You are on page 1of 33

Body structure & General

function
Anatomy is the study of body structures
Physiology is the study of body functions
Learning outcomes
To understand the medical terminology and
usage of it
To become familiar with the basic anatomy
of the human body and be able to identify
the primary structures
To understand and be able to describe the
parts and the basic functions of each body
system
Terminologies for Movement
Abduction to move away from the midline of the
body
Adduction movement toward the midline of the
body
Rotation turning or twisting on an axis
Lateral Rotation twisted away from the body
Medial Rotation twisted towards the body
Flexion bending of a joint
Extension straightening of a joint
Circumduction - to make a circle by moving the
peripheral part of the limb
Supination rotation of an extremity into anatomical
position
Pronation rotation of an extremity out of
anatomical position
Midaxillary line imaginary line running vertically
from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
Midclavicular line imaginary line running
vertically from the middle of the clavicle to the
pelvis
Torso Trunk of body
Bilateral pertaining to both sides
Ipsilateral of the same side
Contralateral of the opposite side

Body Parts /
Area
Description
Antebrachial forearm
Antecubital front of elbow
Axillary armpit
Brachial
upper arm
Buccal (oral) mouth
Cardiac heart
Cervical neck
Cranial head
Cutaneous skin
Deltoid shoulder
Femoral thigh
Frontal forehead
Gastric stomach
Gluteal buttocks
Hepatic liver
Iliac hip
Body parts /
Area
Description
Inguinal
groin
Lumbar small of back
Mammary
breast
Nasal nose
Occipital back of head
Orbital
eye
Patellar Knee cap
Pectoral chest
Pedal foot
Perineal
pelvic floor
Plantar sole of foot
Popliteal back of knee
Pulmonary lungs
Renal
kidney
Sacral base of spine
Scapular shoulder blade
Body parts and areas. The body is shown in anatomic position.
Anterior and Posterior view.
Cavities of the body
A. Dorsal Body Cavity
1. Cranial Cavity contain brain
2.Vertebral or spinal cavity contain spinal cord
B. Ventral Body Cavity
1. Thoracic cavity
a. Pleural Cavities (containing lungs)
b. Pericardial Cavity (containing the heart)
c. MEDIASTINUM Space in between two
lungs , containing heart and big vessels
2. Abdominopelvic Cavity
a. Abdominal Cavity abdominal organs
b. Pelvic Cavity pelvic organs
Regions of the abdominal area
Membranes
Thin sheet of tissue that covers the body, lines body cavities,
covers the hollow organs
Epithelial membrane
Cutaneous membrane : skin
Mucous membrane
Lines the body cavities that open to the exterior
Lining of digestive, respiratory, excretory and
reproductive tracts
Serous membrane
Lines the body cavities that do not open to the exterior
directly
Pleural membrane - covers the lung
Pericardial membrane covers the heart
Peritoneal membrane Lines the abdominal cavity and
covers the organs fully or partially
Connective tissue membrane
Synovial membrane lines the joint cavities
Meninges covers the brain and spinal cord
All living things perform the same basic
functions.

Responsiveness- Organisms respond to
changes in their immediate environment,
this is called irritability.

Growth- Organisms grow larger, increasing
in size through an increase in the size or
number of their cells.

Reproduction- Organisms must reproduce
to pass on their genetic information.

Movement- Organisms are capable of
movement of food, blood or other
materials inside the body, also moving in
the environment

Metabolism- Organisms rely on complex
chemical reactions to provide the energy
for responsiveness
SKELETAL
CARDIOVASCULAR
DIGESTIVE
RESPIRATORY
EXCRETORY
LYMPHATIC
NERVOUS
REPRODUCTIVE
MUSCULAR
ENDOCRINE
INTEGUMENTARY
Body Systems
Functions associated with each system
Components
skin
hair
glands
Functions
protection
regulates body temperature
eliminates waste
vitamin D
sensations
Integumentary System
Components
Bones
Joints
Cartilage
Functions
Support
Protection
Body movement
Produces blood cells
Stores minerals & fats
Skeletal system
Components
skeletal muscles
Functions
body movement
posture
generates heat
Muscular system
Circulatory System
Components
Cardiovascular System
Lymphatic System
Function
Transportation of materials

Components
blood
heart
blood vessels
Functions
pumps blood
carries O
2
and nutrients to
cells and wastes away
regulates temperature,
acid-base balance, and
H
2
O
Cardiovascular system
Components
lymph fluid & vessels
spleen
thymus
lymph nodes
tonsils
Functions
transports dietary lipids
protection
Lymphatic system
Components
brain
spinal cord
nerves
special sense organs
Functions
action potentials (nerve
impulses)
detects, interprets, and
responds to changes in
environment
Nervous system
Components
Nose
Nasal cavity
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchial tree
lungs
Functions
exchange of gases
acid-base balance
sound production
Respiratory system
Components
mouth
pharynx
esophagus
stomach
small intestines
large intestines
salivary glands
liver
gallbladder
pancreas
Functions
breakdown of food
absorption of food
eliminates wastes
Digestive system
Components
kidneys
ureters
urinary bladder
urethra
Functions
eliminates waste
regulates blood composition &
volume
acid-base balance
Urinary System
Components
hormone-producing glands
and cells
Functions
regulates body activities
Endocrine system
Components
Male repro
organs
Female repro
organs
associated
structures
Functions
produce
gametes
hormone
regulation
Reproductive system
Arrangement of structures
in the body
From within outwards
Bones form the supporting framework
Muscles are attached to bones
Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics form
neurovascular bundles which course in between the
muscles along the fascial plane
Thoracic and abdominal cavities contain several
internal organs called viscera
Whole body has 3 general coverings skin,
superficial fascia and deep fascia

Bone
Superficial fascia
Cross section of thigh
Cross section of neck
Cross section of Thorax