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The Inanimate Creation & Science Research 3½ out of 6 creation days: • Day 1 –
The Inanimate Creation
&
Science Research
3½ out of 6 creation days:
• Day 1 – light
• Day 2 – air
• Day 3 – land – tectonics, ig/met
• Day 4 – heavens
Flood
• Plate tectonics
• Sedimentary rocks
• Igneous/Metamorphic
Animation
Plate tectonics
General features
#13-14
Research on the Inanimate Creation
Research on the Inanimate Creation
 Short chronology – lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time – preferred anyway – theodicy
Short chronology
– lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time
– preferred anyway – theodicy
Research
– guidelines
– examples – California, Peru
Conclusions
No working scientific creation/flood model for:
No working scientific creation/flood model for:
1) Horizontal (next talk) – plate tectonics 2) Vertical (Colombia) – geologic column 3) Time (ideas)
1)
Horizontal (next talk)
plate tectonics
2)
Vertical (Colombia)
geologic column
3)
Time (ideas)
radiometric dates
2) Vertical – earth differentiation Formation of  Core, mantle, crust  Continents, ocean basins 

2) Vertical earth differentiation

2) Vertical – earth differentiation Formation of  Core, mantle, crust  Continents, ocean basins 
Formation of  Core, mantle, crust  Continents, ocean basins  Mountains, plains  Elements for
Formation of
Core, mantle, crust
Continents, ocean basins
Mountains, plains
Elements for mining, fertile ground
Thailand – sutured blocks, oil/gas/minerals (complete section) India – shield, sediments, basalts, Himalayas (complete section) North
Thailand – sutured blocks, oil/gas/minerals (complete section)
India – shield, sediments, basalts, Himalayas (complete section)
North Dakota – Williston basin oil (complete section)
Colorado – Rocky Mountains (almost complete section)
Colombia !!!
New Mexico – Rocky Mountains (much of column)
Peru – Andes (much of column)
California – Cordillera (much of column)
Canada – Banff (Pz sediments, Mz tectonics)

Geologic column

Italy – Alps (Mz, Cz mainly) Israel – plate boundaries (Precambrian, Mz, Cz) Virginia – Appalachians
Italy – Alps (Mz, Cz mainly)
Israel – plate boundaries (Precambrian, Mz, Cz)
Virginia – Appalachians (Pz mostly)
Kenya, South Africa – shield, Karoo, Rift Valley (parts of column)
Puerto Rico – Caribbean plate (Mz, Cz mainly)

Philippines volcanism (Cz)

Israel vertebrates, hominids salt, lake deposits 4. Cenozoic – post Flood ?? – – – Dead

Israel

vertebrates, hominids salt, lake deposits
vertebrates, hominids
salt, lake deposits

4.

Cenozoic post Flood ??

– – –
Dead Sea fault, earthquakes, volcanics reefs, chalk, dinos, trees, ammonites asphalt, cycles limestone – quarries, caves
Dead Sea fault, earthquakes, volcanics
reefs, chalk, dinos, trees, ammonites
asphalt, cycles
limestone – quarries, caves

limestone, gypsum, magmatism Nubian ss, Petra Tethys Sea … basal congl, trilobites

Israel vertebrates, hominids salt, lake deposits 4. Cenozoic – post Flood ?? – – – Dead

metamorphics, granitoids … copper

3.

Mesozoic (&Ceno) late Flood ??

– – –

2.

Paleozoic (&Meso) early Flood ??

– – –

1. Precambrian pre-creation/Flood ??

Geology of Colombia
Geology of Colombia
one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian

one suggested model

one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian

Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic

one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian
one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian
late flood ??
late flood ??
one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian

Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian pre-flood ??

one suggested model Cenozoic post flood ?? Mesozoic late flood ?? Paleozoic early flood ?? Precambrian

Ordonez-Carmona, Alvarez, and Pimentel, 2006. (Modified fro

Precambrian …

pre-flood ??
pre-flood ??
Caño Cristales, Serrania de la Macarena, Meta
Caño Cristales, Serrania de la Macarena, Meta
Caño Cristales, Serrania de la Macarena, Meta
Paleozoic (Permian) … middle flood ?? salt – Zipaquira mines

Paleozoic (Permian) … middle flood ?? salt Zipaquira mines

Paleozoic (Permian) … middle flood ?? salt – Zipaquira mines
Mesozoic (Triassic) … middle flood ?? Payande Formation
Mesozoic (Triassic) … middle flood ??
Payande Formation

ammonites

limestones

Mesozoic (Jurassic) … late flood ??
Mesozoic (Jurassic) … late flood ??

volcanoclastic, Giron Fm

red sandstones, La Quinta Formation

Cretaceous … late flood ??
Cretaceous … late flood ??

Kronosaurus fossil displayed where found in 1977

Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, Boyacá
Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, Boyacá

Eastern Cordillera

Ammonites

… in Villa de Leyva, Boyaca

Cañon del Rio Chicamocha, Santander

Western Cordillera … Cauca state

volcanic rocks (diabase)

Barroso Complex

Cenozoic (Paleocene) … post-flood ?? La Guajira

Titanoboa

fossils from Cerrejon coal mine like modern rainforest plants

Economic deposits
Economic
deposits
Oil
Oil

Río Magdalena entre Honda y el Banco Valle del Catatumbo y Zulia Llanura del Caribe y Bajo Magdalena Alto Magdalena Putumayo Llanos Orientales Litoral del Atlántico, valles del Sinú y San Jorge Litoral del Pacífico

Coal mine, Cerrejon-Guajira

Gold
Gold

mined before Spanish Conquest in veins & sands of some rivers

Emeralds
Emeralds

- best in the world for color, brightness

  • - Cretaceous

  • - in limestones affected by hydrothermal fluids

Tectonic Setting
Tectonic Setting

Cediel, Shaw and Caceres, 2003)

porphyry copper deposits by age red stars = 0-10 Ma blue stars = 11-20 Ma

black triangles = modern volcanoes

Volcanoes
Volcanoes

Volcano Cumbal, Narino

Volcano Nevado del Ruiz

lahars covered town of Armero

more than 20,000 people died November 13, 1985

Volcano Nevado del Huila … 5365 m

3) Time – Radiometric Dating
3) Time – Radiometric Dating

1.

2.

Age from – decay rate, # parent atoms, # daughter atoms Concordance between methods
Age from – decay rate,
# parent atoms, # daughter atoms
Concordance between methods
ORGANIC – dates life directly – – – Materials: bones, wood, shells, … Ages: generally less
ORGANIC – dates life directly
Materials: bones, wood, shells, …
Ages: generally less than 50,000 years
Isotope: carbon-14 ( 14 C→ 14 N)
Materials: minerals, rocks
Ages: millions, billions of years
Isotopes: U,Th→Pb, K→Ar, Rb→Sr, …

INORGANIC dates fossils only by association

Suggested creationist ideas, but …
Suggested creationist ideas,
but …
They don’t really answer the question a) Radiometric data – invalidated by discordance b) Geochemistry –
They don’t really answer the question
a)
Radiometric data – invalidated by discordance
b)
Geochemistry – alternative explanations
c)
Geology – evidence of rapid activity
d)
Physics – relative time
e)
Physical constants – change
f)
Philosophy – problems with extrapolation
g)
Models – old earth / young life
h)
Supernatural – unexpected effects on nature
a) Discordance … the Rb-Sr method. Ideally, all minerals of an igneous rock should indicate the
a) Discordance
… the Rb-Sr method. Ideally, all minerals
of an igneous rock should indicate the
same date which can then be regarded
as the age of the rock. When mineral
dates obtained from one rock specimen
or from a suite of cogenetic igneous
rocks are in agreement, they are said to
be “concordant.” Unfortunately,
“discordance” of mineral dates is more
common than “concordance.”
-- Gunter Faure. Principles of Isotope Geology, 2 nd
ed. (1986), p.120
Carbon-14 -- ~1000 yrs K-Ar -- ~100,000 yrs
Carbon-14 -- ~1000 yrs
K-Ar -- ~100,000 yrs

Mt. Rangitoto, NZ

b) Geochemistry
b) Geochemistry

Inherited age for high temperature minerals with unmelted crystals Contamination from wall rock Retention of the
Inherited age for high
temperature minerals with
unmelted crystals
Contamination from wall rock
Retention of the argon noble gas
daughter isotope in the mineral
due to hydrostatic pressure [K-
Ar method]
Mixing from two sources … with
straight lines giving pseudo-
isochrons [especially the Rb-Sr
method]
Age due to fractionation/zonation
in magma chamber
(rapid activity, so dating can‟t be right) Rapid Activity – Paraconformities ~100 m.y. missing at an
(rapid activity, so dating can‟t be right)
Rapid Activity
Paraconformities
~100 m.y. missing at an
apparently flat contact
Catastrophes, rapid
burial
Short Time – Carbon-14 in coal, dinosaur soft tissue
Short Time
Carbon-14 in coal,
dinosaur soft tissue

c) Geological

d) Physics – Relative time differences in Speed – Special relativity – e.g., decay rates change

d) Physics Relative time

differences in Speed –
differences in
Speed

Special relativity e.g., decay rates change

d) Physics – Relative time differences in Speed – Special relativity – e.g., decay rates change
Gravitational fields General relativity – e.g., black holes, wormholes
Gravitational fields
General relativity – e.g., black
holes, wormholes
– [Refs: Daniel 9; DA 356]
[Refs: Daniel 9; DA 356]

Rate of time flow non-uniform between time-frames due to

Relativistic effects have been suggested to solve discrepancy between science and Genesis

d) Physics – Relative time differences in Speed – Special relativity – e.g., decay rates change
Relativity – Einstein‟s definition:
Relativity – Einstein‟s definition:
“When a man sits with a pretty girl for an hour, it seems like a minute.
“When a man sits with
a pretty girl for an
hour, it seems like a
minute. But let him sit
on a hot stove for a
minute and it’s longer
than any hour. That’s
relativity.”
e) Change in physical constants – Change in decay rate►  Change in speed of light►

e) Change in physical constants

– Change in decay rate►  Change in speed of light► – Polonium pleochroic haloes►
Change in decay rate►
Change in speed of light►
Polonium pleochroic haloes►
e) Change in physical constants – Change in decay rate►  Change in speed of light►
e) Change in physical constants – Change in decay rate►  Change in speed of light►
e) Change in physical constants – Change in decay rate►  Change in speed of light►
f) Philosophical
f) Philosophical
a) Danger of extrapolation  E.g., child’s growth►
a) Danger of extrapolation
E.g., child’s growth►
Jan-87 80 Height (inches) Date Jan-99 Jan-97 Jan-95 Jan-93 Jan-91 Jan-89 Karen's growth Jan-85 Jan-83 70
Jan-87
80
Height (inches)
Date
Jan-99
Jan-97
Jan-95
Jan-93
Jan-91
Jan-89
Karen's growth
Jan-85
Jan-83
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
85 Height (inches) 0 Karen's growth Jan- Jan- 89 Jan- 87 Jan- 91 Jan- 20 83
85
Height (inches)
0
Karen's growth
Jan-
Jan-
89
Jan-
87
Jan-
91
Jan-
20
83
Jan-
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
03
Jan-
13
Jan-
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Jan-
09
Jan-
07
Jan- Jan-
05
Date
15
Jan-
01
Jan-
99
Jan-
97
Jan-
95
Jan-
93
f) con‟t … Philosophical
f) con‟t … Philosophical
b) Hope for scientific revolution 
b) Hope for scientific revolution

Lord Kelvin estimated age of earth in 1800s, with no knowledge of radioactivity

f) con‟t … Philosophical b) Hope for scientific revolution  Lord Kelvin estimated age of earth

Estimates changed by 2 orders of magnitude after discovery of radioactivity


f) con‟t … Philosophical b) Hope for scientific revolution  Lord Kelvin estimated age of earth
c) 1000x as many studying rocks in standard paradigm d) Have found answers for some problems
c) 1000x as many studying rocks in
standard paradigm
d) Have found answers for some
problems in past, e.g., Yellowstone
fossil forests

e) Time a “god-of-the-gaps” for evolution?

g) Intermediate models (between extremes)
g) Intermediate models (between extremes)
 Entire universe young  Soft/passive gap – old earth / young life – universe old,
Entire universe young
Soft/passive gap – old earth / young life
universe old, solar system/earth old, life not
exactly 6000 yrs


Extended flood model 1-year, worldwide flood … BUT

g) Intermediate models (between extremes)  Entire universe young  Soft/passive gap – old earth /
– only part of geology deposited then, somewhat extended time
only part of geology deposited then, somewhat
extended time
 Progressive creation, theistic evolution 
Progressive creation, theistic evolution
Universe totally naturalistic
Universe totally naturalistic
h) Supernatural
h) Supernatural
 Believe Scripture, forget the data – “God has a 1000 ways …”  A miracle
Believe Scripture, forget the data –
“God has a 1000 ways …”
A miracle
different conditions during creation/flood
so can’t develop scientific model
Time different for the Creator
Everlasting (Ps 90:2; Ps 102:27)
Known from beginning to end (Is 46:9,10)
Not necessarily same as for humans (Ps 90:4; 2 Pet 3:8)
Intervention results in strange effects on time perception
Appearance of age at end of creation week
OT – Joshua’s long day; Hezekiah’s sundial
NT – water to wine; loaves/fishes multiplied
E.g., Shroud of Turin►
Why I prefer a short-age model get the bad stuff over as quick as possible recent

Why I prefer a short-age model

get the bad stuff over as quick as possible

recent entrance of evil

Seventh-day Adventist short past / short future

quick restoration to good

Church‟s wish:
Church‟s wish:
 teachings about origins as nicely confirmed by science as teachings about health  e.g, tobacco,
teachings about origins
as nicely confirmed by science
as teachings about health
 e.g, tobacco, diet, etc., …
but unlikely to easily happen because
origins has to do with 1-time events,
rather than on-going processes
Research on the Inanimate Creation
Research on the Inanimate Creation
 Short chronology – lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time – preferred anyway – theodicy
Short chronology
– lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time
– preferred anyway – theodicy
Research
– guidelines
– examples – California, Peru
Conclusions
Guidelines: what not to do
Guidelines:
what not to do
DON’T  Get lost in details – there are bigger questions  Be impatient – 400
DON’T
Get lost in details – there are bigger questions
Be impatient – 400 years for Galileo
Blame scientists – not more evil than anyone else
Blame God – He’s not the source of evil
Give up on creation – even if “scientifically refuted”
– signs were not Jesus’ primary approach
Expect scientific model for God’s 1-time intervention
– belief not based on science
Be too quick to judge scientist friends
Guidelines: The „Andrews University Way‟ of Doing Archaeology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Be forthright

Guidelines:

The „Andrews University Way‟
The „Andrews University Way‟
of Doing Archaeology
of Doing Archaeology

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Be forthright with findings. Do not minimize problems or stretch interpretations of data to explain things away.

Guidelines: The „Andrews University Way‟ of Doing Archaeology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Be forthright
Do not make claims beyond what the data can support.
Do not make claims beyond what the data can support.
Be quick and complete in publishing results. Engage and work within mainstream scholarship. Include a diversity
Be quick and complete in publishing results.
Engage and work within mainstream scholarship.
Include a diversity of people and specialists.
Take the history of the Bible seriously, but do not place upon
archaeology the burden of “proving” the Bible.
Guidelines: suggested approach
Guidelines:
suggested approach
 Work within scientific community  Pick a big issue, not just some detail  Work
Work within scientific community
Pick a big issue, not just some detail
Work toward a model, not just an attack
Use care with resulting claims
No purely naturalistic model (1-time events)
Research Examples: Granites and Plate Tectonics: California and Peru
Research Examples:
Granites and Plate Tectonics:
California and Peru
California – ~287 composite samples taken on a grid
California –
~287 composite samples taken on a grid
33.5 34.0 -118.0 -117.5 -117.0 -116.5 -116.0 32.5 Los Angeles Agua Caliente fault San Andreas fault
33.5
34.0
-118.0
-117.5
-117.0
-116.5
-116.0
32.5
Los
Angeles
Agua Caliente fault
San Andreas fault
San Jacinto fault
shear zone
SAN BERNARDINO
suture zone
block
PALM SPRINGS
SAN DIEGO
San Jacinto
Perris block
Santa Ana block
Elsinore fault
PACIFIC
OCEAN
(Baird et al. 1984)
33.0
Peru – Mesozoic Coastal Batholith

Peru Mesozoic Coastal Batholith

Peru – Mesozoic Coastal Batholith
Peru – Mesozoic Coastal Batholith
Research Plans (2013)
Research Plans (2013)

1) Formation of matter (nuclear physics)

Research Plans (2013) 1) Formation of matter (nuclear physics) – source of earth’s elements 2) Geologic
– source of earth’s elements
source of earth’s elements
Research Plans (2013) 1) Formation of matter (nuclear physics) – source of earth’s elements 2) Geologic

2) Geologic sequence (vertical)

– especially granites
especially granites
Research Plans (2013) 1) Formation of matter (nuclear physics) – source of earth’s elements 2) Geologic
– initiation, rates – batholiths, ocean floor
– initiation, rates
– batholiths, ocean floor

3) Plate tectonics (horizontal)

4) Cooling rates

– discordance, geochem, old earth, rate change
– discordance, geochem, old earth, rate change

5) Radiometric dating (time)

1) Element formation
1) Element formation
1) Element formation fusion bomb fission bomb binding energy curve star supernova

fusion bomb

fission bomb

binding energy curve

star

1) Element formation fusion bomb fission bomb binding energy curve star supernova

supernova

1) Element formation fusion bomb fission bomb binding energy curve star supernova
2) “Granite formation: catastrophic in its suddenness” -- Tas Walker, Journal of Creation, Aug 2007 Model

2) “Granite formation:

catastrophic in its suddenness” -- Tas Walker, Journal of Creation, Aug 2007
catastrophic in its suddenness”
-- Tas Walker, Journal of Creation, Aug 2007
Model for the origin of granite a) Partial melting of source rock in lower crust b)
Model for the origin of granite
a)
Partial melting of source rock in lower crust
b)
Separation of magma from solid residue
c)
Transport of magma in dykes to upper crust
d)
Emplacement of magma in tabular pluton
e)
Crystallization of pluton
f)
Cooling of pluton

http://creation.com/granite-formation-catastrophic-in-its-suddenness

granite emplacement
granite
emplacement
igneous rocks intruded into metamorphosed sediments
igneous rocks
intruded into
metamorphosed
sediments

Sun City, California

3) rates – plate tectonics large data base … episodic/rapid ??
3) rates – plate tectonics
large data base … episodic/rapid ??
Mt. San Jacinto 4) cooling – computer modeling
Mt. San Jacinto
4) cooling – computer modeling

Luciano Gonzalez, Montemorelos

Mt San Jacinto, Palm Springs, California

5) mixing line rather than isochron could claim an answer, but know better than that
5) mixing line rather than isochron
could claim an answer, but know better than that
0.710 168±23 Ma ? tonalite granodiorite ~ 114±8 Ma 125±4 Ma gabbro 2.5 0.703 0.704 0.705
0.710
168±23 Ma ?
tonalite
granodiorite
~ 114±8 Ma
125±4 Ma
gabbro
2.5
0.703
0.704
0.705
0.706
0.707
0.708
0.709
Sr/ 86 Sr
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
3
3.5
87
Rb/ 86 Sr
87
mixing
mixing
mixing Rio Ica Peru Rio Pisco mixing line
 

Rio Ica

Peru

 

Rio Pisco

mixing line

Coastal Batholith, Peru
Coastal Batholith, Peru

Ana Martinez

thin section evidence for mixing
thin section evidence for mixing
 10715B @ Linga (Rio Pisco) – uralitization  10715F @ Tiabaya (Rio Pisco) – reverse
10715B @ Linga (Rio Pisco)
– uralitization
10715F @ Tiabaya (Rio Pisco)
– reverse zoning
10720V @ Tiabaya (Rio Ica)
– reverse zoning
Why magma mixing doesn‟t solve the problem  U-Pb dates are in zircon mineral, not whole

Why magma mixing doesn‟t solve the problem

 U-Pb dates are in zircon mineral, not whole rock  K-Ar dates based on loss
U-Pb dates are in zircon mineral, not
whole rock
K-Ar dates based on loss of Ar noble gas
Independent dates agree
Get a sequence of dates
No better mixing model available
Plate tectonics, batholith cooling, biogenic
activity still require time
Research on the Inanimate Creation
Research on the Inanimate Creation
 Short chronology – lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time – preferred anyway – theodicy
Short chronology
– lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time
– preferred anyway – theodicy
Research
– guidelines
– examples – California, Peru
Conclusions (4)
Conclusion #1
Conclusion #1
NEGATIVE = attack – perhaps true, needed … but destructive, unsatisfying  people – how can
NEGATIVE = attack – perhaps true, needed
… but destructive, unsatisfying
people – how can they believe that way?
models – evolution problems
philosophical – 1000x, historical science
POSITIVE = develop better models & test
… constructive, more satisfying
science models [when God works by process]
theology models [when God works by fiat]
intermediate models (e.g., old earth, young
time not an issue for God (DA367, 606) Process Fiat Genesis 2 Life grows Military conquest
time not an issue for God
(DA367, 606)
Process
Fiat
Genesis 2
Life grows
Military conquest
Everyday growth
Physicians today
Genesis 1
Life created
Walls fell, sun stood still
Water to wine,
multiply loaves/fishes
Miraculous healings
can study
inanimate ??
harder to study
animate ??

Conclusion #2 God works by process & fiat

Conclusion #3 – a possible approach  Revelation & church – respect – limited … due
Conclusion #3 – a possible approach
Revelation & church
– respect
– limited … due to the human element
– reinterpret … based on physical evidence
Nature & science
– respect
– limited … physics, biology, geology
– reinterpret … creation/flood research
Relating science/religion … but not too tightly
– 1 st revelation … 2 nd science … 3 rd coherence
– THUS: less worry – God has a thousand ways
(DA330) …
People – why it even makes a difference
Conclusion #4
Conclusion #4
As a scientist, I may appear to bow to the “god of science” as Naaman bowed
As a scientist, I may appear to bow to the
“god of science” as Naaman bowed with
his master in a Syrian temple, but as
Naaman told Elisha: Your servant will not
offer burnt offering or sacrifice to any god
but the Lord” (2 Kings 5:17, RSV).
Job’s wife – saw problems, refused to believe
Job’s friends – believed, refused to see problems
Job – saw problems, but still believed (13:15)
Research on the Inanimate Creation
Research on the Inanimate Creation
 Short chronology – lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time – preferred anyway – theodicy
Short chronology
– lack of models – horizontal, vertical, time
– preferred anyway – theodicy
Research
– guidelines
– examples – California, Peru
Conclusions