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COMPRESSION MEMBERS

KEY OBJECTIVES
History
Introduction-Compression members
Elastic buckling of an ideal column
Strength of practical column
Concepts of effective lengths
Torsional and torsional-flexural buckling

HISTORY
LEONARD EULER, the most prolific mathematician introduced the term
buckling and derived the formula for it and popularly known as Eulers
Buckling Formula or EULERS FORMULA.
Later JOSEPH-LOUIS-LAGRANGE, mathematician developed a complete
set of buckling loads and the associated buckling modes.
Columns with eccentric loads and columns with initial curvatures were first
formulated and. studied by THOMAS YOUNG.
ANATOLE HENRI ERNEST LAMARLE, a French engineer, proposed
correctly that the Euler formula should be used below the proportional limit,
while experimentally determined formulas should be used for shorter columns.
F. ENGESSER, a German engineer, proposed the tangent modulus theory, in
which the elastic modulus is replaced by the tangent modulus of elasticity when
proportional stress is exceeded i.e. upto yield stress in which tangent modulus
is replaced by reduced modulus of elasticity or double modulus of elasticity.
The Euler buckling formula is still used from past three centuries, later for
column design and is still valid for long columns with pin-supported ends
Thats the power of Eulers Logical Thinking.

INTRODUCTION
Compression Members
Compression members are a type of axially loaded member in which the
external forces are working to make the object shorter.
Applications are

Columns in Building Columns supports
Compression Members in
Bridges
INTRODUCTION
Compression Members in Trusses-Struts
Compression Members in Towers
Compression members in equipment
Boom principal comp.
member
INTRODUCTION
7
INTRODUCTION
A long column fails
by predominant buckling
A short column fails by
compression yield
Buckled shape
Fig 1: short vs long columns

Buckling behavior - large deformations
developed in a direction normal to that of the
loading that produces it.

The buckling resistance is high when the
member is short or stocky (i.e. the member
has a high bending stiffness and is short)

Conversely, the buckling resistance is low
when the member is long or slender.
Traditional design - based on Euler analysis of ideal columns - an upper
bound to the buckling load.
Practical columns are far from ideal & buckle at much lower loads.
The first significant step in the design procedures for such columns was the
use of Perry Robertsons curves.
Modern codes advocate the use of multiple-column curves for design.
Although these design procedures are more accurate in predicting the
buckling load of practical columns,
Euler's theory helps in understanding the behaviour of slender columns
Only very short columns can be loaded upto yield stress basic mech. of
materials
For long columns buckling occurs prior to developing full material strength
Stability theory is necessary for designing compression members
Square and circular tubes ideal sections radius r is same in the two
axes


Compression members
Euler analysis-ELASTIC BUCKLING OF AN
IDEAL COLUMN OR STRUT WITH PINNED
END
Assumptions.
The material of which the strut is made is homogeneous and
linearly elastic (i.e. it obeys Hookes Law).
The strut is perfectly straight and there are no imperfections.
The loading is applied at the centroid of the cross section at the
ends.

Initially, the strut will remain straight for all
values of P, but at a particular value P = P
cr
, it
buckles.

Euler buckling analysis
Euler buckling analysis
Euler buckling analysis
The lowest value of the critical load is given by P
cr
=
2
EI / L
2

The strut can remain straight for any value of P. Under incremental loading, when P
reaches a value of P
cr
=
2
EI / L
2
the strut can buckle in the shape of a half-sine
wave; the amplitude of this buckling deflection is indeterminate.
At higher values of the loads given by n
2

2
EI / L
2
other sinusoidal buckled shapes
(n half waves) are possible. However, the column will be in unstable equilibrium
for all values of P >
2
EI / L
2
whether it be straight or buckled. This means that the
slightest disturbance will cause the column to deflect away from its original
position.
Elastic I nstability - a condition in which the structure has no tendency to return to
its initial position when slightly disturbed, even when the material is assumed to
have an infinitely large yield stress.
Thus P
cr
=
2
EI / L
2
represents the maximum load that the strut can usefully
support.
Euler buckling
Strength curve for an axially loaded initially
straight pin-ended column
A strut under compression can resist only a max. force given by f
y
.A, when plastic squashing
failure would occur by the plastic yielding of the entire cross section; this means that the
stress at failure of a column can never exceed f
y
, shown by A-A
1

A column would fail by buckling at a stress given by (
2
E /
2
). This is indicated by B-B
1.

The changeover from yielding to buckling failure occurs at the point C, defined by a
slenderness ratio given by
c



DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS
The behavior of practical columns subjected to axial compressive loading:
Very short columns subjected to axial compression fail by yielding. Very long
columns fail by buckling in the Euler mode.
Practical columns generally fail by inelastic buckling and do not conform to the
assumptions made in Euler theory. They do not normally remain linearly elastic
upto failure unless they are very slender
Slenderness ratio (L/r) and material yield stress (f
y
) are dominant factors
affecting the ultimate strengths of axially loaded columns.
The compressive strengths of practical columns are significantly affected by (i)
the initial imperfection (ii) eccentricity of loading
(iii) residual stresses and (iv) lack of defined yield point and strain hardening.

Effect of initial out-of-straightness
The column will fail at a lower load P
f
when the deflection becomes
large enough. (P
f
<

P
cr
)

The corresponding stress is denoted as f
f
Theoretical and actual load-deflection response of a
strut with initial imperfection
For very stocky members, the initial out of straightness has a very negligible effect and the
failure is at plastic squash load.

For a very slender member, the lower bound curve is close to the elastic critical stress (fcr)
curve.

At intermediate values of slenderness the effect of initial out of straightness is very marked
and the lower bound curve is significantly below the fy line and fcr line.
Effect of eccentricity of applied loading
Strength curves for eccentrically loaded columns
Load carrying capacity is reduced (for stocky members) even for low values
of .
Effect of residual stress
As a consequence of the differential heating and cooling in the rolling and forming
processes, there will always be inherent residual stresses.
Only in a very stocky column (i.e. one with a very low slenderness) the residual
stress causes premature yielding
For struts having intermediate slenderness, the premature yielding at the tips
reduces the effective bending stiffness of the column; in this case, the column will
buckle elastically at a load below the elastic critical load and the plastic squash
load.


Distribution of residual stresses
Typical column design curve
Ultimate load tests on practical columns reveal a scatter band of results shown in
Fig. 1.
A lower bound curve of the type shown therein can be employed for design
purposes.
Robertsons Design Curve

MODIFICATION TO THE PERRY-
ROBERTSON APPROACH

- very stocky columns (e.g. stub columns) resisted loads in excess of their squash
load of f
y.
A
- column strength values are lower than f
y.
even in very low slenderness cases.
- by modifying the slenderness, to ( -
0
) a plateau to the design curve at low
slenderness values is introduced.
Buckling
class of
cross
sections
Different
column c/s
shapes
Simple
Compression
Members
Different
column c/s
shapes
Built-up Columns
Depends on
Material of the column
c/s configuration
Length of the column
Support conditions at the ends
Residual stresses
Imperfections


Strength of a column
Imperfections
The material not being isotropic and
homogeneous
Geometric variations of columns
Eccentricity of load


Possible failure modes
Local Buckling
Squashing
Overall flexural buckling
Torsional and flexural- torsional
buckling
Local Buckling
- Failure occurs by buckling of one or more individual plate elements
- Flange or web, with no overall deflection in the direction normal to the
applied load
- Prevented by selecting suitable width to thickness ratios of component
plates
Squashing
When length is small (stocky column) no local buckling
the column will be able to attain its full strength or squash load
Squash load = yield stress x area of c/s

Overall flexural buckling
This mode of failure normally
controls the design of most
comp. members
Failure occurs by excessive
deflection in the plane of the
weaker principal axis
Increase in length results in
column resisting progressively
less loads


Torsional buckling
Torsional buckling occurs
by twisting about the shear
centre in the longitudinal
axis

Torsional & Flexural buckling
A combination of flexural - torsional
buckling is also possible



Open sections
Singly symmetric and for section that have no symmetry flexural-
torsional buckling must be checked
Sections always rotate about shear centre
Shear centre lies on the axis of symmetry
Open sections that are doubly symmetric or point symmetric are not
subjected to flexural torsional buckling because their Shear centre and
centroid coincide

Open sections
Shear Centre
The shear
center (also
known as the
elastic axis or
torsional axis)
is an imaginary
point on a
section, where
a shear force
can be applied
without
inducing any
torsion
Built-up sections
Failure of a component
member may occur, if joints
between members are
sparsely placed
Codes specify rules to
prevent such failures
Compression Members
Short Intermediate Long
Failure stress = yield stress
No buckling occurs
L < 88.85 r
for fy = 250 MPa

No practical applications

Some fibers would have
yielded & some will still be
elastic
Failure by both yielding
and buckling
Behavior is inelastic

Eulers formula predicts
the strength

Buckling stress below
proportional limit

Elastic buckling
Behavior of Compression members
Elastic buckling






Elastic (Euler) Buckling
Inelastic Buckling
Slenderness Ratio
Actual Length
Effective Length
Appropriate Radius of Gyration
Design Compressive Stress and Strength