of its
inherent two windings.
Slide show Presented By ,
Ritty . Theresa.Varghese