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WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO)

STANDARD FOR NOISE POLLUTION


The WHO guideline
values in Table 4.1
are organized
according to specific
environments


Hearing Protection
1. CSHOs should determine if an employer has complied with the
requirements in Chapter 296-817 WAC, and other industry specific
standards that contain hearing protection elements. When
permissible noise exposure levels are exceeded, and feasible
administrative or engineering controls fail to reduce the noise level
to below the PEL, the employer must provide hearing protection to
each affected employee. CSHOs shall determine whether employers
have identified all affected employees and ensure each employee
exposed above permissible noise levels wears appropriate hearing
protection.
1.CSHOs perlu menentukan jika majikan telah mematuhi keperluan
dalam Bab 296-817 WAC, dan lain piawaian industri tertentu yang
mengandungi elemen perlindungan pendengaran. Apabila tahap
pendedahan bunyi bising yang dibenarkan dilampaui, dan kawalan
pentadbiran atau kejuruteraan yang dilaksanakan gagal untuk
mengurangkan tahap bunyi bising di bawah PEL, majikan perlu
menyediakan perlindungan pendengaran kepada setiap pekerja terjejas.
CSHOs hendaklah menentukan sama ada majikan telah mengenal pasti
semua pekerja yang terlibat dan memastikan setiap pekerja terdedah
melebihi paras bunyi yang dibenarkan memakai perlindungan
pendengaran yang sesuai.
DEPARTMENT OF SAFETY AND HEALTH
(DOSH) STANDARD FOR NOISE POLLUTION
2. Hearing protection equipment must be replaced as necessary (WAC 296-
817-20015), as all types of PPE have a limited life span. For example, the
foam seal on earmuffs, flanges on rubber earplugs, and foam earplugs all lose
their elasticity over time. As hearing protectors wear out, their attenuation
properties are diminished. Also, the headband on earmuffs can relax so that
they no longer provide a snug fit. Although some foam earplugs can be
washed several times in mild soap and water, they should usually be changed
every day or two, especially in dusty or oily environments. They should not be
removed with dirty hands if they are expected to be reused, as reinsertion of
dirty earplugs may cause ear infections.
2.Mendengar peralatan perlindungan hendaklah digantikan seperti yang
diperlukan (WAC 296-817-20015), kerana semua jenis PPE mempunyai jangka
hayat yang terhad. Sebagai contoh, meterai buih pada alat penutup telinga,
bebibir pada penyumbat telinga getah, dan penyumbat telinga buih semua
kehilangan keanjalan mereka dari masa ke masa. Sebagai pelindung
pendengaran haus, hartanah pengecilan mereka berkurangan. Juga, destar
pada alat penutup telinga boleh berehat supaya mereka tidak lagi
menyediakan patut selesa. Walaupun beberapa penyumbat telinga buih boleh
dibasuh beberapa kali dalam sabun lembut dan air, mereka biasanya perlu
ditukar setiap hari atau dua, terutama dalam persekitaran yang berhabuk atau
berminyak. Mereka tidak perlu dikeluarkan dengan tangan yang kotor jika
mereka dijangka akan diguna semula, sebagai reinsertion penyumbat telinga
kotor boleh menyebabkan jangkitan telinga.
NOISE MEASUREMENT UNIT
(DECIBEL) FOR NOISE
POLLUTION
THE TYPES OF NOISE
POLLUTION LEVEL
Environment Critical health effect Sound level dB(A)* Time hours
Outdoor living areas Annoyance 50 - 55 16
Indoor dwellings Speech intelligibility 35 16
Bedrooms Sleep disturbance 30 8
School classrooms Disturbance of communication 35 During class
Industrial, commercial and traffic areas Hearing impairment 70 24
Music through earphones Hearing impairment 85 1
Ceremonies and entertainment Hearing impairment 100 4

Sound Pressure Level And Frequency
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure
deviation from the ambient (average, or equilibrium) atmospheric
pressure caused by a sound wave.
Tekanan bunyi atau tekanan akustik ialah agihan tekanan
tempatan dari tekanan atmosfera sekeliling (purata, atau
keseimbangan) disebabkan oleh gelombang bunyi.

In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in
water with a hydrophone.
The SI unit for sound pressure p is the pascal (symbol: Pa).
Sound pressure level (SPL) or sound level is a logarithmic
measure of the effective sound pressure of a sound relative to a
reference value. It is measured in decibels (dB) above a standard
reference level.
The commonly used "zero" reference sound pressure in air or other
gases is 20 Pa RMS, which is usually considered the threshold of
human hearing (at 1 kHz).


Frequency of Sound
Sound is the quickly varying pressure wave travelling through a
medium.
When sound travels through air, the atmospheric pressure varies
periodically.
The number of pressure variations per second is called the
frequency of sound, and is measured in Hertz (Hz) which is
defined as cycles per second.
The higher the frequency, the more high-pitched a sound is
perceived.
The sounds produced by drums have much lower frequencies
than those produced by a whistle.
NOISE POLLUTION IN INDUSTRY
AND CONSTRUCTION AREA
Industrial Noise
In practice, noise limits for industrial activities are
often specified having regard to the principles
contained in the EPA Guidance Note for Noise in
Relation to Scheduled Activities - 2nd Edition, the
International Standard ISO 1996: Parts 1, 2, & 3
Description and Measurement of Environmental
Noise, and BS 4142: 1997 Rating Industrial
Noise Affecting Mixed Residential and Industrial
Areas.

Construction Noise
Noise generated by construction activities particularly in urban
areas can impact on any adjacent residential and indeed
commercial areas, such impacts can be even more severe at night.
Construction site noise can also be a health hazard for those who
are working on site.

Construction Activity Sound pressure in dB(A)
Rock drill 110
7hp road roller on concrete at 10m 100
Scaffold dismantling at 10m 80
5hp power float at 7m 70
Typical office 60
Traffic And Transportation To Noise Pollution
The main sources of traffic noise are the cars, autos , trucks,
buses, and motorcycles.
elevated noise levels can create stress.
increase workplace accident rates.
stimulating aggression and other anti-social behaviors.
In Norway, road traffic has been demonstrated to cause
almost 80% of the noise annoyances reported.
One in five Europeans is regularly exposed to sound levels at
night that could significantly damage health.

DOMESTIC AREA
Noise nuisance (domestic)
Noisy neighbours are a common source of
nuisance, main noise complaints involve barking
dogs, loud music or TV, shouting, banging doors
DIY activities, domestic electrical equipment,
fireworks, ventilation, or air conditioning
equipment.
Some domestic noise sources, such as power
tools and air conditioning units have mandated
noise levels that they must meet.
A number of common domestic noise sources
may cause an environmental nuisance.
IDENTIFY THE EFFECTS OF NOISE
POLLUTION TO AUDITORY
The main auditory effects include:
Acoustic trauma:
Sudden hearing damage caused by short burst of extremely loud noise such as a gun shot.
Tinnitus:
Ringing or buzzing in the ear.
Temporary hearing loss:
Also known as temporary threshold shift (TTS) which occurs immediately after exposure to a
high level of noise. There is gradual recovery when the affected person spends time in a quiet
place. Complete recovery may take several hours.
Permanent hearing loss:
Permanent hearing loss, also known as permanent threshold shift (PTS), progresses constantly
as noise exposure continues month after month and year after year. The hearing impairment is
noticeable only when it is substantial enough to interfere with routine activities. At this stage, a
permanent and irreversible hearing damage has occurred. Noise-induced hearing damage
cannot be cured by medical treatment and worsens as noise exposure continues.
When noise exposure stops, the person does not regain the lost hearing sensitivity. As the
employee ages, hearing may worsen as "age-related hearing loss" adds to the existing noise-
induced hearing loss.

JUSTIFY HUMAN HEARING DAMAGE
AND HEARING MECHANISM
Hearing loss
Mekanisme kehilangan pendengaran timbul daripada trauma kepada stereocilia daripada
koklea, struktur cecair utama diisi telinga Pinna digabungkan dengan telinga tengah
menguatkan tahap tekanan bunyi dengan faktor dua puluh, supaya bunyi yang sangat
tinggi tahap tekanan tiba di koklea, walaupun dari sederhana rangsangan bunyi
atmosfera.
Asas patologi koklea adalah spesis oksigen reaktif, yang memainkan peranan penting
dalam nekrosis bunyi-teraruh dan apoptosis daripada stereocilia. Pendedahan kepada
tahap bunyi bising yang tinggi mempunyai kesan yang berbeza di kalangan penduduk
yang diberikan, dan penglibatan spesies oksigen reaktif mencadangkan cara yang
mungkin untuk merawat atau mencegah kerosakan kepada pendengaran dan struktur sel
yang berkaitan.
Paras bunyi tinggi menyebabkan trauma kepada struktur koklea dalam telinga, yang
menimbulkan kehilangan pendengaran tidak dapat dipulihkan. Satu bunyi yang sangat
kuat dalam julat frekuensi tertentu boleh merosakkan sel-sel rambut koklea yang
bertindak balas kepada pelbagai itu, sekali gus mengurangkan telinga ini keupayaan
untuk mendengar frekuensi yang pada masa akan datang, Walau bagaimanapun, bunyi
yang kuat di mana-mana julat frekuensi mempunyai kesan yang merosakkan seluruh
rangkaian seluruh pendengaran manusia. Bahagian luar telinga (bahagian kelihatan
telinga manusia) digabungkan dengan telinga tengah menguatkan paras bunyi dengan
faktor 20 apabila bunyi sampai telinga.

Cross Section Of The Inner Ear
Noise Pollution To Interruption Of Human Communications
Noise comes to the level of pollution while it interferes with
human communication.
Noise pollution interferes with the ability to comprehend
normal speech and may lead to a number of personal
disabilities, handicaps, and behavioral changes.
Disruption of communication in the classroom, and impaired
academic performance.

Noise can disrupt the communication such as direct
conversation or by telephone

Communication disorders Feeling less comfortable talking Perhaps misinterpreting instructions,


non impropriety in doing tasks such as; During learning sessions, meetings, announcements,
instructions, gathering

IDENTIFY THE EFFECTS OF NOISE
POLLUTION TO NON-AUDITORY
The Effect Of Human Health And Work Quality
Sound effects are related to health and natural behavior.
This unwanted sound can damage physiological health and
animal physiology.
Pressure and hypertension is a major cause of health
problems, where the ear buzzing or 'tinnitus' which can
cause a person to suffer from memory problems, severe
depression and panic attacks are unpredictable.
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects
and exposure to moderately high levels during the eight
hours can result in statistically significant increase in blood
pressure of five to ten points.
Increased stress or 'vasoconstrictionalso led to and
"vasoconstriction" lead to increased blood pressure as well
as increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise can also affect the level of efficiency in performing a
job.
The work requires creativity, conversation or routine work
that requires constant speed very easily affected by noise
and thus result in the occurrence of many mistakes.
Outdoor Activities That Can Cause Noise Pollution
The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and
transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail
noise.
Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side
industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the
residential area.
Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise.
In big cities ,increased risk of disturbed sleep patterns and high blood
pressure.
Bursting of a firecracker near the ear can lead sometimes to non-recoverable
hearing loss.
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects in humans, a rise in
blood pressure, and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction, and an
increased incidence of coronary artery disease.
In children, chronic aircraft noise exposure impairs reading comprehension and
long-term memory and may be associated with raised blood pressure.
In animals, noise can increase the risk of death by altering predator or prey
detection and avoidance, interfere with reproduction and navigation, and
contribute to permanent hearing loss.


Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all
mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including vibration, sound,
ultrasound and infrasound.
acoustic privacy - (uh.KOO.stik PRY.vuh.see) n. A state or condition in which
external sounds are reduced or eliminated.
An in-field determination of audio privacy between two points takes into
account all relevant coustical factors.
These factors include (1) the loudness of speech, music, or machines; (2)
the sound attenuation of intervening distance, walls, ceilings, floors, doors,
ducts, windows, piping, etc.; (3) the level of background sound at each
listening location; and (4) the listeners ability to electronically filter and
recover speech signals buried in background noise.


Explain Acoustics Privacy
Identify The Property Loss
Noise can cause property and environmental damage, especially when sonic
booms are involved.
For example, Bragdon (1972) asserts that people who live near airports not
only complain about sleep disruption, but that they also report damage to
their homes due to subsonic commercial flights.
Vibrations can also become a problem, especially if you are close to quarries,
mines or tunnels.
Humans can detect very low level vibrations and they can cause damage to
property.

Distinguish The Effects On Natural
Environment To Aesthetic
Values
Environmental - noise can have a
notable impact on the natural
environment, for example noise
may alter birds breeding patterns,
disturb wildlife and damage
sensitive ecosystems.

Apply Noise Mitigation To
Overcome Noise Pollution
Noise control or noise mitigation is a set of strategies to reduce noise
pollution or to reduce the impact of that noise, whether outdoors or indoors.
The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are: transportation noise
control, architectural design, urban planning through zoning codes,
[1]
and
occupational noise control.
Roadway noise and aircraft noise are the most pervasive sources of
environmental noise worldwide, and little change has been effected in
source control in these areas.
Multiple techniques have been developed to address interior sound levels,
many of which are encouraged by local building codes; in the best case of
project designs, planners are encouraged to work with design engineers to
examine trade-offs of roadway design and architectural design.
These techniques include design of exterior walls, party walls, and floor and
ceiling assemblies.


Mitigating measures to control excessive noise levels at the construction site:
Replace the machinery or equipment that produces noise quieter
Protect recipients/employees with silencer.
Createa quieter machine for piling.
Install noise barriers around the construction site.

Explain The Parameter In Noise
Pollution Measurement
Noise Measuring Devices

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is the international body that
decides the technical specification of noise measuring instruments such as
sound level meter and dosimeter because standardizing the technical values
are important, so that incorrect measurements of different noise measuring
instruments can be avoided.

Sound Level Meter
It is also called 'an exponentially averaging sound level meter' because the
AC (alternating current) signal from the microphone is converted into DC
(direct current) by a RMS (root mean square) circuit.

Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is the measure used in sound level meter for
calculating the noise. The formula for calculating SPL is -

SPL = 20 log10 (root mean square sound pressure/reference sound
pressure)



Noise Dosimeter
Dosimeter is used in places where the noise level is varying and not
continuous.
When the meter is powered, the display annunciators such as dose,
criterion level (Lc), threshold level (Lt) and exchange rate (ER) are switched
on.
The noise level exposure of an employee working for more than 8 hours per
day can be calculated by using the formula below :

LAeq8h = LAeq + 10 log10 [T/8]
where,

LAeq is the equivalent continuous A weighted sound pressure level
measured over a period of time.
T, represents the number of shift hours of a worker in an industry.


Microphones
Condenser microphones, dynamic microphones and ceramic microphones are
some of the devices that are used to measure noise levels.
Condenser microphone measurement ranges from 0.01 Hz to 140 KHz.

Noise Level Analyzer
It is a device that is used for monitoring and measuring environmental noise
due to traffic in roads, aircraft noise in airports and other noises where
statistical information is required.




EXPLAIN THE CONTROL OF NOISE AT
SOURCE
The main areas of noise mitigation or abatement are: transportation noise
control, architectural design, urban planning through zoning codes,
[1]
and
occupational noise control.

Noise control techniques include:
Sound insulation: prevent the transmission of noise by the introduction of a
mass barrier. Common materials have high-density properties such as brick,
thick glass, concrete, metal etc.
Sound absorption: a porous material which acts as a noise sponge by
converting the sound energy into heat within the material. Common sound
absorption materials include decoupled lead-based tiles, open cell foams and
fiberglass
Vibration damping: applicable for large vibrating surfaces. The damping
mechanism works by extracting the vibration energy from the thin sheet and
dissipating it as heat. A common material is sound deadened steel.
Vibration isolation: prevents transmission of vibration energy from a source to
a receiver by introducing a flexible element or a physical break. Common
vibration isolators are springs, rubber mounts, cork etc.


EXPLAIN THE CONTROL OF NOISE
TRANSMISSION
Increase The Pathway Distance
Soundproofing Techniques
- soundproofing treatment of the walls, by covering with
absorbent materials such as:
porous materials (polyurethane foam with open pores,
mineral foam, rigid
mineral foam and expanded - foam of clay);
fibrous material (glass wool);
closed-cell materials (expanded polystyrene).

Noise Barrier
Since the early 1970s, it has become
common practice in the United States and
other industrialized countries to engineer
noise barriers along major highways to
protect adjacent residents from intruding
roadway noise.
The technology exists to predict accurately
the optimum geometry for the noise
barrier design.
Noise barriers may be constructed of
wood, masonry, earth or a combination
thereof.
EXPLAIN THE PROTECTION OF
EXPOSED PERSON
Protection From The Receiver
Prevention of individuals who are affected with the noise by
taking them insulated areas or make them use ear protectors.
These measures do not reduce the noise but protect the
individuals.
Its protection in soundproof cabin.
The personal protection on noise pollution in industrial
environments is achieved by using special systems called
earplugs.

INDUSTRIAL NOISE CONTROL
Acousting Quieting
Acoustic quieting is the process of making machinery quieter
by damping vibrations to prevent them from reaching the
observer.
Machinery vibrates, causing sound waves in air, hydroacoustic
waves in water, and mechanical stresses in solid matter.
Quieting is achieved by absorbing the vibrational energy or
minimizing the source of the vibration or redirected away from
the observer.
Sound isolation: Noise isolation is isolating noise to prevent
it from transferring out of one area, using barriers like
deadening materials to trap sound and vibrational energy.
Example: In home and office construction, many builders
place sound-control barriers (such as fiberglass batting) in
walls to deaden the transmission of noise through them.
Mechanical,isolation Technique
The mechanisms of reproductive isolation or
hybridization barriers are a collection of mechanisms,
behaviors and physiological processes that prevent the
members of two different species that cross or mate from
producing offspring, or which ensure that any offspring that
may be produced is not fertile.
These barriers maintain the integrity of a species over time,
reducing or directly impeding gene flow between individuals of
different species, allowing the conservation of each species
characteristics.


Acoustical Absorption
Acoustic absorption refers to a material, structure or object
absorbing sound energy when sound waves collide with it, as
opposed to reflecting the energy.
Part of the absorbed energy is transformed into heat and part is
transmitted.
The energy transformed into heat is said to have been 'lost'.

When sound from a loudspeaker collides with the walls of a
room part of the sound's energy is reflected and part is
absorbed into the walls.
As the waves travel through the wall they deform the material
thereof (just like they deformed the air before).
This deformation has mechanical losses which convert part of
the sound energy into heat through acoustic attenuation,
mostly due to the wall's viscosity.
The same attenuating mechanics apply for the air and any other
medium through which sound travels.