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EM

213.32
Week 3
Winter 2013
Cases
Each case:
What ethical systems used?
by the protagonist
by other actors
Reading
Maxwell
The Mission of Business
In what way(s) does he respond to Friedman?
If so:
Are those responses convincing?
this article hasnt been very influential
Would it be if it were widely known?
Identifying Ethical Systems
Identifying Ethical Systems
normative
consequentialist
1. egoism
2. utilitarianism
act-utilitarianism
rule-utilitarianism


non-consequentialist
3. Kantian
4. prima facie principles
5. moral rights
should
results
motives
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. egoism
2. utilitarianism
act-utilitarianism
rule-utilitarianism

best for me
best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. Kantian
4. prima facie principles
5. moral rights
reason
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. reason
4. principles
5. rights
Egoism
1. Egoism
misplaced attacks
self-indulgence
hedonism
only pretending
reasonable attacks
not a moral theory
psychological egoism not observed
ignores reality
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. reason
4. principles
5. rights
Utilitarianism
2. Utilitarianism
in organizations
clear & straightforward process
objective criteria
results-oriented
2. Utilitarianism
criticisms
workable?
just?
relentless?
some acts just seem wrong
2. Utilitarianism
2 streams
act utilitarianism
case-by-case
rule utilitarianism
rule-of-thumb
judge codes, not actions
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. reason
4. principles
5. rights
Kant
3. Kant
reason
circumstances
must be ignored
intentions
only duty
universal application
test
3. Kant
a categorical imperative
means not ends
3. Kant
in organizations
firm rules
focus on
individual
motivation
3. Kant
criticisms
why
only duty acceptable?
no exceptions?
what does means not ends mean?
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. reason
4. principles
5. rights
prima facie principles
4. Prima Facie Principles
10 commandments
love God; love others
Golden Rule
4. Prima Facie Principles
everyone agrees on some basic rules
in hierarchy
4. Prima Facie Principles
Ross
7 duties
fidelity
reparation
gratitude
justice
beneficence
self-improvement
non-injury
4. Prima Facie Principles
criticisms
universal?
what happens if someone disagrees?
conflicting
Identifying Ethical Systems
should
results
1. best for me
2. best for everyone
case-by-case
rule-of-thumb

motives
3. reason
4. principles
5. rights
moral rights
5. Moral Rights
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
5. Moral Rights
understanding
duties & rights
positive rights & negative rights
5. Moral Rights
criticisms
what
is on the list?
who
draws up the list?
is eligible?
is responsible?
how much?
rights contests
Ford Pinto
Egoism
Act utilitarianism
Rule utilitarianism
Kant
principles
rights
Plasma International
Egoism
Act utilitarianism
Rule utilitarianism
Kant
principles
rights
What To Do?
every approach can be criticised
organizations
plural
Attempts at Synthesis
Shaw & Barry
Rachels
Desjardins
Attempts at Synthesis
Shaw & Barry
obligations
ideals
effects

propose a process
outline options
for each understand
obligations
ideals
effects
weigh
Shaw & Berry Ford Pinto
obligations ideals
Benefit
shareholders
Safety
Customers
Safety is good
for business
Dont sell
what you
wont buy

options effects choice
Sell sell sell
Fix it
inform
weigh .3 .3 .4
Shaw & Berry Ford Pinto
obligations ideals
1: satisfy
customers
2: safety
3: reputation
4: make profit
1: cost/benefit
for company
2: make world
a better place
options effects choice
sell sell sell 1 1 1 C
recall 2.25 2.5 3 A
fix it quietly 1.5 1 1.5 B
weigh .3 .5 .2
Shaw & Berry Plasma
obligations ideals
options effects choice
weigh
Shaw & Berry Plasma
obligations ideals
1: Profit
2: Safety
3: Reputation
1: Cost/benefit
2: Better world
3: Beat out
competitors
4: Save lives
options effects choice
Dont get into
this business
Pedal to the
metal
Fair trade in
blood
weigh
.3 .2 .5