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DIODE RECTIFIERS

CHAPTER NO.03
POWER ELCTRONICS CIRCUITS, DEVICES & APPLICATIONS
3
RD
EDITION, BY; M. H. RASHID
PRESENTED BY:
M. ASGHAR KHAN
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics
of diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of
diode rectifiers
Current Research
Conclusion
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics of
diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of diode
rectifiers
To understand the techniques for simulating
diode rectifiers by using PSpice/EWB/Simulink
Conclusion
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Introduction
Diode:
Diodes were the first semiconductor electronic
devices
The first semiconductor diodes, called cat's whisker
diodes, developed around 1906, were made of
mineral crystals such as galena
It is a two-terminal electronic component allowing
current to flow in one direction, while blocking it in
other direction
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Introduction
Diode Symbols, V-I characteristics curve & its
configurations:

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Introduction
Rectifier:
A circuit that converts an AC signal into a
unidirectional (DC) signal
The process is known as rectification.
This involves a device that only allows one-way flow
of electrons
As we have seen, this is exactly what a
semiconductor diode does.
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics
of diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of
diode rectifiers
Current Research
Conclusion
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Types of Diode Rectifiers
On the basis of the input supply, we have
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1. SINGLE PHASE (1)
DIODE RECTIFIERS

2. THREE PHASE (3)
DIODE RECTIFIERS
a. Half-Wave Rectifiers
b. Full-Wave Bridge
Rectifiers
c. Full-Wave Center-Tap
Rectifiers

a. Half-Wave Rectifiers
b. Full-Wave Bridge
Rectifiers
c. Full-Wave Center-Tap
Rectifiers

LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics of
each type of diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of diode
rectifiers
To understand the techniques for simulating
diode rectifiers by using PSpice/EWB/Simulink
Conclusion
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Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
a. Half-Wave Rectifiers:
Half-wave rectification requires a single
diode in a single-phase supply, or three
diodes in a three-phase supply
Either the positive or negative half of the AC
wave is passed, while the other half is
blocked

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Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
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Circuit Diagram & Waveform Representation:

Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
b. Full-Wave Bridge Rectifiers:
Full-wave rectification converts both
polarities of the input waveform to pulsating
DC (Direct Current)
Four diodes in a bridge configuration and any
AC source (including a transformer without
center tap), are needed


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Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
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Circuit Diagram & Waveform Representation :
Conduction pattern
D
1
D
2
D
3
D
4
PIV = V
m

Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
c. Full-Wave Center-Tap Rectifiers:
If the transformer is center-tapped, then two
diodes back-to-back (cathode-to-cathode or
anode-to-anode, depending upon output
polarity required) can form a full-wave rectifier
Twice as many turns are required on the
transformer secondary to obtain the same
output voltage than for a bridge rectifier, but the
power rating is unchanged.
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Operation & Characteristics of Single
Phase (1) Diode Rectifiers
Circuit Diagram & Waveform Representation :

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PIV = 2V
m

Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
For most industrial and high-power
applications, three-phase rectifier circuits are
normally used
a. Half-Wave Rectifier:
An uncontrolled three-phase, half-wave circuit
requires three diodes, one connected to each phase
This type of rectifier is said to have a pulse-
number of three, since the output voltage on the
DC side contains three distinct pulses per cycle of
the grid frequency.
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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
Circuit Diagram & Waveform Representation :
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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
b. Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier:
For an uncontrolled three-phase bridge
rectifier, six diodes are used, and the circuit
again has a pulse number of six
For this reason, it is also commonly referred
to as a six-pulse bridge.

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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
Symbolic Representation:

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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
c. Full-Wave Center-Tapped Rectifier:
If the AC supply is fed via a transformer on
which the secondary windings contain a center
tap, a rectifier circuit with improved harmonic
performance can be obtained
This rectifier now requires six diodes, one
connected to each end of each transformer
secondary winding. This circuit has a pulse-
number of six, and in effect, can be thought of
as a six-phase, half-wave circuit.

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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
Circuit Diagram Representation:







Figure. Three Phase Full Wave Center Tapped Diode Rectifier
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Operation & Characteristics of Three
Phase (3) Diode Rectifiers
Output Waveform Comparison:
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LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics
of each type of diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of
diode rectifiers
Current Research
Conclusion
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Performance Parameters
Average value of the output voltage, V
dc

Average value of the output current, I
dc

Output dc power, P
dc

P
dc
= V
dc
I
dc

Rms value of the output voltage, V
rms
Output ac power, P
ac

P
ac
= V
rms
I
rms


Performance Parameters
Efficiency,
= P
dc
/P
ac

Effective (rms) value of the ac component of
the output voltage, V
ac

V
ac
= \V
rms
2
V
dc
2
Form factor, FF
FF = V
rms
/V
dc

Ripple factor, RF
RF = V
ac
/V
dc

Performance Parameters
Alternate form for ripple factor



Transformer utilization factor, TUF
TUF = P
dc
/V
s
I
s

V
s
, I
s
are rms voltage and current of the
transformer secondary
2 2
( ) 1 1
rms
dc
V
RF FF
V
= =
Input Voltage and Current
Performance Parameters
Displacement angle,
Displacement Factor, DF
DF = cos()
Harmonic Factor, HF


1
2
2 2
1
2
2 1
2
1 1
( ) ( ) 1
s s s
s s
I I I
HF
I I
(

= =
(

Performance Parameters
Power Factor, PF



Crest Factor, CF

1 1
cos cos
s s s
s s s
V I I
PF
V I I
= u = u
( ) s peak
s
I
CF
I
=
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Introduction to diodes and rectifiers
To learn the types of diode rectifiers
To understand the operation & characteristics
of each type of diode rectifiers
To study the performance parameters of
diode rectifiers
Current Research
Conclusion
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Current Research
A major area of research is to develop higher frequency
rectifiers, that can rectify into terahertz and light frequencies.
These devices are used in optical heterodyne detection, which
has myriad applications in optical fiber communication
and atomic clocks.
Another prospective application for such devices is to directly
rectify light waves picked up by tiny antenna,
called nantennas, to produce DC electric power.

It is thought that arrays of nantennas could be a more
efficient means of producing solar power than solar cells.
A related area of research is to develop smaller rectifiers,
because a smaller device will have a higher cutoff frequency.
Research projects are attempting to develop a unimolecular
rectifier, a single organic molecule that would function as a
rectifier

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Conclusion
An ideal rectifier should have h = 100%, V
ac
= 0, RF = 0, TUF =
1, HF = THD = 0, and PF = PDF = 1
In high-power applications, from 1975 to 2000, most mercury
valve arc-rectifiers were replaced by stacks of very high
power thyristors; silicon devices with two extra layers of
semiconductor, in comparison to a simple diode.
In medium-power transmission applications, even more
complex and sophisticated voltage sourced converter (VSC)
silicon semiconductor rectifier systems, such as insulated gate
bipolar transistors (IGBT) and gate turn-off thyristors (GTO),
have made smaller high voltage DC power transmission
systems economical
All of these devices function as rectifiers.
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Thank You!


Ability is nothing without opportunity
Napoleon Bonaparte
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