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General Chemistry

Course # 111, two credits


Second Semester 2009

King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science

Textbook: Principles of Modern Chemistry


by David W. Oxtoby, H. Pat Gillis, and Alan Campion (6 edition; 2007)

Dr. Rabih O. Al-Kaysi

Ext: 47247
Email: kaysir@ksau-hs.edu.sa
Lecture 3
Stoichiometry

1 - Chemical Changes
• Chemical properties describes the reaction a substance undergo to
form new substances.
• The study of chemical changes is at the heart of chemistry.
– Some chemical changes are simple and some are complex.
• For example, changes that occur in your brain and eyes allow you to see and think.
These are complex chemical changes

• We will explore the quantity of substances consumed and


produced in a chemical reaction.
• Chemical Equations are used to describe chemical reactions.
2 - Defining Chemistry
• Lavoisier: mass is conserved
in a chemical reaction.
• His careful measurements
turned chemistry into a science
(Father of Chemistry)…Not
true! Jaber Bin Hayan is the
father of chemistry
• Investigate the reaction of
hydrogen with oxygen to
produce water (2H2 + O2 →
2H2O).

3 - Chemical Equations
• The chemical equation for the formation of water can be
visualized as two hydrogen molecules reacting with one
oxygen molecule to form two water molecules:
2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

Products

Reactants

Reading Chemical Equations


• The plus sign (+) means “react” and the arrow points towards
the substance produce in the reaction.
• The chemical formulas on the right side of the equation are
called reactants and after the arrow are called product.
• The numbers in front of the formulas are called stoichiometric
coefficients.
2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
Co
ef
fi ci
en Reactants Products
Products
t
Understanding Chemical Equations

Coefficients and subscripts included in the chemical formula have


different effects on the composition.

4 - Balancing Chemical Equations


• Law of conservation of mass: matter cannot be lost in any
chemical reactions.

O
Class Practice Problem
Balance the following equations:
(a) Na(s) + H2O(l) NaOH(aq) + H2(g)

(b) Al(s) + HCl(aq) AlCl3(aq) + H2(g)


(c) C2H4(g) + O2(g) CO2(g) + H2O(l)




5 - Combination and Decomposition
Reactions
• Combination reactions: or Synthesis Reaction; two or more substances
react to form products:
2Mg(s) + O2(g) → 2MgO(s)

• The Mg has combined with O2 to form MgO (ionic compounds).


• Decomposition reactions: is when one substance undergoes a reaction to
produce two or more simpler substances:

2NaN3(s) → 2Na(s) + 3N2(g)


(the reaction that occurs in an air bag)

• The NaN3 has decomposed into Na and N2 gas.


• Single Replacement reaction: A single uncombined element reacts to replace
another element in a compound:
Zn + CuSO4  ZnSO4 + Cu

• The Zn has replaced the Cu in CuSO4


• Double Replacement reaction: parts of two compounds switch places to form
two new compounds:

AgNO3 + NaCl  AgCl (solid) + NaNO3

• Transformation: A single compound transforms to another simple compound


under the influence of heat, light or catalyst
light
Trans-Cinnamic acid  Cis-Cinnamic acid

6 - Patterns in Chemical
Reactivity
• The periodic table can be used to predict how elements
will react in a combination reaction:

2K(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2KOH(aq) + H2(g)

• All alkali metals will react with water to form the


hydroxide compound and hydrogen.
• let M represent the alkali metal, we are able to write:

2M(s) + 2H2O(l) → 2MOH(aq) + H2(g)


Alkali metal + water → Metal hydroxide + hydrogen

7 - Formula Weights
Formula and Molecular Weights

• Formula weights (FW) is the sum of the atomic weights of each atom in the
chemical formula.
FW (H2SO4) = 2AW(H) + AW(S) + 4AW(O)
= 2(1.0 amu) + (32.0 amu) + 4(16.0)
= 98.0 amu
• If the chemical formula is also its molecular formula then the weight is called the
molecular weight (MW).
MW(C6H12 O6) = 6(12.0 amu) + 12(1.0 amu) + 6(16.0 amu)

* More complicated when isotopes are present



Formula Weights
Percentage Composition from Formulas

• Percent composition is the atomic weight for each


element divided by the formula weight of the compound
multiplied by 100:

% Element =
( No. of Atoms of Element )( AW )
×100
FW of Compound
Class Practice Problem
• Calculate the FW of C12 H22 O11 .

12C = 12 x 12.01 = 144.12


22H = 22 x 1.01 = 22.22
11O = 11 x 16.00 = 176.0
C12 H22 O11 = 342.34 amu

• Calculate the percent composition of H2O.


•% H = 11.21%
•% O = 88.79%

8 - Molar Mass
• Molar mass: mass in grams of 1 mole of substance (units
g/mol, g.mol-1 ).
• Experimentally, 1 mole of 12 C = 12 g, which can be
written as 12g/mol.

9 - The Mole
• The unit we use to express the quantity of atoms, ions,
and molecules that an object contains is called mole.
• Mole: convenient measure chemical quantities.
• The actual number of atoms, ions, or molecules in 1 mole
of something = 6.0221367 × 1023 (Advogadro’s
number) of that thing.
• Thus,
• 1 mole of 12 C atoms = 6.02 x 1023 12 C atoms
• 1 mole of H2O molecules = 6.02 x 1023 molecules
• 1 mole of NO3- ions = 6.02 x 1023 ions
Visualizing The Mole Concept

Different Units
Class Practice Problem
• How many C atoms are in 0.350 mol of
C6H12 O6?

•C atoms = [0.350 mol C6H12 O6 (6.02 x 1023


molecules/1 mole C6H12 O6)(6 C atoms/1
molecule)] = 1.26 x 1024 C atoms
Class Practice Problem
Converting moles to mass
• Calculate the number of moles of
glucose C6H12 O6 in 5.380 g of C6H12 O6.
•Moles of C6H12 O6 = [5.380 g C6H12 O6 (1
mole C6H12 O6/ 180 g C6H12 O6)] = 0.02989
mol C6H12 O6
Class Practice Problem
Converting mass to particles
• Calculate the number of atoms of Cu in
3 g of Cu?
•Atoms of Cu = [3 g Cu (1 mole Cu/180 g
Cu)(6.02 x 1023 atoms Cu/1 mole Cu)] = 3 x
1023 Cu atoms

8 - Empirical Formulas from Analyses

• Start with mass % of elements (i.e. empirical data) and


calculate a formula, or
• Start with the formula and calculate the mass % elements.
• For example:
• Ascorbic acid contains 40.92 percent C, 4.58
percent H, and 54.50 percent O by mass. What
is the empirical Formula?
The experimentally determined molecular weight is 176 amu.

Empirical Formulas from Analyses
Molecular Formula from Empirical Formula

• Once we know the empirical formula, we need the MW


to find the molecular formula.
• Subscripts in the molecular formula are always whole-
number multiples of subscripts in the empirical formula
• Eg: we have 11.11% 12H and 88.88% 816 O. The formula weight = 36 amu. What
is the empirical formula and molecular formula?
# moles Deuterium = 5.55, # moles Oxygen = 5.55  ratio is 1:1
Empirical formula = 12HO
formula weight of empirical formula ( 12HO) = 18
Formula weight/ Empirical formula weith = 32/18 = 2  multiply
empirical formula by 2
1 H2 O2
2
Quantitative Information from
Balanced Equations
• Balanced chemical equation gives number of molecules
that react to form products.
• Interpretation: ratio of number of moles of reactant
required to give the ratio of number of moles of product.
• These ratios are called stoichiometric ratios.
NB: Stoichiometric ratios are ideal proportions
• Real ratios of reactants and products in the laboratory
need to be measured (in grams and converted to moles).

9 - Limiting Reactants
• If the reactants are not present in stoichiometric amounts,
at end of reaction some reactants are still present (in
excess).
• Limiting Reactant: one reactant that is consumed
• Used 23 g Na and 32 g Oxygen. Which is the limiting
reagent
• 4 x 23 1 x 32

• 4Na + O2  4Na2O
• 23 32
• Oxygen needed = 23 x 32/ (4 x23) = 8 g
• Sodium needed = 32 x 4 x 23/ (32) = 4 x 23 = 72 g
Limiting Reactants

Limiting Reactants
Theoretical Yields

• The amount of product predicted from stoichiometry


taking into account limiting reagents is called the
theoretical yield.
• The percent yield relates the actual yield (amount of
material recovered in the laboratory) to the theoretical
yield:
Actual yield
% Yield = × 100
Theoretical yield