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PHYSIOLOGY OF

THE RESPIRATORY
SYSTEM
CITRA ROSYIDAH
PHYSIOLOGY DEPARTMENT
MEDICAL FACULTY
HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY


Learning Objectives
After reading this topic, we are able to
understand about:
1. Purpose of the respiratory system
2. Conduction and respiratory airway
3. Mechanical principles of the respiratory
system
4. Processes involved in the respiratory
system
5. Regulation of the respiratory system

Overview
The respiratory system is a group of
organs and tissues that help us
breathe
The main parts of this system are the
airways, the lungs and linked blood
vessels, and the muscles that enable
breathing.

Function of the Respiratory
System:
Exchange of gases between the
athmosphere and the blood
Homeostatic regulation of body pH.
Protection from inhaled pathogen and
irritating substances
Vocalization
Blood reservoir
Respiratory Tract
Upper
Lower
Respiratory Airway
Respiratory Airway
Respiratory airway can be divided into
two parts:
- Conduction zone
The air only passes, so this zone is
also called anatomical dead
space.
- Respiratory zone
The part where O2 and CO2
diffuse.
Respiratory Tract
Respiratory
epithelium is for
defense by means
of:
- Filtering hair
- Ciliary escalator
- Sticky mucous
Respiratory Airway
Respiratory Tract
As an entrance to the respiratory
airway, nasal cavity has 3 main
functions:
1. Warming the inhaled air to body
temperature
2. Adding water vapor until the air
reaches 100% humidity
3. Filtering out foreign material

Respiratory Airway

Respiratory Airway
Processes in the Respiratory
System
1. Ventilation
2. Diffusion
3. Transportation
4. Regulation of the respiration
system
Processes in the Respiratory
System
Processes in the Respiratory
System
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Ventilation
Boyles Law:

P1V1 = P2V2
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Ventilation
Mechanical Principles of respiratory
system:
1. Movement of diaphragm changes the
longitudinal diameter
2. Movement of the ribs changes the
anteroposterior diameter
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Ventilation
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Ventilation
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Diffusion
Ficks Law:
A: Widht of
membranes
surface
D: Diffusion velocity
P: Pressure
T: Thickness

Processes in the Respiratory
System: Transportation
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Transportation
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Transportation
Processes in the Respiratory
System: Transportation
Regulation
Respiratory center
In brain stem (pons and medulla
oblongata). The motoric fibers that
innervating the diaphragma and
nervus intercostales that innervating
the intercostal muscles.
Regulation
Central chemoreceptor.
Located in the surface of the medulla
oblongata. It is sensitive to the
alteration of the PO2 and PCO2.
Peripheral chemoreseptor.
Located in the arcus aorta and carotid
body. It is sensitive to the alteration of
the PO2, PCO2, and pH.
Regulation
Cough Reflex
Foreign matter or any causes of
irritation Trachea, bronchi,
bronchioli, alveoli
afferent (n. vagus) respiratory
centre
efferent up to 2.5 L air is
rapidly inspired, then epiglottis and
vocal cord in closed the
expiratory muscle contract so the
pressure increase