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NAGINDAS KHANDWALA COLLEGE OF

MANAGEMENT STUDIES
COMPUTERS ( I.T.)
Topic Processors
Prof. Sheetal Vyas
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
"Computer" is a collection of devices that
function as a unit.
The most basic collection includes a Computer
CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.


Processors (CPU)

A Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor is an
electronic circuit that can execute computer programs
A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and
processes the basic instructions that drives a computer.
It handles the central management functions of a high-
powered PC.
Computer Processor:
What is it?

A computer processor analyzes data and controls data
flow in a computer.
Its speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with common
speeds ranging from 2.6 to 3.66 GHz.
It comes in a small microchip and fits into a socket on the
motherboard.







































Graphics







































A graphics processing unit or GPU
is a specialized processor that offloads 3D
graphics rendering from the microprocessor.
In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on
a video card, or it can be on the motherboard.
Functioning of Processors
MAINLY 3 Functions
CLOCK SPEED
WORD LENTH
BUS SPEED
MACHINE CYCLE
TIME
Machine cycle time :-An instruction cycle'
is the time period during which a computer processes a machine
language instruction from its memory or the sequence of actions that
the central processing unit (CPU) performs to execute each machine
code instruction in a program.
Clock Speed :-Clock speed is a measure of how quickly a computer
completes basic computations and operations. a clock speed of
800MHz is running 800,000,000 cycles per second, while a 2.4GHz
computer is running 2,400,000,000 cycles per second.
Word length :- The word length is the number of bits the CPU can
process per second. Early CPUs were 4 bits /sec, but now we have 8, 16
and 32 , 64 bit machines.
Bus speed :Data is transferred from CPU to other systems components
via the Bus lines
The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any one time is known as
bus line width.



Two Types of Processing
MULTIPROCESSING - When two or more
computers are used, they are tied together with
a high-speed channel and share the general
workload between them
PARALLEL PROCESSING - The
simultaneous use of more than one CPU or
processor core to execute a program or multiple
computational threads
COMPONENTS OF PROCESSORS
Execution
unit

Branch
predictor

Floating
point unit

Primary
cache

Bus
interfaces
Processor
Speed
Processors Components
Execution unit - the core of the CPU, the execution unit
processes instructions.
Branch predictor - he branch predictor attempts to guess
where the program will jump
Floating point unit - The floating point unit (FPU) is a
specialized logic unit optimized to perform non integer
calculations much faster than the general purpose logic unit
can perform them
Primary cache - also called Level 1 or L1 cache, primary cache
is a small amount of very fast memory that allows the CPU to
retrieve data immediately
Bus interfaces - Bus interfaces are the pathways that connect the
processor to memory and other components.



Processor Speed - The processor clock coordinates all
CPU and memory operations by periodically generating a
time reference signal called a clock cycle or tick
Processor Architecture Clock speeds increase every
year, but the laws of physics limit how fast CPUs can run
Wider data busses and registers
For a given clock speed, the amount of work done depends
on the amount of data processed in one operation
FPUs
All CPUs work well with integers, but processing floating-
point numbers to high precision on a general-purpose CPU
requires a huge number of operations

KINDS OF PROCESSOR
AMD computer
processor
computer
processor
AMD PROCESSORS
AMD - Advanced Micro Devices
popular models are AMD Athlon XP
and AMD Athlon 64
Best for gaming and softwares
History of AMD
Began operation in 1969.
The company has specialized in developing
products such as computer processors,
microprocessors and motherboard chipsets
AMD, founded by Jerry Sanders and Edwin
Turney has grown to become the second
largest global supplier of microprocessors and
the third largest supplier of the worlds
graphics processing units.
AMD chipsets
Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in
2003, AMD designed chipsets for their
processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor
generations
The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751
and the AMD-761 chipsets.
Embedded systems

AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors
into its embedded product line starting with the
AMD Opteron processor

AMD Flash technology

While less visible to the general public than its
CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in flash
memory
AMD established a 50-50 partnership with
Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new
company called FASL LLC in 2003
AMD Mobile platforms

AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile
computing, but, with fewer advertisements and
promotional schemes, very little was known
about the platform. The platform used mobile
Sempron processors.

The Future
After 32 bit and 64 bit chips new
chip 128 bit with 4.5 GHZ
Name - dual-core POWER6
PRODUCT
LAUNCH

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