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APPALACHIAN

CULTURE
WAY OF LIFE
Way of Life
 The Simple Life.
 Can be described as
simple but hard

 Daily Living.
 Meeting basic needs to
survive
 Focused on work to
provide shelter and
food.
 Fellowship very
important
 Community comes
together to assist each
other
Way of Life
 Homes
 One room Log cabins
 Outside wells to
provide water
 Outside bathroom
facilities
 One fireplace to
provide heat and
cooking
Way of Life
 Daily Activities
 Centered on chores
 Hunting, farming, cooking, canning, making
clothes
 Few if any money for gifts or store bought
items
EDUCATION
Would you pursue an education if it meant losing
those closest to you?

Education leads to isolation for many.


College:
A replacement for hard
work.
Remoteness leads to
geographic isolation.
 Brings opposition to
change.
 Those who dare to
change risk ridicule.
 Women belong in the
kitchen, barefoot, and
pregnant.
 Deviation from standard
leads to domestic
violence.
Internal Loci of Control
 Source: Family
52.5%
 Source: Friends
21.0%
 Source: Work
13.9%
 Source: Other
12.6%
Lack of Ambition-
Contagious
COMMUNICATION
Communication
* Communication patterns
1. Avoiding aggression & assertiveness
2. Not interfering with others lives
unless asked to do so
3. Avoiding dominance over others
4. Avoiding arguments and seeking
agreement

* Temporal relationships
- A “being culture” live
for today
- Not a “doing” no
plans for future
Communication
Dialect

 Dominant language
English

 Speak Elizabethan
English
Communication
Dialect
 The letters es is added to
some words for example:
“ghost” = ghostes.

 Words ending with ing the g


is dropped, like in the word
“writing”= writin’
Communication
Dialect
 Pronoun “we” is
referred to oneself
Ex. We will be there

 If person is not
understandable ask to
rephrase or explain
Examples of Dialect

= Colt
Cold
“It sure is colt
outside.”
Examples of Dialect

Completely infectedEat
= up/Ate up

“Papaw’s ate up with


the cancer.”
Examples of Dialect

Alzheimer’s Old-
= timer's
“Papaw has old-timer’s
disease.”
Examples of Dialect

Smarts
Hurts =
“That really smarts.”
Examples of Dialect

Contracted Took
=

“Billy took the


flu.”
Communication
Format of Names:
Individuals address
nonfamily members by
their last name

A common practice that


denotes neighborliness
with respect is to call a
person by his or her first
name with Miss,
pronounced Mz, or Mr.
FAMILY ROLES
&
ORGANIZATION
Family Roles & Organization

Gender roles
Head of house hold

Men Women
 Physical Work  Household
 Support family  Child rearing
Financially  Provide emotional
 Provide strength
transportation  Herbal remedies
Family Roles & Organization

Children and Adolescents Alternative Lifestyles

• Large families are common • Single and divorced


accepted
• Children accepted regardless
of whether the parents are
married
• Same-sex couples and
families living together
• Physical punishment is are accepted but rarely
borderline abuse discussed

• Teenagers marry at 15 some


as early as 13
WORKFORCE
ISSUES
Workforce Issues
Reporting to work is
less of a priority if a
family member is ill

Personal space is
important, therefore
there is very little
face-to-face
encounters, hugs,
and close contact

Ascribed status is
more important than
achieved status

Work at their own


pace
BIOCULTURAL
ECOLOGY
Biocultural
Ecology
SKIN COLOR & BIOLOGICAL
VARIATIONS VARIATION IN DRUG
 Predominantly white METABOLISM
population
 Some mixed with Native Current medical
American
 A few blacks 3.2%
and research
literature reports
not studies specific
HEALTH CONDITIONS
 Children are at a greater to the
risk for SIDS pharmacodynamic
 Cancer, suicide, and s of drug
accident rates higher
than national average interactions among
Appalachians.
HIGH-RISK
BEHAVIORS
High Risk Behaviors
 Death rates from  High risk associated
accidents rank third behaviors
 Black and white men  Hunting, rugged
ages 35-64 environment, engaging
 Younger men higher for in work without safety
high risk behavior equipment, modern tools
 Older men associated or assistance.
with falls  Use of alcohol related
 Southern Appalachian accidents
areas have higher rates  Vehicular accidents and
deaths
NUTRITION
Nutrition
 Live off the land.
 Raising livestock and hunting
 Pigs,
cattle, sheep used for food and clothing
 Game hunted, deer, possum and Squirrel
 Planting home gardens
 Beans, corn, beets turnips, tomatoes, and
carrots, potatoes and wheat are main staples
 Food Preparation
 Frying,stewing, roasting or baking
 High blood cholesterol levels
Stuffed Possum
 1 dressed possum       To dress possum, remove
 1 cup bread crumbs entrails, head, and tail. Wash
red pepper, diced, thoroughly inside and out.
Worcestershire sauce
1 cup salt                        Save the liver. Cover with cold
1 tbs. butter                   salted water (1 cup salt). Let
 1 large onion, chopped  stand overnight. Drain off
 1 hard boiled egg,                  salted water and rinse well
with boiling water.
 To make stuffing: Melt butter and
add chopped onion. When onion
begins to brown add chopped
liver. Cook until liver is well gone.
Add bread crumbs, red pepper,
and dash of Worcestershire sauce.
Mix in boiled egg, salt and add
water to moisten. Stuff possum
with mix and sew end closed.
Roast possum until tender, baste
with fat from roasting pan.
Strawberry Dumplings
 Instructions
 To make the dumplings, mix the flour,
baking powder and salt in a medium
size bowl. Add the egg and milk and
beat until you have a smooth paste.
Set aside.
 Prepare the sauce by putting the
chopped strawberries, butter, sugar
and water in a large pot. Mix. Bring to
a boil, stirring occasionally. When the
sauce is boiling, drop the dumpling
batter into it by small spoonfuls.
 For the dumplings Cover the pot and cook for 15
 3/4 cup sifted flour minutes. Do not remove the lid while
 2 1/2 tsp. baking powder the dumplings are cooking, as they
 1/2 tsp. salt
need the steam to be light.
 1 egg
 Adapted from
 1/3 cup milk For the sauce
The Foxfire Book of Appalachian Cookery
 1 lb strawberries, washed and chopped
 2 cups water
 2 tbsp. butter
 2/3 cup sugar
PREGNANCY &
CHILDBEARING
 Rural women have the worst
birth outcomes overall
Taboos:
• Boys are carried lower
• Girls are carried lower
• No pictures should be taken it
causes still birth
• Wearing an opal ring may
cause problems  Contraceptive practices:
• If the mother experiences a • Birth control Pill, condom, tubal
tragedy, a congenital anomaly ligation
may occur • Abortion is an individual choice
• Cravings
DEATH
RITUALS
Appalachian Death rituals and
Expectations 
 At a person's death a bell was rang
often times the ringing would amount
to the age of the deceased.

 The first action was preparing the


body for a funeral. No preservation
tactics used on the body

 The length of the funeral is depended


upon the age to the individual.

 It is common practice for an individual


to be buried in their best clothes along
with some personal possessions.

 Family members and friends gather at


the home of the deceased the night
before the burial.
 
SPIRITUALITY
Religion / Spirituality

 Inhabitants
 Role of the church
 Serpent-handlers
 Beliefs
Serpent-handlers
* And these signs
shall follow them that
believe; In my name
shall they cast out
devils; they shall
speak with new
tongues; They shall
take up serpents; and
if they drink any
deadly thing, it shall
not hurt them; they
shall lay hands on the
sick, and they shall
recover.

-Mark 16:17-18
HEALTH-CARE
PRACTICES
Health Care
 Diabetes
 -Cancer
 -Substance Abuse
 -10 step Health
Care Practice
Folk Medicine
 Herbal medicine
Poultices
Teas

 Originated from
Cherokee and the
Apalachee Indians
Folk Medicine
 Amounts and names
of remedies vary

 Professionals who
integrate folk
medicine
have good results
HEALTH-CARE
PRACTITIONERS
Health-care Practitioners

Traditional Biomedical
Herbal & folk Insider health-care
practioners are provider is
highly respected preferred
Grannies Cost is based on
sliding scale & even
Midwives exchange
Herbalists Example Zucchini
Health-care
practitioners
The entire
Appalachian
area has a
shortage of
health
personnel. As
a result,
nurses have
delivered the
bulk of health
care to some
areas of
Appalachia
Summary
An understanding
of this culture will
make us better
nurses

Though they are


different they still
deserve the best
care