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Job Analysis &

Job Evaluation
With Human Capital Management Department
May 13
th
, 2006.
Tongue Twister 1
Can you can a can as a canner can can a can?
Tongue Twister 2
I saw Susie sitting in a shoe shine shop. Where
she sits she shines, and where she shines she
sits.
Contents
Topic
Intro and Ice Breaker
Into to Job Analysis
Tea Break

Job Description Preparation
Process

Exercise

Lunch Break
Objectives Writing
Job Evaluation Process
Exercise- Job Evaluation
Closing
Time
10:00am-10:30am
10:30:am-11:00am
11:00am-11:15am

11:15am-12:00pm


12:00pm-1:00pm

1:00p.m-2:00p.m
2:00pm-2:30pm
2:30pm-4:00p.m
4:00pm-5:00pm
5:00pm-5:15pm

Introduction to Job Analysis (JA)
What is a Job: A Value-Adding Unit
Jobs are the Basic Units of Organization Structure.

Every organization has a purpose, a reason for its existence - to
achieve its purpose the organization adopts a strategy, a plan of
campaign.

Strategy shapes the structure of the organization, both as it is
now and as it will evolve and, in turn, the structure of the
organization demonstrates how each job will add value to the
business processes.

Jobs are the building blocks of organizations - all jobs should
combine to achieve the purpose of the total organization.

Jobs are the link between the individual as employee and the
organization as employer - they provide the bridge between job-
holders and the work to be done.


A job exists to be done independently of the person
undertaking it at any point in time - people can and do shape
the way in which jobs evolve over time, but jobs are distinct
from their holders.


Style, approach, performance are characteristics of people -
purpose and areas of responsibility are characteristics of jobs -
they will be fulfilled when the job holder takes action.

Organizational Cascade
Organization Mission, Vision, Values
Strategy
Organization Structure
Jobs
Jobs are Dynamic

Jobs Are Dynamic:

As organization strategy and structure change, then jobs will
also change.

Many organizations are moving towards less hierarchy,
flatter structures and more project-based work meaning that
"jobs" have become more fluid and rapidly changing.

This does not invalidate the need to describe jobs because
there will be even more of a need for clarity of accountability
if the organization is to avoid duplication and wasted
resources.

We need to understand the job now and how it will develop
in the future.

Job Families
Jobs which exist to achieve similar end results.

Within a Job Family, nature of work is similar, but level of
work is differentiated.

Differentiating features are:
- output / contribution
- skills and competencies.

Align levels with the grade structure and provide read-across
between families.

Example - Clerical Job Family
Supervisor

Advanced Clerk

Clerk

Trainee

Supervises staff and work
flows, contributing to staff
appraisal.
Works without supervision,
coaches junior team
members.
Carries out work with little
direct supervision
Learns the basic skills for the
job, working under
supervision



Job Analysis Key Principles
Analysis not lists

Jobs not people

Facts not judgments

The job as it is now, or is planned to develop
over the next 1-2 years

Job Analysis - The Process

The process of defining and describing the distinct units of
contribution required by the organization to achieve its
purposes.


The process of establishing clarity between the organization
and its employees about what is required of them in their
jobs.

Job Analysis - Outputs

Clear statement of what is required from each and every role in
the organization.


A template that can be used for:
Work evaluation
Recruitment
Training and development needs analysis
Performance management/appraisal
Career development and succession planning

The Concept of Accountability
Characteristics of Key Results Areas :

Taken together they represent all the key outputs of the job.
They focus on results, not duties or activities. They tell the
"what", not the "how.
They are timeless, standing permanently unless the job itself is
changed in a fundamental way.
Each one is distinct from the rest, and describes an explicit
area in which results must be achieved by the jobholder's
action.
They suggest measures or tests which could determine
whether they are being met

Job Analysis - Focus
Job Holder Driven
Job Description
Preparation
Line Manager driven
Job Description
preparation
Describing what is
Describing what needs
to be
Job Description Preparation Process

Options to consider:

Consultants interview managers and/or jobholders, draft JDs and
facilitate agreement by the parties concerned.

In-house analysts trained by the consultant interview managers
and/or jobholders, draft JDs and facilitate agreement by the
parties concerned.

Managers/Job holder complete a draft JD which is further
reviewed and developed with a consultant or trained in-house
facilitator.
Role Profile
A two page profile of the job:

Key Headings:

Role Purpose
The fundamental reason for the job

Dimensions
Significant measurable quantities on which job has some impact
Annualized financial data
Number of direct reports
Key Accountabilities
Key outputs expected from the job.

Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
A clear measure of the specified output.

Role Profilecontinued
- Communication & People Interaction
Information about the key contacts of the job; inside and outside
the organization.

Competencies
Key competencies or behaviors for high performance

Decision Making
Limits of authority & empowerment.

Knowledge , Skills & Experience
Knowledge, skills and experience required for the job
Key competencies or behaviors for high performance

Areas of Contribution

Example: Head Human Resource

HR strategy, policies and procedures
Leadership of the HR team
Human Resources Planning
Recruitment and Selection
Performance Management
Training and Development
Reward - Compensation and Benefits
Employee Relations
HR Budgets- Organization & Departmental

Role Profile Development


Job Purpose:

Says why the job exists

One sentence

Specific to the job, not a general statement

Example- Role Profile Head HR
To advise current and strategic manpower requirements
necessary for achieving Companys objectives. Recommend
development needs for staff in view of changing business
requirements and provide support to other functions for
maintaining motivated staff.
Dimensions
Examples:

Significant measurable quantities on which the job has some
impact.

Annualized financial data/budgets

Numbers of direct reports

Example - Dimensions
Head Human Resource

Department Budget
Direct Reports
Training Budget
Training/s Conducted
Cost of the Payroll
(2004/05)
8,250,000
03
800,000
10
1,800,000
(2005/06)
10,399,000
03
1,450,000
21
2,100,000
Amount in PKR. Amount in PKR.
Key Accountabilities (Example)
Verb


Area of Impact



With What Result
To develop and implement.


effective HR strategies , policies and
procedures


to ensure the company has the
necessary resources to achieve its
short, medium and long term
business plans

Accountability : Key Result Area Format

Verb Object Result

Do What To What/ Whom Why

Prepare, monitor
and Control

The Annual
Departmental
Budget






To ensure
expenditure
is in line with the
business plan
Typical Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
KPIs are often sector specific

Top Level
ROI, ROCE, Profitability, Actual; Budget, Growth, Market Share,
Territorial coverage.

Oil & Gas specific
Size/Growth in reservoir, plant availability, volume
pumped/processed, HSE.

Manufacturing specific
Output, stock turnover, balancing of lines, waste/scrap, HSE.

Performance Maximization
Number of filled positions
Trainings (mandays delivered)
HR Manual is up-to-date and complied.
Example KPIs (Head HR)
Communication & People Interaction
The information about the key contacts of the job:

With the superior
With others in the organization e.g. peers, other
departments.
With people outside the organization.


Example- Communication & People Interaction
(Head HR)
Internal
All employees
External
HR Consultants
Training Institutes& Trainers
Head Hunters
Outsourcing agencies
Lawyers
Embassies
Govt. departments (e.g labor)
Health Insurance companies
Architect/s
Advertising agencies
Interviewees.


Competencies

Personal characteristics that differentiate levels of
performance in a given job/role, organization or
culture.

They are behavioral skills.

They are associated with a high-performance
organization.


Competencies are like an Iceberg

Competencies are more difficult to
observe than technical skills.

Skills and knowledge form the tip of the
iceberg - they are easier to measure and
develop than behavioral competencies.

The underlying competencies are less
visible but they largely direct and control
surface behavior. They are more difficult
to measure and develop.



Knowledge, Skills and Experience




Outlines a typical person specification:
Should focus on the principal qualifications, skills and
experience you would look for when recruiting
someone to the role.
Will need sensitive handling if the present job holder
is under or over qualified for the job.
Decision Making
Limits of empowerment, when a decision is shared,
limits on decision making.


Example- Head HR
Recruitments
HR Policies
Employee Training Recommendations
Employee Remuneration
Separations
Example- Knowledge, Skills & Experience
Head HR
Masters degree is Business Administration preferably in
HR.
Proven people management skills and experience.
People management skills and experience
Balance and mature approach must act with integrity,
discretion and confidentiality at all times.
Minimum 10 years experience in Human Resources at
professional level.
PC Literate- in particular MS Office
Technically competent in the delivery of most HR
disciplines resourcing, reward, performance
management, appraisal, training/development,
employee relations


Objectives
Definition:

What is to be achieved or accomplished (output /
outcome) in a particular effectiveness area (Key
Accountability) by a Job Holder.

Objectives are not the activities they are the results
of the activities.
Job
Input
i.e. tasks /
activities
output
i.e. results or
objectives
Simple Thumb Rule
Ask the question Why are you doing an activity or
carrying out a task.


The answer will be the Result or Output or
Objectives of the task or activity.

Objectives must be:
Sound
Non-ambiguous
Measurable
Specific
Realistic
Challenging but attainable
Time bound
Agreed
Why are they needed?
Achievement of overall organizational goals
Provide direction to people
Agreeing of standards
Clarification of roles
Distribution of work
Performance measurement
Recognition / Rewarding employees
Job Evaluation
What is a Job?
Job Evaluation is a systematic process for ranking jobs logically and
fairly by comparing job against job or against an pre-determined
scale to determine the relative importance of jobs to an organization

Which is to say that Job Evaluation..

IS

Comparative

Judgmental

Structured

Job Centered

IS NOT

Absolute

Scientific

Unstructured

Person Focused
Job Evaluation
The Underlying Principle
Elements of Job Size
Know How Problem Solving
+
Accountability +
Technical Know How





Management
Breadth




Human Relations
Skills

Thinking
Environment




Thinking
Challenge
=
Total Job
Size
Freedom to Act





Area of Impact






Nature of Impact

Know How
The sum of every kind of knowledge, skill and experience required for
standard acceptable performance in the role.
Know How
Technical
Know - How
The requirement for
technical skills, expertise
and experience
Management
Breadth
The amount of planning
and organizing required
of the role
Human Relations
Skills
The requirement for working
with and through others to
achieve the role accountabilities
Technical Know How
The requirement of technical skills, experience and expertise.
Looks at depth and range - however acquired.

Level

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Example Description

Perform simple task

Simple work assignments, often repetitive

Sound understanding of Straightforward Procedures

Practical understanding of Methods, Systems and Processes

Conceptual Understanding

In-depth Specialization, Broad Experience

Mastery of Concepts


Technical Know How
Breadth and Depth
Managing Director









Corporate
Tax
Advisor
Broad and General
Deep and
Narrow
Management Breadth
The knowledge required for harmonizing, integrating and managing
activities and functions. It involves combining some or all of the
elements of Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, Executing
and Controlling over time.

Planning and organizing

Complexity

Functional diversity

Timescale/planning horizon

Scale

Horizon/Strategic influence

Reflects hierarchies where they exist


Human Relations Skills
The requirement in Know-How for achieving results with
and through others both inside and outside the
organization.


Information exchange, asking questions,
exercising tact

Persuasion, assertiveness -based on
fact or evidence, empathy to the others
point of view

Hearts and minds -behavior change,
negotiating and partnership working.

Problem Solving
Problem Solving
The self-starting thinking required by the job for analyzing,
evaluating, creating, reasoning, arriving at and drawing
conclusions.

Thinking
Environment
Thinking
Challenge
Assesses the extent to which
thinking is constrained by the
context in which it must take
place
The complexity of the
problems encountered and
the extent to which original
thinking must be employed to
arrive at solutions
Thinking Environment
The level of thinking in the normal course
of working

Limited by:
Direct supervision/guidance
Procedures/Policy/Strategy
Nature of the task
Standards/Precedents
Existing principles/body of knowledge

Thinking Challenge
The degree of creativity or original thought required to
deliver accountabilities. It assesses the complexity of
the problem and the extent to which original thinking
must be employed to receive at solutions.

Is there a right or a wrong answer ?
Solution clear cut or judgmental ?
Variables will include, complexity, abstractness
and stability.
Relationship with Thinking Environment (Freedom
to Think).

Accountability
Accountability
The answerability for action and for the
consequences of that action. The measured effect of
the job on end results.

Measured by the existence or absence
of personal, managerial or procedural
controls and guidance
Nature of
Freedom to Act
Area of
Impact
How much of the organization does the
role impact upon and what is the
nature of the impact (direct or indirect)
Freedom to Act
Assesses the extent to which the job or role is subject to
personal or procedural guidance or control which may
be exercised from within or outside the organization.

Presence of discretion in taking action.

Constrained by : need to refer elsewhere;

instructions, procedures, policies;

precedent, established ways of working;

nature of the work;

nature of the system;

Reporting lines-where they are relevant
Nature and Area of Impact
Job
Organization
Function

Department
Gauges how much of the organization, department or
functional area is affected by accomplishment of the
roles basic purpose and the nature of that impact
(direct or indirect).