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Chapter five

respiration
Duan-dongxiao
Metabolism
Need oxygen and nutrient
Discharge the carbon dioxide and
the end product of metabolism
Composition of the respiratory system

1. Air passageway 2. lung


Structural and Functional Features
Respiration Concept

The gas exchange process between


organization and environment is called
respiration.

O2 obtain oxygen
CO2 remove carbon dioxide
Respiratory function
Respiratory processes
Blood
atmosphere lung tissue
circulation

O2 O2 O2
CO2 CO2 CO2

Pulmonary Gas exchange Gas exchange


Ventilation In lung In tissue

1 .external 2. gas 3. internal


respiration transport respiration
Overview

1. Pulmonary Ventilation
2. Gas exchange In lung
3. Gas transport
4. Gas exchange In tissue
Section one
Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary ventilation
is the gas exchange
process between lungs
and environment .
environment
inspiration expiration
organs to complete pulmonary ventilation

1 . Respiratory passageway:communicates
alveoli and environment, warms the air,gets
the air wet, filters the air,cleans the air and
completes the defense reflex.
2 . Alveolus: place for exchange
3 . Thorax: power of pulmonary ventilation
Mechanics of Pulmonary Ventilation

Two factors:
One is the power to push gas flowing.
The other is resistance to prevent gas flowing.
The former must overcome the latter , and then
pulmonary ventilation can be completed.
power of pulmonary ventilation
1. respiratory movement
2. intrapulmonary pressure
3. intrapleural pressure
1. respiratory movement
Thoracic expansion and contraction
caused by respiratory muscles are
called respiratory movement.
(inspiration, expiration)
Muscles of inspiration :
diaphragm and external
intercostal muscles
Muscles of expiration :
internal intercostal muscles
and abdominal muscles
Muscles of assistant inspiration :
scalenus muscles ,
sternocleidomastoid muscles.
( 1 ) Process
1 ) Eupnea a. Inspiration:
inspiration muscles contract
thoraxes expand
lungs expand
lung volumes increase
intrapulmonary pressure
decreases temporarily
gas enters lungs
b. Expiration:
diaphragm relax and internal
intercostal muscles contract

thorax recoils

lung recoils

intrapulmonary pressure increases

gas is removed.
2 ) labored inspiration
3 ) labored expiration
( 2 ) patterns
Form of the movement
a. Abdominal breathing
Thoracic breathing

Form of the movement


b. eupnea
labored breathing
2. intrapulmonary pressure

Intrapulmonary pressure is the


pressure in pulmonary alveoli.
Intrapulmonary pressure is equal
to atmospheric pressure Under special
circumstance
intrapulmonary pressure
intrapulmonary pressure
At the first of inspiration, lung volume increases and
intrapulmonary pressure decreases below atmospheric
pressure. Air enters alveoli under the pressure difference.
Intrapulmonary pressure increases as the increasing of
gas in lung.
At the last of inspiration, intrapulmonary pressure is
equal to atmospheric pressure and the air flow stops.
At the first of expiration, lung volume decreases
and intrapulmonary pressure increases until it
exceeds atmospheric pressure. Air outflows lungs
and intrapulmonary pressure decreases by and by.
Intrapulmonary pressure is equal to
atmospheric pressure at the last of expiration.
changes in lung volumes,alveolar pressure,and
transpulmonary pressure during normal breathing
Artificial respiration:
once respiration stops,
intrapulmonary pressure
can be changed factitiously . positive
Pressure difference between
intrapulmonary pressure
and atmospheric pressure
can be created to maintain
pulmonary ventilation .

negative
3. Intrapleural pressure
pleural cavity

visceral
pleura
parietal
pleura
intrapleural
pressure
3. Intrapleural pressure
Pleural cavity is made up of two layers of pleura.
One is visceral layer stick to the surface of lung and the
other is parietal layer stick to thorax .
There is only little liquid in the pleural cavity but not
gas.
The effect of this layer of liquid is :
(1) Lubrication effect between
two layers of pleura.
(2) The power between liquid
molecules pastes two layers
of pleura to make them tightly.

Significance :
Keep the lungs inflated
Facilitate venous return
(respiratory pump)
If pleura breaks,
pleural cavity will be pneumothorax
open to atmosphere
and air will enter
pleural cavity . This is
called pneumothorax.
At this time , two
layers of pleura
separate and lungs
contract for the elastic
recoil.
Assays of intrapleural pressure

1. direct assay oesophagus

2. indirect assay
Intrapleural pressure is usually negative
pressure.
1. At the end of expiration of eupnea,
the pressure is about - 5 ~ - 3 mmHg
2. At the end of inspiration of eupnea,
the pressure is about - 10 ~ - 5mmHg
Power of Pulmonary Ventilation
(Summary)
Expansion and contraction of respiration muscles

expansion and contraction of thoracic cage

(lungs change with the moving of thoracic cage)


lung volumes change

pressure differences between lung volume


and atmospheric pressure

gas enters or is removed out of lungs.


Resistance of Pulmonary Ventilation
1. One is non- elastic resistance 30 %
airway resistance
inertia resistance
viscous resistance of organization
vagus nerve—smooth muscle contract
Sympathetic nerve-- nerve—smooth muscle relax
airway resistance
airway resistance big—radius small
airway resistance small---radius big
2. one is elastic resistance 70 %
the main resistance of eupnea
elastic resistance of lung
elastic resistance of thorax
1. Elastic Resistance and Compliance

The deformation power caused by opposing


pressure is called elastic resistance.

Compliance is the dilating extent of elastic


tissue below pressure.

Relationship between compliance and elastic


resistance
C= 1/R
( 1 ) Elastic Resistance of Lungs and
Compliance

(△ V )
change of lung volume
( CL ) =
L/cmH2O
lungs compliance ( △P)
change of transpulmonary pressure

transpulmonary pressure is the difference between


intrapulmonary pressure and pleural pressure.
1 ) Lung static compliance diagram

If curve slope is large , it means the


compliance is large and the elastic
resistance is small.
If curve slope is small, it means the
compliance is small and the elastic
resistance is large.
lung static compliance diagram
2) Specific compliance
Specific compliance = Measured lung
compliance ( L/cmH2O ) / Total lung
capacity ( L )
3) Source of lungs elastic resistance
a. The elastic recoil power of lungs
b. The recoil power caused by surface
tension between the liquid layer of
inner alveoli and gas in alveoli.
Pulmonary

Surfactant
1. Comformation of Pulmonary Surfactant

Saturation lecithin is 41% ( 90% is DPPC )


Non-saturation lecithin is 25%
Cholesterol is 8 %
DPPC is an important Pulmonary
Surfactant .
( 1) Quantity is large. it is 1/3 of all
( 2) Character of molecule structure
Strong hydrophobicity
Strong hydrophilicity
( 3 ) Strong suspending stability
2. physiological effect of pulmonary surfactant

( 1 ) Accommodate surface tension and stable


alveolar pressure.
( 2 ) Lower alveolar surface tension and reduce
inspiration resistance. Conserve one tenth of the
working.
( 3 ) Reduce the producing of alveolar liquid and
prevent pulmonary edema. The effect of suction is
reduced too.
3. source of pulmonary surfactant

Synthesised by Ⅱ alveoli cells


4. development of Pulmonary surfactant

occurent from cyesising 25 - 30 weeks


at the high point in cyesising 40 weeks
reach amniotic fluid through fetus respiratory
tract
abdominal paracentesis to get amniotic fluid
and quantitative analysis
Pulmonary Surfactant and Pulmonary
Atelectasis
Because of little and not well-distributed
suction power of gas molecule to liquid
molecule, there is surface tension between
the liquid and gas in alveoli(a kind of
suction power or concentric force souced
from surface) . Liquid layer surface tension
draw tight the liquid surface along the
tangent line.it makes concentric retraction
force and it is the inspiration resistance.
Retraction force can be
calculated by Formula
Laplace .
Retraction force P = 2T / r
surface tension dyn/cm
vacuole radius or alveoli
radius
when adult get pneumonia or thrombus,he
may get pulmonary atelectasis for reduction
of pulmonary surfactant .
Newborn may get respiratory distress
syndrome even to death for deficiency of
pulmonary surfactant and formation of
pulmonary atelectasis and hyaluronic
membrane in alveoli.
( 2)

When thorax is at the natural location and the


lung volume is equal to about 67 % of total
lung capacity.thorax does not deformate and
does not display elastic resistance.
When lung volume is smaller than 67 % of
total lung capacity,thorax is contracted by
the traction .The elastic resistance outward
is the drive of inspiration and resistance of
expiration.
When lung volume is bigger than 67 % of
total lung capacity,thorax is enlarged by the
traction.The elastic resistance inward is the
resistance of inspiration and drive of
expiration.
2. non-elastic
non- resistance
Inertia resistance
Viscous resistance
Airway resistance
The difference of intrapulmonary pressure
and intrapulmonary pressure (cmH2O)
Gas flow rate in unit time ( L/S )
Airway resistance is affected by velocity
of airflow , pattern, caliber size
Airway caliber is affected by the
following four factors:
1 ) transmural pressure
2 ) extroversion traction effect of lung
parenchyma to airway wall
3) Accommodation of autonomic nervous
system to the relaxation of airway wall
smooth muscles
4 ) Effect of chemistry factors
Contraction factor: histamine, CO2 ,
PGF2α, endothelins
Relaxation factor: catecholamine, PGE2
(三) Work of Breathing
In the process of respiration,the work done
by respiration muscles to realize pulmonary
ventilation and to overcome elastic resistance
and non-elastic resistance is called work of
breathing .
二 Pulmonary Volume and Pulmonary Capacities
(一) Pulmonary Volume
Tidal Volume(TV) 400-500mL
IRV (inspiratory reserve volume) 1500-2000mL
ERV (expiratory reserve volume) 900-1200mL
RV (residual volume) 1000-1500mL
(二) pulmonary capacities
IC Inspiratory Capacity
TV + IRV 2000 - 2500 mL
FRC Functional residual capacity
RV+ERV 2300 mL
Physiology significance :dampen the change of O2
and CO2 in the process of respiration.
VC vital capacity = TV+ IRV +ERV
2500 - 3500mL
FVC forced vital capacity
TVC timed vital capacity
expired 83% of all vital capacity at the last second
expired 96% of all vital capacity at the second second
expired 99% of all vital capacity at the third second
figure of lung volume and vital capacity
三 lung ventilation volume
(一) 6 - 8L 400 - 500 12 - 18
Minute ventilation volume=
Tidal Volume×respiratory frequency

70 - 120L/min
Maximal voluntary ventilation
(二) Dead space and Alveolar Ventilation
1. dead space
anatomical dead space
physiological dead space)
alveolar dead space
500
2. alveolar ventilation
(tidal volume- dead space)× respiratory frequency
= ( 500mL - 150mL ) ×12 p/min
= 350 ×12
If tidal volume decreases
half, respiratory frequency
increases double.Minute
ventilation volume keeps
constant, but alveolar
ventilation will decrease
greatly. Considering as
ventilation efficiency of
slow and deep respiration
is higher than fast and light
respiration.
elastic resistance of thorax

Total amount <67% >67%


of lung 67%