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BASIN CLASSIFICATION

All giant fields occur in basins that have experienced several different
structural and stratigraphic phases related to changing plate tectonic
boundary conditions.

The basin style most responsible for one or more of the complex
factors forming the giant, include,
1) formation of source rocks;
2) formation of reservoir rocks;
3) creation of structural and stratigraphic traps.

These events could have occurred in completely different settings. For


example, the source may have formed during a rift phase, the reservoir
may been deposited during a passive-margin phase, and the structural
trap may have formed during the collision of a continent or island arc
with the passive margin.

Therefore, identifying the basin-forming tectonic and stratigraphic


phase responsible for source-rock deposition and/or structural trap.
Basin Classification
• A number of these classification schemes are published
including those of Bally, Blois, Klemme and Kingston.
 Bally's work is based on the tectonic history of
basins.
 Blois and Klemme's work also used plate tectonic
historical terms, and added productivity data.
 Kingston's system added a systematic
nomenclature, designed to allow finer detail in
describing the tectonic history of individual
basins.
Basin Classification I

•Interior basins - large, ovate downwarps within stable cratonic


shields (Michigan Basin)
•Rift basins - narrow, fault-bounded valleys of various
dimensions (East African Rift System)
•Aulacogens - failed rift arm at triple-point junction (Reelfoot
Rift)
•Passive Continental Margin - Atlantic-type margins with
sedimentary prism on shelf, slope, and rise
Basin Classification II

•Ocean basins - created by rifting, resulting in deep ocean floor

•Subduction-related settings - seismically active continental


margins with deep-sea trenches, active volcanic arc, and arc-trench
separating (Aleutian Arc-Trench System)

•Strike-Slip basins - small pull-apart basins in response to lateral


fault movement (Los Angeles Basin; transform marginal setting)
•Collision-related basins - foreland basin development in response
to thrust-loading of continent (Appalachian Basin)
Basin Classification
Basin Classification
Tectonic Settings of Giant Oil and Gas Fields

 Using Klemme's classification scheme, the three most common basins


containing giant oil fields are:

• collision zones (40%);


• accreted margins (16%);
• rifled margins (15%).

 Using the Bally and Snelson classification, the three most common basins
containing giant oil fields are:

• type-A fore-deeps (41%);


• cratonic basins (23%);
• Atlantic-type passive margins (15%).
PETROLEUM BASIN TYPE
TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF TYPICAL BASIN BY BASIN TYPE
GEOLOGIC AND PETROLEUM CHARACTERISTS OF BASIN TYPE
TYPE-1 INTERIOR SIMPLE
WORLD BASIN AREAS
BASIN TYPE IN RELATION TO PRODUCTIVITY
TYPE 2. COMPOSITE; 2a, complex
TYPE 3. RIFT
TYPE 4 DOWNWARP (OPEN OR CLOSED)
TYPE 5. PULL-APART
TYPE 6. SUBDUCTION TYPE (Back arc, Fore arc and no arc type)
Type7. Median
Type 8. Delta
BASIN CLASSIFICATION

All giant fields occur in basins that have experienced several different
structural and stratigraphic phases related to changing plate tectonic
boundary conditions. There are two approaches. One can assume, like
Pettingill, that present-day basin style is representative of past basinal
types, including those possibly responsible for formation of giant fields.
[5]
A second, more difficult, approach is to infer the basin style most
responsible for one or more of the complex factors forming the giant,
including: 1) formation of source rocks; 2) formation of reservoir rocks;
and 3) creation of structural and stratigraphic traps. These events could
have occurred in completely different settings. For example, the source
may have formed during a rift phase, the reservoir may been deposited
during a passive-margin phase, and the structural trap may have formed
during the collision of a continent or island arc with the passive margin.
For the classification shown on Fig. 2c and the subsequent maps, the
authors have followed the second approach, with emphasis on identifying
the basin-forming tectonic and stratigraphic phase responsible for
source-rock deposition and/or structural trap. For elongate giant fields
aligned with fold and thrust structures, an exception to this rule was
made: Assume that these giants are predominately related to shortening
at collisional margins (e.g., Arabian Peninsula).
Tectonic Settings of Giant Oil and Gas Fields

Giant fields account for about 55% of the world's petroleum reserves and
cluster in 27 regions of the Earth's land surface. 877 giants.

Using Klemme's classification scheme, the three most common basins


containing giant oil fields are:

• collision zones (40%);


• accreted margins (16%);
• rifled margins (15%).

Using the Bally and Snelson classification, the three most common basins
containing giant oil fields are:

• type-A fore-deeps (41%);


• cratonic basins (23%);
• Atlantic-type passive margins (15%).
CONCLUSIONS

After reclassification of 592 giant oil fields into six basin and
tectonic-setting categories, several conclusions were reached

1. Continental passive margins fronting major ocean basins


account for 31% of giants.

2. Continental rifts and overlying steer's head sag basins form


the basin type that contains 30% of the world's giant oil fields.

3. Terminal collision belts between two continents form a major


basin type that contains 24% of the world's oil giants.

4. Arc-continent collision margins, strike-slip margins and


subduction margins collectively form the setting for 15% of
the world's giant fields.
Previous sorting of giant fields by basin type A) Histogram showing classification of
509 giant fields by Carmalt and St. Johns using Klemme's basin classification
scheme. Klemme divides basins into eight main categories shown based on
interpretation of their tectonic history
Sorting of giant fields by basin type. B) Histogram showing classification of 509
giants by Carmalt and St. Johns using Bally and Snelson's basin classification
scheme. Bally and Snelson divide basins into nine categories, based largely on the
degree that the basin is associated with a "mega-suture," or major convergent-
plate boundary.
By Paul et al.,2001

Fig. 2. Previous sorting of giant fields by basin type. C) Histogram showing


classification of 592 giants by basin classification proposed by Paul et al, 2001.
The authors classified the giants based on six commonly used basinal settings.
Continental rifts and overlying steer's head sag basins.
Rifts and the overlying, generally marine, sag basin are key for localizing and
forming source rocks in poorly-circulated marine straits and lakes during the
early stages of continental rifting

• Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous source rocks of Gulf of Mexico


• Jurassic source rocks of West Africa.

Such rifts are either: aborted to form isolated intracontinental rifts surrounded
by continental areas like the North Sea or West Siberian basin,

Or extended to form passive margins flanking major ocean basins such as the
West African coast.

These rifts typically become deeply buried beneath a carbonate, evaporitic


and/or clastic passive-margin section.
North Sea - a failed rift
Extending into the Eurasian
continental crust. The earliest rift
phase occurred during the
Carboniferous and Jurassic, with the
rift-system trend closely controlled by
pre-existing basement trends.
An overlying steer's head sag basin
was deposited over the Central
Graben in Late Cretaceous time

The Central Graben hosts 30 giants


localized along the complex normal
and strike-slip faults running down the
graben axis.

Source rocks were deposited in the


initial rift during the Late Paleozoic
and Kimmeridgian, with reservoirs at
several levels.

Structures were mainly formed during


Jurassic rifting, Tertiary magmatism
and fault inversion related to the
Alpine collision.
North Sea:
317 Gullfaks, Norway, Oil/gas (N. North Sea) 318 - 9 Snorre, Norway,
Oil/gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 320 Ekofisk, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (S. North Sea) 321
Eldfisk, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (S. North Sea) 322 Statfjord, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd
(N. North Sea) 323 Valhall, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (S. North Sea) 324 Frigg,
Norway, Gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 325 - 6 Oseberg, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (N. North
Sea) 327 - 8 Sleipner West, Norway, Gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 329 Draugen,
Norway, Oil/gas (Helgeland) 330 Heidrun, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (More) 331 Troll
West, Norway, Oil/gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 332 Midgard, Norway, Gas/cnd/oil
(Helgeland) 333 Smoerbukk, Norway, Gas/cnd/oil (More) 334 Tyra, Denmark,
Gas/cnd/oil (S. North Sea) 335 Forties, United Kingdom, Oil (N. North Sea) 336
Claymore, United Kingdom, Oil (N. North Sea) 337 Fulmar, United Kingdom,
Oil/gas (S. North Sea) 338 - 44 Scott, United Kingdom, Oil/gas (N. North Sea)
345 Brent, United Kingdom, Oil/gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 346 Beryl, United
Kingdom, Oil/gas (N. North Sea) 347 - 9 Cormorant, United Kingdom, Oil/gas (N.
North Sea) 350 Piper, United Kingdom, Oil/gas (N. North Sea) 351 Magnus,
United Kingdom, Oil/gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 352 - 3 Ninian, United Kingdom,
Oil/gas/cnd (N. North Sea) 354 Morecambe South, United Kingdom, Gas/cnd
(Irish) 355 - 6 Indefatigable, United Kingdom, Gas/cnd (S. North Sea) 357
Leman, United Kingdom, Gas/cnd (S. North Sea) 358 - 65 Groningen,
Netherlands, Gas/cnd (NW German) 512 Salzwedel-Peckensen Germany, Gas
(NW German)
North Africa- continental rifts with overlying steer's head basins
26 giants subdivided into two regions: 1) to the west, the Illizi province of Algeria; and 2) to the east, the giants
of Libya's Sirte rift. Tectonic history of North Africa is marked by convergence during the Paleozoic Hercynian
orogeny, which left a major unconformity separating folded Cambro-Ordovician rocks from unfolded Permian-
Triassic clastic sedimentary and volcanic rocks. During the Pangean breakup, rifts formed across northern Africa,
including the Atlas rift system. Following rifting, the area subsided and received a thick section of evaporitic and
clastic sediments.
During the Late Cretaceous, convergence began between Africa and Eurasia resulted in the Alpine mountain
chains in Northern Africa, including inversion of the Atlas rift to form the Atlas mountain belt.
Giant fields in structural traps occur beneath the Hercynian unconformity
Source: Ordovician and Silurian black shales.
The Sirte basin is a rift basin with a complex extensional history that began in the late Cretaceous and extended
into the Tertiary. 5 Source rocks are Late Cretaceous shales that thicken into the rift basins. Reservoirs comprise
reef buildups on structural highs. Traps are combinations of structural and stratigraphic traps.
North Africa:
Hassi Messaoud, Algeria, Oil/gas (Sahara basin) 2 Zarzaitine, Algeria,
Oil/gas/cnd 3 Rhourde El Baguel, Algeria, Oil/gas (Sahara basin) 4 Tin Fouye-
Tabankort, Algeria, Oil/gas/cnd (Illizi basin) 5 Taouratine, Algeria, Gas/cnd (Illizi
basin) 6 Hassi R'Mel, Algeria, Gas/cnd/oil (Sahara basin) 7 In Amenas Nord,
Algeria, Gas/cnd 8 Gassi Touil, Algeria, Gas/oil (Sahara basin) 9 Alrar, Algeria,
Gas/cnd/oil 10 El Borma, Tunisia, Oil/gas/cnd 11 Bahi (032-A), Libya, Oil/gas
12 Amal(012-B/E/N/R), Libya, Oil/gas 13 Beda (047-B), Libya, Oil 14 Beda
(047-B), Libya, Oil 15 Defa (059-B/071-Q), Libya, Oil/gas 16 Defa (059-B/071-
Q), Libya, Oil/gas 17 Gialo (059-E), Libya, Oil/gas 18 Masrab (059-P), Libya,
Oil 19 Sarir (065-C), Libya, Oil/gas 20 Augila-Nafoora (102-D/051-, Libya)
Oil/gas 21 Sarir (065-L), Libya, Oil/gas 22 Intisar (103-A), Libya, Oil/gas 23
Dahra East-Hofra (032-F/Y), Libya, Oil/gas 24 Nasser (006-C/4I/4K), Libya,
Oil/gas 25 Nasser (006-C/4I/4K), Libya, Oil/gas 26 Nasser (006-C/4I/4K), Libya,
Oil/gas 27 Waha North (059-A), Libya, Oil/gas 28 Raguba (020-E), Libya,
Oil/gas 29 Attahadi (006-FF), Libya, Oil/gas 30 Intisar (103-D), Libya, Oil/gas
31 Bu Attifel (100-A), Libya, Oil/gas/cnd 32 Messla (065-HH/080-DD), Libya,
Oil/gas 33 Hateiba (006-S), Libya, Gas 34 Hateiba (006-S), Libya, Gas 35 Bouri
(NC041-B), Libya, Oil/gas (Pelagian basin) 67 Waha South (059-A), Libya,
Oil/gas
Caspian Sea controlled by a Jurassic rifting event at the northern Tethys
margin. Source rocks deposited in this rift framework are Paleocene-Eocene.
The area's 26 giant reservoirs are at various levels within the Cenozoic section
Structural traps formed from the Cenozoic to present-day.
Continental passive margins fronting major ocean basins.

This category is reserved for giants which are clearly confined to non-rift
controlled, passive-margin sections. It is difficult to rule out the importance of
rifts and rift-localized steer's head basins in passive-margin tectonic settings,
because the level of rifting can become so deeply buried in passive-margin
settings that it is difficult to resolve seismically or reach by drilling.

Continental rifts and overlying steer's head sag basins.


Rifts and the overlying, generally marine, sag basin are key for localizing and
forming source rocks in poorly-circulated marine straits and lakes during the
early stages of continental rifting

• Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous source rocks of Gulf of Mexico


• Jurassic source rocks of West Africa.

Such rifts are either: aborted to form isolated intracontinental rifts surrounded
by continental areas like the North Sea or West Siberian basin,

Or extended to form passive margins flanking major ocean basins such as the
West African coast.

These rifts typically become deeply buried beneath a carbonate, evaporitic


and/or clastic passive-margin section.
North Slope of Alaska and McKenzie delta. Early Cretaceous rifting, which led to
formation of oceanic crust in the Canada basin and formation of a rifted, passive margin along the
North Slope. Early Cretaceous to recent sedimentation has been controlled by mainly clastic,
passive-margin sedimentation, including deposition of the McKenzie delta with sources in the
Brooks Range, located to the south. Sources, reservoirs and traps occur in the passive-margin
section.
609 Prudhoe Bay, USA 612 Kuparuk, Alaska 614 Koakoak, Canada 615 Point Thompson,
Alaska 618 Kopanoar, Canada 636 Parsons Lake, Mackenzie, Canada 654 Issungnak,
Canada
Gulf of Mexico- a passive
margin fronting a major ocean basin,
resulted from Middle Jurassic rifting
between North America, Mexico, the
Yucatan Peninsula and northern South
America. Rifting resulted in passive margins
flanking a small area of oceanic crust in the
deep, central part of the basin.

Structures on passive margins include


growth faults, salt-withdrawal basins and
salt domes that were produced by
remobilization of Jurassic salt from
sediment loading.

42 giants fields

Source rocks include Late Jurassic and


Neogene marine shales.

Jurassic evaporites provide effective seals


for deeper offshore hydrocarbons related to
the earlier rift history.

These are now being tested by deepwater


drilling.
Gulf of Mexico
593 Paredon, Mexico, Oil/gas (Salinas) 594 Jujo, Mexico, Oil/gas
(Salinas) 595 Poza Rica, Mexico, Oil/gas (Tampico) 596 Samaria
(Bermudez Complex), Mexico, Oil/gas (Salinas) 597 Agave, Mexico,
Oil/gas/cond (Salinas) 598 Giraldas, Mexico, Oil/gas (Salinas) 599
Jose Colomo-Chilapilla, Mexico, Gas/cond/oil (Salinas) 600 Reynosa,
Mexico, Gas/cond/oil (Gulf Coast 601 Chac, Mexico, Oil (Campeche)
602 Akal-Nohoch (Cantarell), Mexico, Oil/gas (Campeche) 610
Carthage, Texas 613 Monroe, Louisiana 616 Katy, Texas 620 Caillou
Island, Louisiana 621 Old Ocean, Texas 622 Greta, Texas 623
Hawkins, Texas 625 Bayou Sale, Louisiana 626 Hastings, Texas 627
Conroe, Texas 628 Bay Marchand, Louisiana 630 Webster, Texas 631
Timbalier Bay, Louisiana 632 Bastian Bay, Louisiana 633 South Pass
Block 24, Louisiana 635 Smackover, Arkansas 637 Reynosa, Mexico
(Gulf Coast basin) 638 Bateman Lake, Louisiana 639 Van, Texas 640
West Ranch, Texas 641 Eugene Island, Louisiana 642 Thompson,
Texas 643 La Gloria, Texas 644 Tiger Shoal, Louisiana 645 Grand Isle
Block 43, Louisiana 646 West Delta Block 30, Louisiana 647 South
Pass Block 27, Louisiana 648 Vermilion Block 39, Louisiana 649 Agua
Dulce, Texas 650 Borregos, Texas 651 Pledger, Texas 652 Vermilion
Block 14, Louisiana
Brazil - passive margin fronting a major ocean basin
Five giants occur in a limited part of
the Campos basin that formed by
early Cretaceous rifting from West
Africa. Tectonic events included
intense volcanic activity and rifting,
with basins filled by alluvial, lacustrine
and carbonate rocks. The end of the
rifting phase was marked by formation
of regional unconformity and initiation
of passive-margin sedimentation.

Production comes from the overlying


passive-margin section

Sources - Barremian-Aptian lacustrine


shales deposited in underlying rifts.

Reservoirs - Tertiary deepwater


sandstones deposited in a passive
margin setting.

588 Albacora, Brazil, Oil/gas


(Campos) 589 Marlim, Brazil, Oil/gas
(Campos) 603 Barracuda, Brazil,
Oil/gas (Campos) 607 Marlim Sul,
Brazil, Oil/gas (Campos) 608
Roncador, Brazil, Oil (Campos)
Continental collision margins
• These margins produce deep, short-lived basins in interior areas but broad, wedge-
shaped foreland basins in more external parts of the deformed belt where most
giants are found.

• There is a spatial correlation between location of foreland-basin oil fields and fold-
thrust belt salients, or places where the fold-thrust belt protrudes or is convex to the
foreland. Salient examples associated with oil fields include Alberta, Wyoming, Santa
Cruz (Bolivia), Verkhoyansk (Siberia), northern Carpathians (Europe), Taiwan, Zagros
and Apennines (Italy). In all cases, the greatest concentration of oil and gas fields is
opposite the apex of the salient.

1) thicker, basinal-sedimentary rocks present at salients are more likely to yield greater
volumes of source and reservoir rocks;
2) thicker basinal rocks also produce more fold culminations, which are likely to act as
structural traps; and
3) slight along-strike extension at apex areas could result in increased fracturing that
could provide the vertical permeability to permit migration of oil and gas in
association with basinal brines.
Rocky Mountain foreland -
stretching from Mexico through Canada and
central Alaska, resulted from eastward
thrusting of a westward-thickening wedge
of mostly shallow-water, platform-deposited
sedimentary rocks of Precambrian through
Jurassic age. This occurred during Early
Cretaceous through Eocene time. Major
thrusts are oldest in the west and become
progressively younger to the east.. Giants
are largely concentrated in complex basins
of the Utah-Wyoming area and in western
Canada's asymmetrical foreland basin. The
setting for these 18 giants is classified as a
continental collision margin.

675 Elmworth, Canada, 680 Pembina,


Canada 681 Blanco, New Mexico
684 Whitney Canyon, Wyoming
685 Basin, New Mexico 686 Kaybob
South, Canada 687 Swan Hilis, Canada
689 Salt Creek, Wyoming 691 Anschutz
Ranch East, Utah 692 Claresholm,
Alberta, Canada 693 Rangely, Colorado
694 Redwater, Alberta, Canada 700 Judy
Creek, Alberta, Canada 702 Elk Basin,
Wyoming 703 Bonnie Glen, Alberta,
Canada 713 Swan Hills South, Alberta,
Canada 715 Leduc Woodbend, Alberta,
Canada
26 giant fields in these basins, located in
Permian and Anadarko basins- Texas and Oklahoma.
continental collisional margin This area experienced intraplate deformation
and regional shortening during the
Pennsylvanian-Permian collision between
North America, northern South America and
Africa.
Deformation spread from east to southwest.
Deformation in the Anadarko region
reactivated an older rift feature at a high
angle to the convergence direction and
produced both thrust and strike-slip faulting.
Deformation in the Permian basin produced a
complex pattern of uplifts and basins that
infilled with evaporites.
Sources and reservoirs were mainly
deepwater Paleozoic rocks deposited in
basinal areas.
674 Hugoton, Kansas 676 Eunice, New Mexico
677 Yates, Texas 678 Wasson, Texas 679 Scurry,
Texas 682 Slaughter, Texas 683 Sho-Vel-Tum,
Oklahoma 688 South Sand Belt, Texas 690
Goldsmith, Texas 695 Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
696 McElroy, Texas 698 Mocane Laverne,
Oklahoma 699 Golden Trend, Oklahoma 701
Spraberry Trend, Texas 704 Cowden South,
Texas 705 Fullerton, Texas 706 Keystone, Texas
707 Cushing, Oklahoma 708 Seminole, Texas 709
Burbank, Oklahoma 710 Cowden North, Texas
711 Vacuum, New Mexico 712 Sand Hills, Texas
714 Blinebry-Drinkard, New Mexico 716 Puckett,
Texas 717 Gomez, Texas
Arabian Peninsula / Persian Gulf
•Large areas of the foreland appear completely undisturbed by Zagros-related convergent
deformation, as manifested in the variety of giant-field shapes.

•Elongate giants and foreland basin was classified as a continental collision margin, while
those giants to the southwest were counted as continental rifts and overlying steer's head
sag basins.

•The basal stratigraphic section underlying the present-day foreland basin was deposited
along a Cambrian-Permian passive-margin setting along the southern Tethys margin.

•Deeply buried salt, possibly deposited in Cambrian rifts, was activated by small-
displacement basement faults during Permian to Jurassic time giving rise to salt ridges and
diapirs, forcing folds in the overlying sedimentary section, which include some of the largest
giant fields, such as Ghawar, Saudi Arabia.

•These folds are at a high angle to later folds and thrusts related to the Zagros convergence.

• Source rocks include Cambrian-to-Permian units

• Main reservoir in the Permian.

•A second hydrocarbon-formation period occurred from the Triassic through Tertiary, with
Middle Jurassic source rocks and Upper Jurassic reservoirs.

•Migration is primarily upward from underlying source rocks in giant fields that are removed
from the Zagros deformation.

•7 Structural traps formed in the area adjacent to the Zagros foldbelt and relate to early
collisional effects in Eocene and younger time.
Arabian Peninsula / Persian Gulf.

151 giants parallel to folds and


thrusts in the Zagros Mountain,
concentrated in a large foreland
basin formed during the Late
Cenozoic collision of the Arabian
Peninsula with Eurasia.

Downward flexure of the Arabian


Peninsula beneath the Zagros
Mountains of Iran / Iraq was
caused by the northeastward
consumption of the Tethys Ocean
at the Zagros suture zone.
Protracted convergent event has
created the Persian Gulf and
Mesopotanian lowlands as a sag
in the foreland basin, as well as
formation of the Zagros
Mountains, with a culmination of
fold-thrust deformation in Miocene
and Pliocene time.
Arc-continental collision margins
Foreland basins in these settings can sometimes be more narrow and
contain thinner stratigraphic fill than in continent-continent collisional
settings, because island arcs lack the size, crustal thickness and
deformation effect of a colliding continent.

For example, many of the circum-Caribbean forelands are narrow for the
above reasons and as a result of the oblique angle of collision between the
Caribbean-arc and the continents of North and South American.

Subduction margins

These margins are the least productive for giant fields due to low porosity
and clay-rich sediments common in arc environments. Subduction margins
in tropical areas such as those in southeast Asia can contain carbonate
traps
Northern South America- arc / continental-collision margin
Experienced Late Jurassic to Early
Cretaceous rifting from southern North
America and the Yucatan block followed
by prolonged Cretaceous subsidence in
a passive-margin setting. The passive-
margin phase was interrupted by the
west-to-east collision of the Caribbean
arc during Paleocene-to-recent time
producing a thick foreland basin running
the length of northern South America,

Contains nearly all of the region's 33


giant fields, including those in Maracaibo
and Maturin basins.

Source rocks include Late Cretaceous


black shales deposited during sea-level
highstands.

Reservoirs include fractured carbonates


and sandstones,

Ttraps are mainly faults and folds


produced during collision.
Northern South America
535 Cano Limon, Colombia, Oil (Llanos de Casanare) 536 La Cira, Colombia,
Oil/gas (Middle Magdalena) 537 Cusiana, Colombia, Oil/gas/cond (west of
Llanos) 538 Mene Grande, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 539 - 46 Oficina,
Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maturin) 547 - 50 Santa Barbara, Venezuela, Oil/gas
(Maturin) 551 Mara, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 552 Boscan, Venezuela, Oil
(Maracaibo) 553 Guavinita, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maturin) 554 Dacion, Venezuela,
Oil/gas (Maturin) 555 Jobo, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maturin) 556 Urdaneta Oeste,
Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 557 La Paz, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 558
Cerro Negro, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maturin) 559 Furrial-Musipan, Venezuela,
Oil/gas (Maturin) 560 Santa Rosa, Venezuela, Oil/gas/cond (Maturin) 561 Yucal-
Placer, Venezuela, Gas (Maturin) 562 Quiriquire, Venezuela, Oil/gas/cond
(Maturin) 563 Centro, Venezuela, Oil (Maracaibo) 564 Lama, Venezuela, Oil/gas
(Maracaibo) 565 Lamar, Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 566 Lago, Venezuela,
Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 567 Patao, Venezuela, Gas (near Paria) 568 Lagunillas
(Bolivar Coasta), Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 569 Tia Juana (Bolivar
Coastal), Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 570 Bachaquero (Bolivar Coastal),
Venezuela, Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 571 Cabimas (Bolivar Coastal), Venezuela,
Oil/gas (Maracaibo) 572 - 4 Soldado Main, Trinidad and Tobago, Oil/gas (Paria)
575 Sacha, Ecuador, Oil/gas (Putumayo) 576 Shushufindi-Aguarico, Ecuador,
Oil/gas (Putumayo) 577 - 86 La Brea-Parinas, Peru, Oil/gas (Talara) 604
Cupiagua, Colombia, Oil/gas (west of Llanos) 605 - 06 Volcanera 1, Colombia,
Gas/cond (west of Llanos)
Sunda

The 26 giant fields in Sunda occur


in three main areas
These are: 1) central and
northern Sumatra,
2) Brunei on the western margin of
Borneo,
3) the Pattani trough, offshore
Thailand.

In Sumatra, inverted Late Neogene


rift structures on continental
collision are present in a backarc
setting and were classified as a
continental collision zone.
The Borneo area was classified as
an arc-continent collision zone,
and the Pattani trough as a pull-
apart basin on a strike-slip fault.
Strike-slip margins
Strike-slip margins form during the later stages of continental or arc collision as in
Anatolia today, or during a ridge-subduction event along a subduction boundary, as
in California.

Despite their generally small area extent relative to foreland and rift
basins, strike-slip basins can contain extremely thick sedimentary
sequences, including excellent source rocks formed during early basinal
history. The inherent complexity of strike-slip boundaries with lateral
offsets and structural overprinting probably makes it too difficult to
achieve the ideal combination of source-reservoir and trap needed to
make giant fields.
Forearc structure is less
Southern California prominent in the now strike-
slip disrupted areas of coastal
and Southern California.
Sources are Tertiary in age.
Traps are mainly folds and
faults related to Late Tertiary
strike-slip faulting and
shortening at the restraining
bend of the fault in the
Transverse Ranges. Southern
California basins include
complexly faulted, elongate
basins like the Los Angeles;
as well as more traditional
pull-apart and fault-wedge,
strike-slip basins. For these
reasons, the tectonic setting
of California's 17 giants is
classified as strike-slip.

655 Wilmington, 656 Midway


Sunset, 657 Kern River, 658 Elk
Hills, 659 Ventura Avenue, 660
Huntington Beach, 661 Long
Beach, 662 Kettleman Hills, 663
Coalinga, 664 Buena Vista, 665
Santa Fe Springs, 666 Belridge
South, 668 Coalinga Nose, 669
Rio Vista, 670 San Ardo, 671
Brea, 673 Point Arguillo,
West Africa- a continental passive
margin fronting a major ocean basin

20 giants occur along the rifted


margin formed by the opening of
the South Atlantic Ocean.

Rift history comprised a


Neocomian-to-Aptian period of
continental rifting, with lacustrine
or brackish sediments infilling half-
grabens. This was followed by an
Albian-to-recent passive-margin
phase, which was dominated by
landward-derived, prograded
clastic-carbonate platforms, locally
deformed by underlying salt
deposits.

The two stages are separated by


formation of a large, Aptian salt
deposit along most of the West
African margin which forms an
important seal for hydrocarbons
derived from the pre-rift section, as
well as having created structural
traps in the overlying passive-
margin section.
Black Sea. 10 giant fields.
A composite basin formed by rifting in
the Aptian (western basin) and
Paleocene-Eocene (eastern basin)
along the northern edge of Tethys.

Source rocks range in age from


Paleozoic through Cenozoic, with
dominantly Eocene reservoirs.

Structures formed during the closure


of Tethys and include the inverted
Dneiper-Donetsk rift to the north of the
Black Sea.

370 Starogroznyy, Russia, Oil/gas


(Caucasus) 387 Ozeksuat, Russia, Oil
(Caucasus) 392 Prilukskoye (Dnepr),
Ukraine, Oil(Dneiper-Donetz) 423
Malgobek-Voznesensko-Ali-Y, Russia,
Oil/gas (Caucasus) 453 Stavropol'-
Pelagiada Sever, Russia, Gas
(Caucasus) 481 Shebelinka, Ukraine,
Gas/cnd (Dneiper-Donetz) 485
Yefremovskoye, Ukraine, Gas/cnd
(Dneiper-Donetz) 499 Astrakhan',
Russia, Gas/cnd (Caspian North) 527
Krestishchenskoye Zapadnoy,
Ukraine, Gas/cnd (Dneiper-Donetz)
Ural Mountains. This region (Fig. 7.) formed
the rifted eastern margin of Baltica during
Ordovician-to-Permian time, with grabens
forming major Paleozoic depocenters in the
basin. A foreland basin was superimposed on
this margin during collision of the Ural arc
during the Late Permian to Early Jurassic.
Structural trap formation occurred during this
orogeny and created the area's 23 giants,
which resulted in folds forming as far as 300
mi west of the Uralian deformation front.
Source rocks are traceable Devonian shales
deposited during the early graben phase prior
to collision. 9
West Siberia Oil and Gas Bearing Basin: Giant and Unique Petroleum Systems

The West Siberian Province, subdivided into 10 oil and gas regions, is the largest oil- and
gas-bearing province recognized on Russian territory.

Four areas in the northern part of the province (Nadym – Pur, Pur – Taz, Yamal and
Gydan) are predominantly gas bearing.

Other, such as Pre- Ural and Frolov in the west of the province, Sredny Priob and Kamys
in the central part, and Vasyugan and Paidugin in the east, are oil-and gas-bearing and
contain the bulk of oil reserves.

Giant oil field as Samotlor, Mamontovo, Fedorovo, Priob, Krasnoleninsk, Talin. Giant gas
field as Urengoy, Yamburg, Medvezhie, Bovanenkovo, Kharasavey,Yubileynoe,
Zapoliarnoe, which contain the main oil and gas reserves of West Siberia.

The confinement of the gas accumulations to coal bearing sediments

The principal source of the gas in the cenomanian sediments was organic matter of
humic type, the carbonized remains of which saturate the entire rock sequence of the
Pokur supergroup.

Lower cretaceous and upper jurassic are source rock for oil systems of the central and
southern provinces.
West Siberian basin.
66 giants formed in a northward-
plunging Jurassic-Quaternary sag
basin overlying a Permo-Triassic rift
system.

Such rifts are aborted to form


isolated intracontinental rifts that are
surrounded by continental areas.

Reservoirs lie in Cretaceous sag fill.

Source rocks include both


Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic
shales.
Siberia.
Seven giant fields have been
discovered in Precambrian-
Cambrian sedimentary rocks in this
underexplored region of the Siberian
platform,

Reservoirs and sources comprise


late Precambian-Cambrian clastic
rocks and carbonate rocks, with
seals provided by Cambrian
evaporites.

A rift setting for these fields was


inferred.
Northwest Australia
passive margin fronting a major ocean basin

passive margin
fronting a major
ocean basin
Rifted during the
Middle Jurassic.
Five giant fields are
mainly found in the
overlying Upper
Jurassic-to-recent
passive margin
section, which
drapes earlier rift
structures.
Three giant fields in the
Bass Strait, Australia / Tasmania Bass Strait area are
a continental passive margin fronting a major ocean basin
underlain by the
Gippsland rift basin,
which is the most prolific
oil and gas province in
Australia.
Geologic development of
Gippsland basin is
marked by a protracted
and multistage Early to
Late Cretaceous rift
history, including
separation of Australia
and Antarctica and the
opening of oceans east
and west of Australia.
Sources and reservoirs
occur in the late to post-
rift sequence. 6 Despite
location of the giants
above a failed east-west
rift that extends westward
from the Tasman Sea, this
setting was classified as
10 giant fields in eastern China
China occur mainly in Bohai basin , one
of a family of early Cenozoic
extensional basins that lie along
the eastern margin of Asia from
Russia to Vietnam.

Paleocene to early Eocene rifting


was diffuse, trans-tensional, and
related to rollback of the
subducted Pacific plate beneath
the Asian continent, while Middle
Eocene rifting appears to have
been more organized in a large,
right-stepping basin that formed
as a very large pull-apart basin on
right-lateral strike-slip faults.
Narrower trans-tension zones are
present north and south of the
basin.

Reservoirs include carbonate


karst units that are sourced by
Paleogene shales.

264 - 6 Shuguang (Liaohe Complex), China, Oil (Bohai) 267 - 79 Shengtuo (Shengli Complex), China,
Oil/gas (Bohai) 280 Huanxiling (Liaohe Complex), China, Oil (Bohai) 282 Saertu (Daqing Complex),
China, Oil (Songliao) 284 Gudao (Shengli Complex), China, Oil/gas (Bohai) 285 - 88 Renqiu, China,
Oil/gas (Bohai) 289 - 99 Gudong (Shengli Complex), China, Oil/gas (Bohai) 301 - 02 Shenyang (Liaohe
Complex), China, Oil/gas (Bohai) 304 - 09 Dagang Complex, China, Oil/gas (Bohai) 316 Jingbian-
Hengshan, China, Gas (Ordos)
MAIN FACTORS CONTROLLING SOURCE ROCK D

Geologic Age
Paleolatitudes
Structural Forms
Biologic Evolution
Maturation of Source Rocks
Explanation for lithofacies and structural forms maps,
Silurian petroleum source rock map
Silurian lithofacies and structural forms map.
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Reservoirs Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Maturation
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Silurian Source Rocks


Arabian Platform Gahkum and II Khuff Fm (Permian); Late Permain- Ala et al., 1980; al-
Iranian Tabuk fms; carbonate and clastic Triassic Laboun, 1986
graptolitic rocks
shals

Erg Oriental, Platform Silurian II Cambrian-Triassic Cretaceous Tissot, 1984a;


Erg Occidental graptolitic sandstones Balducchi and
shales Pommier, 1970;
Magloire, 1970

Permian, Platform Silurian II Silurian carbonate Pennsylvanian Jones and Smith,


Anadarko Marine rocks -Early Permian 1965
shales
Michigan Circular Niagara Fm, II Silurian carbonate Late Gardner and Bray,
sag off-reef rocks Cretaceous-early 1984
carbonate Tertiary(?)
Rocks
Upper Devonian-Tournaisian petroleum source rock map
Upper Devonian-Tournaisian lithofacies and structural forms map
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Reservoirs Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Maturation
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Upper Devonian-Tournaisian Source Rocks


Volga-Ural, Plaform Domanik Fm II Middle Devonian Late Zhuze et al., 1975;
Timan-Pechora, and facies sandstones, Lower Permian- Ashirov et al.,
North Caspian equivalents; Carboniferous Triassic 1981; Ulmishek,
Marine sandstones, Upper 1982, 1988
shales and Devonian-Middle
carbonate Carboniferous
rocks carbonate rocks

Alberta Platform Duvernay, II Upper Devonian Middle Parsons, 1973;


Ireton, and carbonate rocks Cretaceous- Porter et al., 1982
Exshaw fms; late Tertiary
marine shales

Anadarko, Platform Woodford II Silurian-Devonian Pennsylv Landes, 1970; Hill,


Permian Shale; marine carbonates anian- 1971; Campbell et
shales Early al., 1988; Jones
Permian and Smith, 1965

Appalachian Platform Chattanooga II Devonian sandstones Pennsylani Landes, 1970;


Shale; marine an-Early Ray, 1971
shales Permian
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Principal
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Main Reservoirs Maturation Reference
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Upper Devonian-Tournaisian Source Rocks


Volga-Ural, Timan- Plaform Domanik Fm and facies II Middle Devonian sandstones, Lower Late Permian- Zhuze et al., 1975;
Pechora, North equivalents; marine Carboniferous sandstones, Upper Triassic Ashirov
Caspian shales and carbonate Devonian-Middle Carboniferous et al., 1981;
rocks carbonate rocks Ulmishek, 1982,
1988

Alberta Platform Duvernay, Ireton, and II Upper Devonian carbonate rocks Middle Cretaceous Parsons, 1973;
Exshaw fms; marine - late Tertiary Porter et al., 1982
shales

Anadarko, Permian Platform Woodford Shale; II Silurian-Devonian carbonates Pennsylvanian- Landes, 1970;
marine shales Early Permian Hill, 1971;
Campbell et al.,
1988; Jones and
Smith, 1965

Appalachian Platform Chattanooga Shale; II Devonian sandstones Pennsylanian-Early Landes, 1970;


marine shales Permian Ray, 1971

Williston, Michigan, Circular sag New Albany Shale, II Devonian-Pennsylvanian Late Cretaceous- North, 1985;
Illinois Antrim Shale, Bakken sandstones and carbonates early Tertiary(?) Barrows and
Fm Cluff, 1984;
Meissner, 1984

Pripyat, Dnieper- Rift Upper Devonian- II Upper Devonian carbonate rocks Pennsylvnian-Early Chaykovskaya
Donets Tournaisian marine (Pripyat), Carboniferous-Lower Permian and Volik, 1986;
shales and carbonate Permian clastic rocks (Dnieper- Il'inskaya and
rocks Donets) Kulayeva, 1979

Illizi Platform Upper and Middle II Devonian-Carboniferous sandstones Middle Cretaceous Tissot, 1984a;
Devonian marine shales Aliyev et al., 1979
Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian petroleum source rock map
Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian lithofacies and structural forms
Basin or Structural Source Rock Dominan Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Kerogen Reservoir Maturation
Type*** Stage
Basins Having Pennsylvanian-Lower Permian Source Rocks
Anadarko, Permian Foredeep Pennsylvanian- II Pennsylvanian- Late Adler, 1971; Hartman and
(SE), rift Guadalupian basinal Permian Permian- Woodard, 1971; Jones
(NW) facies, marine shales sandstones Middle and Smith 1965; Campbell et
and carbonate Cretaceo al., 1988
rocks

Southern North Sea Foredeep Westphalian coal III Rotliegende Triassic- Ziegler, 1980
measure (Lower Permian) Middle
sandstones Jurassic

North Caspian Circular Carboniferolus-Lower II Carboniferous- Late Fomkin, 1985; Krylov and
sag Permian basinal facies, Lower Permian Permian Nekhrikova, 1987
marine shales and carbonate rocks Triassic
carbonate rocks

Bighorn, Powder Linear Phosphatic shale II Pennsylvanian Later Claypool et al., 1978;
River, Wind River, sag members opf the Permian Cretaceou Stauffer, 1971; Cannon,
Uinta, Piceance Phosphoria Fm; marine sandstones Early 1971; Peterson and Smith,
shales Tertiary 1986

Vilyuy Circular Permian continental III, coal Permian to Jurassic Cherskiy, 1986
sag clastic rocks Cretaceous Early
sandstones Cretaceou

Sichuan Platform Yangxin Fm; II Permian-Lower Middle Huang, 1984; Wang et al.,
argillaceous limestones Triassic Cretaceous 1983; Li Xuehui and Li
carbonate Tiesheng, 1984
rocks

Cooper Rift Gidgealpa Group III, coal Permian Middle Kantsler et al., 1984
(Permian); coal measure sandstones Cretaceous
Upper Jurassic petroleum source rock map
Upper Jurassic lithofacies and structural forms map.
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Reservoir MaturatIon
Type*** Stage
Basins Having Upper Jurassic Source Rocks
Arabian- Linear sag Hanifa, Diyal/Dukhan, and Sargelu II Arab Zone (Upper Late Ayres et al., 1982; Klemme,
Iranian fms; marine shales, marls, and Jurassic) and Cretaceous 1984; Alsharhan, 1987;
limestones Shuaiba (middle and late Alsharhan and Kendall,
Cretaceous) Tertiary 1986; Murris, 1980; Koop and
carbonate rocks Stoneley, 1982

West Circular sag Bazhenov Fm; marine siliceous II Neocomian deltaic Late Stasova, 1977; Ivantsova,
Siberian shales and carbonate rocks Sandstones Cretaceous- 1969; Kulikov, 1979;
early Kontorovich et al., 1975
Tertiary

North Sea, Linear sag Kimmeridgian Clay Fm and II Middle Jurassic Early Tertiary Ziegler, 1980; Cooper and
Greenland equivalents; marine siliceous shale sandstones, Upper Barnard, 1984; Goff, 1984;
Sea Cretaceous-lower Baird, 1986
Tertiary chalk and
Sandstones

North Linear sag Khodzhaipak Fm; Upper Jurassic II Upper Jurassic Late Tertiary Akramkhodzhayev and
Caucasus, rocks below salt layer; marine limestones, Egamberdyev, 1985;
Amu-arya shales and limestones Cretaceous Maksimov el al., 1986;
sandstones and Krylov, 1979; Semashev,
Limestones 1983; Chakhmakhchev et
al., 1987; Seregin et al.,
1982
Middle Cretaceous petroleum source rock map
Middle Cretaceous lithofacies and structural forms map.
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Reservoirs MaturatIon
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Middle Cretaceous Source Rocks


Arabian-Iranian Linear Kazhdumi Fm; II Asmari limestone Middle-late Hull and Warman, 1970; James
Sag marine shales (Miocene)?; Burgan Tertiary and Wynd, 1965; Dunnington,
and Limestones delta 1958, 1967; Ala et al., 1980;
(Early-middle Murris, 1980; Koop and Stonely,
Cretaceous) 1982

Maracaibo Linear La Luna Fm; II Eocene-Miocene Late Tertiary Zambrano et al., 1972; Blaser and
sag Marine shales and Sandstones White, 1984
Limestones

East Venezuela, Linear Querecual and La II Eocene-Miocene Late Tertiary Hedberg, 1950; Krause, 1988;
Middle Magdalena, Sag Luna fms; Sandstones McCollough and Padfield, 1985;
Llanos Oriente marine shales and Zumberge, 1984
Limestones

Alberta, Overthrust, Foredeep Mannville Fm; III Cretaceous Late Tertiary Parsons, 1973; Moshier and
GreenRiver marine shales and Sandstones Waples, 1985
Equivalents

Gulf Coast Circular Marine shales II Cretaceous Late Tertiary Rainwater, 1971; Holcomb, 1971
Sag carbonates and
Sandstones
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Reservoirs MaturatIon
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Middle Cretaceous Source Rocks


Amu-Darya, North Linear Aptian-Albian marine II Cretaceous Late Tertiary Arkhipov et al., 1979; Mirzoyev
Caucas,Crimea Sag Shales sandstones and Dzhaparidze, 1979,
Shestopal, 1979; Maksimov et al.,
1987

South Atlantic Rift/linear Upper Neocomian- I, II Cretaceous Late Ponte et al., 1980; Clifford, 1986;
Basins Sag Aptian lacustrine and sandstones and Cretaceous- Lehner and De Ruiter, 1977
marine shales; carbonates; early Tertiary
Turonian marine Tertiary
shales sandstones

West Siberia Circular Pokur Fm (Albian- III, coal Albian- Immature Newterov et al., 1978; Rice and
(northern) Sag Cenomanian); Cenomanian Claypool, 1981; Kortsenshteyn,
continental clastic sandstones 1970; Grace and Hart, 1986
Rocks

North Slope Foredeep HRZ shale, Hue III Cretaceous Late Carman and Hardwick, 1983;
Shale; marine shales Sandstones Cretaceous- Molenaar et al., 1987; Bird and
early Tertiary Magoon, 1987

Songliao Linear Qingshankou and I Cretaceous Late Yang et al., 1985; Zhou, 1985;
sag Nenjiang fms; deep Deltaic Cretaceous- Yang, 1985
lacustrine shales sandstones early Tertiary
Oligocene-Miocene petroleum source rock map
Oligocene-Miocene lithofacies and structural forms map
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Reservoirs Maturation
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Oligocene-Miocene Source Rocks


East For Oficina Fm and equivalents; III (west), Miocene-Pliocene Late Tertiary Michelson, 1976; Blaser and
Venezuela- Deep deltaic and prodeltaic II (east) sandstones White, 1984
Trinidad, shales
Maracaibo

Niger delta Delta Akata and Agbada fms; III, coal Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Ejedawe et al., 1984;
deltaic shales deltaic coal Nwachukwu and Chukwura,
sandstones 1986; Bustin, 1988

Mackenzie Delta Tertiary deltaic shales III Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Snowdon, 1980; Snowdon and
Delta deltaic Powell, 1982
sandstones

Mahakam Delta Miocene deltaic shales III, coal Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Combaz and de Matherel, 1978
Delta deltaic
sandstones

Gulf Coast Half sag Tertiary marine and deltaic III Tertiary Late Tertiary Tipsword et al., 1971; Dow,
and and shales Sandstones and 1978; Rice and Claypool, 1981
Mississippi delta immature
delta

Indonesian Rift Pematang Brown Shale I ; III, coal Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Kingston, 1979; Robinson, 1987;
Basins and Banuwati Shale, Sandstones Gordon, 1985
lacustrine shales; Talang-
Akar Fm, fluviodeltaic
shales
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province* Form** Rock Kerogen Reservoirs Maturation
Type*** Stage

Basins Having Oligocene-Miocene Source Rocks


North Delta Miocene deltaic shales III Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary ASCOPE, 1981
Kalimantan sandstones
(Baram delta)

North China, Rift Lacustrine shales I Tertiary sandstones, Late Tertiary Lao and Gao, 1984; Li Desheng et
Biyang, Nanxiang, Sinian carbonate al., 1984; Zha, 1984; Huang
Jianghan Rocks et al., 1984; Tong, 1980; Li
Chunju et al., 1984

South Caspian Circular Maykop Series and II Pliocene sandstones Late Tertiary Ali-Zade et al., 1975;
sag middle Miocene Korchagina and Zeynalova,
marine shales 1986

North Foredeep Maykop Series and II Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Burlakov et al., 1987;
Caucasus middle Miocene sandstones Shcherbakov et al., 1983;
marine shales Chepak et al., 1983

Suez Rift Rudies Fm; marine II Cretaceous- Late Tertiary Kholief and Barakat, 1986
shales Miocene
sandstones and
carbonate rocks

Carpathian Foredeep Menelitic Shale, marine II Upper Tertiary Late Tertiary Paraschiv and Olteanu, 1970;
(Ploiesti and Shales Sandstones Gavrish, 1985
western
Ukraine)
Basin or Structural Source Dominant Main Principal Reference
Province Form Rock Kerogen Reservoirs Maturation
Type Stage

Basins having Oligocene-Miocene source rocks


East Venezuela-Foredeep Oficina fm & equiv, III (west), II Miocene-Pliocene ss Late Tert Michelson, 1976; Blaser & White,
Trinidad, deltaic & prodeltaic sh (east) 1984
Maracaibo

Niger delta Delta Akata & Agbada fm, III, coal U Tert deltaic coal ss Late Tert Aejedawe et al., 1984; Nwachukwu
deltaic sh & Chukwura, 1986; Bustin, 1988

Mackenzie delta Delta Tert deltaic sh III U Tert deltaic ss Late Tert Snowdon, 1980; Snowdon &
Powell, 1982

Mahakam delta Delta Miocene deltaic sh III, coal U Tert Deltaic ss Late Tert Combaz & de Matherel, 1978

Californian rift Monterey fm, II U Tert ss & sh Late Tert Graham & Williams, 1985; Crain et
basins diatomaceous sh al., 1985

Gulf Coast & Half sag & delta Tert marine & deltaic sh III Tert ss Late Tert & Tipsword et al., 1971; Dow, 1978;
Mississippi delta immature Rice & Claypool, 1981

Indonesian Rift Pematang Brown sh & III, coal U Tert ss Late Tert Kingston, 1979; Robinson, 1987;
basins Banuwati sh, lacustrine Gordon, 1985
sh; alang-Akar fm,
fluviodeltaic sh
CONCLUSIONS

592 giant oil fields classified into six tectonic-setting categories

1 Continental rifts and overlying steer's head sag basins form the
basin type that contains 30% of the world's giant oil fields.

2.Continental passive margins fronting major ocean basins


account for 31% of giants.

3. Terminal collision belts between two continents form a major


basin type that contains 24% of the world's oil giants.

4. Arc-continent collision margins, strike-slip margins and


subduction margins collectively form the setting for 15% of the
world's giant fields.
Stratigraphic distribution of effective source rocks given as a percentage
of the world's original petroleum reserves generated by these rocks
Relative areal distribution of source rocks by paleolatitudinal zones. Source
rock area of each principal stratigraphic interval is measured from maps and
is normalized to 100%.
Relative areal extent vs. effectiveness of source rocks by paleolatitudinal zones. Both
total area of source rocks of the six principal stratigraphic intervals and total petroleum
reserves generated by these source rocks are normalized to 100%.
Changes in typical conditions of source rock deposition through the Phanerozoic,
and major events of biologic evolution that effected these changes
.

Effectiveness of source rocks deposited in various structural forms during each of the six
principal time intervals, in percent of the total original petroleum reserves generated by
source rocks of the six intervals
Cumulative chart of effective source rock deposition, source rock maturation,
and petroleum trapped in the stratigraphic succession given as a percentage
of world’s original petroleum reserves.
Maturation time of effective source rocks. Original petroleum reserves
generated from source rocks of each of the six principal stratigraphic
intervals are normalized to 100%.
Vertical migration of petroleum given as a percentage of the world’s original
petroleum reserves
Oil vs. gas reserves generated by source rocks with kerogen types I and II,
and kerogen type III and coal. The reserve amounts are expressed in percent
of original petroleum reserves generated by source rocks of each
stratigraphic interval.
Relative areal extent of petroleum source rocks given as a percentage of the
total source rock area of the six principal stratigraphic intervals.
Generated vs. trapped petroleum reserves in the stratigraphic succession.
The total world’s original reserves of petroleum are normalized to 100
Stratigraphic distribution of effective source rocks in basins with original
reserves of less than 15 x 10{9} BOE given as a percentage of the world’s
original petroleum reserves generated by these rocks.
Tectonics through time

In the mid 1960s J Tuzo Wilson formalised some key concepts in plate
tectonics. Especially he showed that continents show a cyclic history of
rifting - drifting and collision, followed by rifting again. He saw that the
modern north Atlantic had been preceded by rifting which itself formed
roughly along the site of an old mountain range ("mobile belt") that was it
turn formed by the collision between two ancient continents (that we now
call Laurentia and Avalonia). Use this diagram to find examples of the
various parts of the Wilson Cycle in the modern world.