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Metro Wireless Engineering (India) Pvt. Ltd. B-41, PHASE –V, UDHYOG VIHAR GURGAON, INDIA TEL NO. 0124-
Metro Wireless Engineering (India) Pvt. Ltd.
B-41, PHASE –V, UDHYOG VIHAR
GURGAON, INDIA
TEL NO. 0124- 4309857
FAX NO. 0124- 4309957
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Transmission Theory www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Transmission Theory
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What is Transmission ??  • Transmission is an activity that carries information between Network Nodes
What is Transmission ??
Transmission is an activity that carries information between Network Nodes
Information is sent over a carrier between Network Nodes.
Carrier is sent over a Transmission Media
Commonly used Transmission Media :
Copper Cables
Microwave Radio
Optical Fiber
Infra Red Radio
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Microwave Radio Transmission  Based on Radiated electromagnetic energy www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Microwave Radio Transmission
Based on Radiated electromagnetic energy
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What does Microwave mean??  Microwave refers to a section of the RF Spectrum lying between
What does Microwave mean??
Microwave refers to a section of the RF Spectrum lying
between 3 to 30 GHz, it is also referred to as super high
frequency
( SHF )
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Microwave Radio - Modules  Microwave Radio Terminal has 3 Basic Modules – Digital Modem :
Microwave Radio - Modules
Microwave Radio Terminal has 3 Basic Modules
– Digital Modem : To interface with customer equipment and to
convert customer traffic to a modulated signal
– RF Unit : To Up and Down Convert signal in RF Range
– Passive Parabolic Antenna : For Transmitting and Receiving
RF Signal
Two Microwave Terminals Forms a Hop
Microwave Communication requires LOS
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Microwave Radio – Capacity Configurations  Commonly Used Capacity Configurations 4 x 2 Mbps or 4
Microwave Radio – Capacity
Configurations
Commonly Used Capacity Configurations
4
x 2 Mbps
or
4 x E1
8
x 2 Mbps
or
8 x E1
16 x 2 Mbps
or
16 x E1
155 Mbps
or
STM1
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Microwave Radio Advantages  Advantages over Optical Fiber / Copper Cable System Rapid Deployment Flexibility Lower
Microwave Radio Advantages
Advantages over Optical Fiber / Copper Cable System
Rapid Deployment
Flexibility
Lower Startup and Operational Cost
No ROW Issues
Low MTTR
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Microwave Network Planning Aspects 1. Network Architecture 2. Route Configuration 3. Choice of Frequency Band www.metrotelworks.com
Microwave Network Planning
Aspects
1.
Network Architecture
2.
Route Configuration
3.
Choice of Frequency Band
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Network Architecture  Common Network Architectures – Spur or Chain – Star – Ring – Mesh
Network Architecture
Common Network Architectures
– Spur or Chain
– Star
– Ring
– Mesh
– Combination of Above
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Spur Architecture  For N Stations N-1 Links are required  Nth station depends on N-1
Spur Architecture
For N Stations N-1 Links are required
Nth station depends on N-1 Links
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Star Architecture  For N Stations N-1 Links are required  Each Station depends on Only
Star Architecture
For N Stations N-1 Links are required
Each Station depends on Only 1 Link
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Ring Architecture  For N Stations N Links are required  Route Diversity is available for
Ring Architecture
For N Stations N Links are required
Route Diversity is available for all stations
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Mesh Architecture  Each Station is Connected to Every Other  Full Proof Route Protection 
Mesh Architecture
Each Station is Connected to Every Other
Full Proof Route Protection
For N sites (Nx2)-1
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Typical Network Architecture  Typical Network Consist of Rings and Spurs www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Typical Network Architecture
Typical Network Consist of Rings and Spurs
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Network Routes  Inter- City routes - Backbone – Backbone routes are planned at Lower Frequency
Network Routes
Inter- City routes - Backbone
– Backbone routes are planned at Lower Frequency Bands
– 2, 6 and 7 GHz Frequency Bands are used
– Backbone routes are normally high capacity routes
– Nominal Hop Distances 15 – 40 Km
Intra – City routes - Access
– Access routes are planned at Higher Frequency Bands
– 15,18 and 23 GHz Frequency Bands are used
– Nominal Hop Distance 1 – 10 Km
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Frequency Bands  Frequency Band 7, 15, 18 and 23 GHz are allowed to Private Operators
Frequency Bands
Frequency Band 7, 15, 18 and 23 GHz are allowed to Private
Operators for deployment in Mw Transmission Network
– 15,18 and 23 GHz bands are used for Access Network
– 7 GHz band is used for Backbone Network
– Different Channeling Plans are available in these bands to
accommodate different bandwidth requirements
– Bandwidth requirement is decided by Radio Capacity offered
by the Manufacturer
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Network Architecture AUC Switching System VLR HLR EIR MSC OMC Base Station System BSC BTS MS
Network Architecture
AUC
Switching System
VLR
HLR
EIR
MSC
OMC
Base Station System
BSC
BTS
MS
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64 Kbps 16 Kbps 16 Kbps 13 Kbps BTS BSC Transcoder MSC Um Interface A Interface
64 Kbps
16 Kbps
16 Kbps
13 Kbps
BTS
BSC
Transcoder
MSC
Um Interface
A Interface
A-Bis
A-Ter
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Network www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Network
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Microwave Propagation www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Microwave Propagation
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Free Space Propagation  Microwave Propagation in Free Space is Governed by  Laws of Optics
Free Space Propagation
Microwave Propagation in Free Space is
Governed by
Laws of Optics
Like any Optical Wave , Microwave also
undergoes
– Refraction
– Reflection
– Diffraction
– Absorption
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Fresnel Zone  The Fresnel zone is the area of space between the two antennas in
Fresnel Zone
The Fresnel zone is the area of space between
the two antennas in which the radio signal
travels.
For Clear Line of Sight Fresnel Zone Should be
clear of obstacles
It is depends on Distance and Frequency
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Fresnal Zone www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Fresnal Zone
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Fresnal Zone www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Fresnal Zone
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Fresnal Zone www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Fresnal Zone
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Free space versus non free space Non-free space  Line of sight required  Objects protrude
Free space versus non free space
Non-free space
Line of sight required
Objects protrude in the fresnel zone,
but do not block the path
Free Space
Line of sight
No objects in the fresnel zone
Antenna height is significant
Distance relative short (due to effects of
curvature of the earth)
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Earth bulge  Using the law of intersecting cords d1d2=2Rh h=d1d2/2R if h is required in
Earth bulge
Using the law of intersecting cords
d1d2=2Rh
h=d1d2/2R
if h is required in meters and R,
d are in kilometers-
h= 1000d1d2/2R
Where h= Earth bulge
R= earth radius ( 6373 Km )
d1 d2= distances from hop ends
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Earth bulge  Radio Signals will Continue slightly beyond the horizon, this is because the refractive
Earth bulge
Radio Signals will Continue slightly beyond the horizon, this is because the
refractive index of the atmospheretends to reduce with height causing the
radio wave to bend in the direction of curvature of the earth
Thus the effect of the earth buldge does not have as big an effect as first
calculated
The effective earth bulge can be
calculated by assuming the earth
radius is larger than its physical value
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Earth Bulge  The actual earth’s radius is multiplied by a factor given the value K
Earth Bulge
The actual earth’s radius is multiplied by a factor
given the value K
K varies with atmospheric condition
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Antenna Height Height = 1000d1d2 + 17.3d1d2/FD+ Maximum obstacle height first Fresnel Zone Earth Bulge www.metrotelworks.com
Antenna Height
Height = 1000d1d2 + 17.3d1d2/FD+ Maximum obstacle height
first Fresnel Zone
Earth Bulge
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Field Survey  Equipment Required – GPS Receiver – Map Study Data – Camera – Magnetic
Field Survey
Equipment Required
– GPS Receiver
– Map Study Data
– Camera
– Magnetic Compass
– Altimeter
– Binocular / Telescope
– Flashing Mirror
– Flags
– Inclinometer
– Balloon Set
– Measuring Tapes
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Field Survey  Field Survey – Map Data Validation – Gathering Field inputs (Terrain Type, Average
Field Survey
Field Survey
– Map Data Validation
– Gathering Field inputs (Terrain Type, Average Tree/Obstacle
Height, Critical Obstruction etc.)
– Line of Sight Check, if feasible ,using flags, mirror
– Data related to other stations in the vicinity , their coordinates,
frequency of operation, antenna size, heights, power etc.
– Proximity to Airport / Airstrip with their co-ordinates
Field inputs are used to refine existing path profile data
, reflection point determination, reflection analysis
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Environmental conditions  Line of Sight No objects in path between antenna – – a. Neighboring
Environmental conditions
Line of Sight
No objects in path between antenna
a. Neighboring Buildings
b. Trees or other obstructions
Interference
– c. Power lines
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Traffic Theory www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic Theory
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Traffic theory www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic theory
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensityc www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensityc
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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Traffic intensity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Traffic intensity
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BSC Capacity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
BSC Capacity
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MSC capacity www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
MSC capacity
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Link Budget and Reliability www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Link Budget and Reliability
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Hop Model www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Hop Model
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Link Budget  Software Tools are used – Inputs to the tool • Sight Co-ordinates •
Link Budget
Software Tools are used
– Inputs to the tool
• Sight Co-ordinates
• Path Profile Data
• Terrain Data & Rain Data
• Equipment Data
• Antenna Data
• Frequency and Polarization Data
– Tool Output
• Availability Prediction
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Free Space Loss www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
Free Space Loss
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Antenna Gain  Antenna gain is the ratio of how much an antenna boosts the RF
Antenna Gain
Antenna gain is the ratio of how much an
antenna boosts the RF signal over a specified
low-gain radiator. Antennas achieve gain simply
by focusing RF energy.
If this gain is compared with an isotropic (no
gain) radiator, it is measured in dBi. If the gain is
measured against a standard dipole antenna, it
is measured in dBd. Note that gain applies to
both transmit and receive signals.
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Effective Isotropic Radiated Power  Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) is the actual RF power as
Effective Isotropic Radiated
Power
Effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) is the
actual RF power as measured in the main lobe
(or focal point) of an antenna. It is equal to the
sum of the transmit power into the antenna (in
dBm) added to the dBi gain of the antenna.
Since it is a power level, the result is measured
in dBm.
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System Operating Margin System operating margin (SOM) is the difference (measured in dB) between the nominal
System Operating Margin
System operating margin (SOM) is the difference (measured in dB) between the
nominal signal level received at one end of a radio link and the signal level
required by that radio to assure that a packet of data is decoded without error
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THE END www.metrotelworks.com Strictly Confidential
THE END
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