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Thermal Power Plants

(Steam Power Plants)



By
P.SELVAM
P.SATHISH
P.SIVA VINOTH

MECHANI CAL-B
Lecture Outlines
Thermal Energy
Energy conversion process
Principle and Working
Efficiency
Merits & Demerits
Parts of steam power plant



Thermal Energy
1. The kinetic energy of the molecules in a solid,
liquid or gas
2. The more kinetic energy, the more thermal
energy the object possesses
3. Physicists also call this the internal energy of
an object

Energy Conversion . . .
Fuel, Air and water produce steam in the boiler by
combustion
Steam of high temperature and pressure is expended from
high pressure to low pressure in the turbine
Thermal energy is converted into kinetic energy and finally
mechanical energy
This mechanical energy derives the generator to produce
electricity
Energy Conversion Process in Steam Power
Plants
Chemical Energy is
Converted into Thermal
Energy by Combustion
In Boiler
Thermal Energy is
Converted into
Mechanical Energy
In Turbine
Mechanical Energy is
Converted into
Electrical Energy
In Generator
Chemical
Energy
Fuel
Thermal
Energy
Mechanical
Energy
Electrical
Energy
Steam Power Plants
Electricity generation in thermal power plants
if characterized by the main source of
generation being firing of coal, gas etc.
Steam is produced in a boiler, and it drives a
turbine connected to an alternator. Heat
energy is converted to electric energy within
the so-called steam cycle.

THERMAL POWER PLANT
Efficiency
Efficiency = Heat Equivalent of Electrical output / Heat of Combustion
Normally = 29%
Losses:
1. Boiler House Losses:
a. To Dry Fuel Gases 5%
b. To moisture in gases 5%
c. To ash and unburnt carbon 1%
d. To radiation and leakage 2.5%
e. Unknown losses 2.5%
TOTAL 16%
Efficiency . . .
2. Turbine Losses:
a. Heat rejection to Condenser 54%
3. Alternator or Generator Loss 1%
TOTAL 55%
Grand Total 71%
So Efficiency = (100% - Losses)
= 100% - 71% = 29%
Merits of Steam Power Plant
Fuel is cheaper*
Less space is required
The initial cost is less
Plant can be located near the load centre
Turbine can work at 25% overload continuously
A portion of steam can be used in various industries
Demerits of Steam Power Plant
Maintenance and operating costs are high
Pollution of atmosphere is one of the major
problems
Water is required in huge quantity
Handling of coal and disposal of ash are
difficult tasks
It requires long time for installation
Efficiency falls quickly below 75%
STEAM POWER PLANT LAYOUT