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Eco-Friendly Recycling

We Recycle to Save Environment


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Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
ABOUT GRAVITA
Established in the year 1992
Dedicated to Secondary Lead Metal since past 18 years
Over 500 plus Lead Professionals placed globally
The company is head quartered at Jaipur (India) with presently, 9 recycling
facilities spread over the four continents

INDIA
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
OUR MAJOR BUSINESS VERTICALS
International Business
Import & Mercantile export of Lead Raw Materials &
finished Products
Turnkey Projects
Lead Recycling, Smelting and Refining Plants: End to End Solutions
Process & Pollution control Technology
Technical Consultancy to establish Lead Battery Recycling Projects

Manufacturing Operations
Lead Smelting, Refining, Alloying, Oxides (LSO,
Red Lead & Litharge)

Continuous R & D with
Operational Excellence creates
difference


Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
OUR NETWORK LOCATION MAP
H.O.- Jaipur
INDIA

Mirigama
SRI LANKA
Addis Ababa, ETHIOPIA
Tema
GHANA
Maputo, MOZAMBIQUE
Antananarivo, MADAGASCAR
Dakar
SENEGAL
Lusaka
ZAMBIA
San Pedro Sula
HONDURAS
Tiblisi
GEORGIA

Gravita Group Operations
Turnkey Projects Implementation
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Under Construction
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
POLLUTION PREVENTION HIERARCHY
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Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
WHY LEAD RECYCLING
Secondary Production of Lead (Recycling) from Scrap results in less Solid
Wastes, uses less energy & reduces the consumption of minerals resources
compared to the Lead Production from Ores.
Lead Battery Scrap is a Hazardous waste
and unsafe disposal creates
Environmental / Health problems.

Careful Recycling is essential, beneficial &
cost effective in comparison to its safe
disposal cost.
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
LEAD
OXIDES
BATTERY RECYCLING CYCLE
Lead is the 5
th
most widely used
Metal on earth

Lead has highest rate of recycling
among all Ferrous & Non-Ferrous
Metals

Lead is only metal on earth which
retains its 100% Chemical &
Physical properties, irrespective of
any number of recycling

Worldwide production of secondary
Lead has increased substantially in
the past decade.

NEW
BATTERY
END USER
USED
BATTERY
PLASTIC LEAD
METAL IN
GRIDS
ACID FOR
NEUTRALIZATION
SODIUM
SULPHATE
CRYSTALS
GLASS, TEXTILES,
DETERGENTS
LEAD
INGOTS
PLASTIC
PELLETS
NEW
COVERS &
CASES
NEW
GRIDS
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
We Recycle to Save Environment
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
PRIMARY SECONDARY
GLOBAL TRENDS OF LEAD METAL PRODUCTION
Gap between the Production from Primary & Secondary sources has
increased in the last 2 Decades
World Lead Production Trend
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Increase in demand of Lead and
Concern for the Environment :
Increase in Secondary Production
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
We Recycle to Save Environment
GLOBAL LEAD METAL MARKET
Metal Consumption and Yearly Average LME price, 2004-2009
Source : Metalworld 2009
6500
7000
7500
8000
8500
9000
2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
Consumption LME Yearly Average
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The total Lead metal consumption has
increased by approx 17% in the past five
years

0
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Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
GLOBAL LEAD INDUSTRY OVERVIEW
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
BATTERIES
Emerging demand of UPS
Invertors
Power systems in Telecomm,
Automobile & Other fields
ROLLED AND EXTRUDED PRODUCTS
PIGMENTS & CHEMICALS
AMMUNITION & SHOTS
MISCELLANEOUS
ALLOYS
CABLE SHEATHING

CONSUMPTION SEGMENTATION

The total Lead metal consumption in
batteries has increased in the past
decade whereas the use in paints has
decreased
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
We Recycle to Save Environment
BACKYARD SMELTERS ARE MUSHROOMING
High Demand of Lead Metal - Leading to birth of Backyard
Smelters.
Shortage of Supply - Way towards Small Unconventional /
Backyard recycling Practices
Price Hikes in Lead Metal
Poor Implementation of Laws
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
Short-term Lead exposure of high doses can result in serious
illness
Long-term overexposure can cause numerous health problems
and can also prove fatal
Lead is hazardous to mankind & living organisms, if NOT
handled properly
Occupational hazards also needs attention
EFFECTS OF UNORAGANIZED LEAD PRACTICES
Let us come together and Join hands
to save our Mother Earth and be
more environmentally aware and
organized


Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
TIME TO AWAKE!
CONCERN ABOUT ENVIORNMENT
GREEN RECYCLING SYSTEM
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
STEPS INVOLVED IN ECO-FRIENDLY
LEAD RECYCLING PROCESS
Collection of whole wet BATTERIES
Safe Storage of Batteries
Drainage & Collection of Acid/Electrolyte
Neutralization of Acid/Electrolyte
Crushing & Separation of Lead bearing material & other component of battery
Smelting in Closed compact Furnace
with Effective Pollution Control
Equipments
Highly Efficient Refining Process
Effective control of the fumes & gases
generated during operation of furnaces
Proper treatment of wet & solid
effluents generated while pollution
control
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
GLOBAL GOVERNMENT POLICIES

With time most of the Government along with local representative bodies have emerged in order to
curb the ill-effects of Unconventional Recycling System & to promote Eco Friendly Recycling
Policies:

USA Battery Council International
EUROPE - Best Available Techniques (BAT), EU Directives Policies
IRELAND RETURNBATT country wide collection scheme
SWEDEN - RETURNBATT Scrap collector organization
GERMANY Revised form of EU Directives
ITALY COBAT Organization for Scrap Collection
JAPAN Battery Association of Japan (BAJ) promotes recycling activates
with Environmental Guidelines
INDIA Indian Lead & Zinc Development Association (ILZDA)

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LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
HIGHLIGHTS ON BATTERY COLLECTION
Collection Containers
Mobile Lead Recycling Vans/ Trucks
Battery Recycling Stations
For shopping centers, service stations, amenity areas and local authorities
Battery Recycling Center -
For All types of batteries
Lead Acid Battery Recycling Crates -
For All types of Lead Acid batteries
Battery Boxes
For domestic Batteries
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Battery Recycling
Containers
Lead Acid Battery Crates
Battery Boxes
COMPONENTS OF ORGANISED LEAD RECYCLING
Battery Crushing & Hydro separation Unit
Acid Draining & Acid Neutralization System
Rotary Type Smelting Furnace
Complete Pollution Control Equipments
Refining / Alloying Furnace
Fugitive Emission Control System
Ingot Casting Machine
PLC based Control Mechanism & Equipments
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
BATTERY CRUSHING & HYDROSEPARATION
Acid Draining & Neutralization System
Batteries with Acid are drained separately
to collect acid for further processing
Whole system is enclosed with fumigation
Hood to collect fumes.
Collected Acid will either reprocessed to
convert electrolyte or neutralized for
making by products.
Battery Breaking & Hydro separation
Drained Batteries are crushed with
Battery Breaker
PP, Metallic Lead & Lead Compounds (in
Paste form) Separation is done by
Hydro-Separation method
Grid & Paste processed separately
LEAD SMELTING
Battery Scrap composition may vary somewhat across
countries/regions.
Rotary Type of Smelting Furnaces are the common Furnaces
used for Smelting operation world wise.
Versatile for using Lead Battery Scrap, Concentrates and
other Lead Scrap material
Lead Compounds are being reduced in with help of
Carbon / Charcoal.

These Furnaces operate in 900
o
C to 1250
o
C
temperature range.

Rotary furnaces are much more efficient than Reverb
furnaces since they transfer heat both via radiation
and direct contact between the melt and the
refractory as it passes beneath the charge.

The constant mixing and motion of the charge
material maximizes the heat transfer within the scrap

LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
LEAD REFINING / ALLOYING
REFINING SECTION

Pyro-metallurgical process is mostly used in Lead
Refining Process using the Refining kettles
A temperature governed Chemical process
Need to be carried out with proper Fugitive Control
Hoods


REFINED LEAD
INGOT CASTING MACHINE
REMELTED LEAD
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
OXY FUEL BURNERS
A great support to Furnaces
Increased capacity since possible to heat a fully
charged Furnace
Powerful, yet small dimensions
Reduced Fuel consumption and lowered emissions
Provides longer Flame length
Allows to use different Flame geometries reducing
energy consumption and dross formation
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
SOME MORE TECHNIQUES
HYDROMETALLURGICAL PROCESS

Alternate of Pyro-metallurgical process
Electro-refining using formations of Cathodes/Anodes
Efficient process for removing Bismuth from 200 ppm to
20 ppm

ELECTRO-WINNING PROCESS
Lead Paste from the Batteries consist of oxides/sulphates
Desulphurised using Alkali solution
By Electrochemical deposition Lead is obtained

Costly Process
Suitable for big units



LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
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LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
PLC BASED CONTROL & MONITOR SYSTEM
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
ENVIRONMENT
Most critical part of Lead Recycling Operation is
of Air Pollution Control
Lead Recycling Plants should be specifically
designed to meet Environmentally sound guide-
lines.

Environmental Standards, Which has serious
concern in Lead Smelting Operations are:
Ambient Air Standard
Stack Emission Standard
Effluent Discharge Standard
Solid Waste Disposal Limits
Noise Levels
Occupational Exposure of work force
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
POLLUTION CONTROL
Recycling of such Hazardous Scrap like Lead
Battery is necessary to preserve the Nature
Effective Pollution control plays an important
part in the used Lead-Acid Battery Recycling
and new battery manufacturing industries
An Integrated approach for Pollution
Control helps in Economic & Environmental
benefits
Efficiently designed Pollution control
Equipments are able to meet all
Environmental standards
Smart Efficient Systems are
Necessary for Mankind


Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
TREATMENT SYSTEMS
The effective Pollution Control Equipments consist of the following :
Acid Draining & Neutralization System
Battery Breaking & Hydro separation System
Dust Collector with Cyclone
Cooling Tower
Filter Bag-House
Wet-Scrubber System
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Dust Collector
A sort of Gravity Settling
Chamber with baffles
Gas velocity is reduced to
enable dust to settle down.
Cyclone
In Cyclone centrifugal force separates
suspended particles from the Flue gases.
Gas is introduced tangentially producing
a spiral motion which directs the solid
particles downward (for exiting) and
clean gases flown ahead in the system.
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
TREATMENT SYSTEMS
Cooling Tower
Flue gases are allowed to cool down
up to 120C - 130C
Designed as per the ambient air
temperature where Plant is
operating
Filter Bag House
Important part of Pollution Control Process
Contains filter bags through which dust
laden gases are made to pass.
Filter bags are Anti adhesive for water
repellence & Easy dust release
Automatic Pulse jet cleaning system for
periodic cleaning
Implementation of Effective
System leads to Long Innings


Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING
We Recycle to Save Environment
TREATMENT SYSTEMS (Continue)
Scrubber System
Packed Bed Type Wet Scrubber is most widely used
scrubbers for gas dissolution.
Dissolves pollutant gases using reverse current method
where spray of water ensuring maximum contact of Liquid
in MIST FORM & unwanted gases.
Filled material produces maximum surface area for liquid
droplets and make distribution for efficient scrubbing of
gases /particulates / contaminants.
Water absorbs SO
2

gas & the acidic water passes through
Water Treatment Plant and get neutralized. Neutralized
water is re-circulated in the system using P.P. pump.
At other End MIST Eliminator is employed to remove water
content from the Gases coming-out.
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH SOLUTIONS
Proper plant design and engineering controls
are essential in order to protect workers from
occupational exposure to Lead, including by
control of process and fugitive emissions.
Lead Blood level is main indicating parameter for Lead
Exposures of workforce
Appropriate codes of practice/ policies /plant hygiene
practices for the workforce and relevant management
personnel is important.
Required Chelation therapy under qualified Medical
supervision to workforce reduces Lead Blood Levels.
Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment We Recycle to Save Environment
SUMMARY..
Lead Acid Battery Scrap Recycling is essential for mankind as well as for
Industry survival.

Recent technological deployments made Lead Battery Scrap Recycling
Operations as Environment-friendly.

An Environment Friendly Lead Battery Recycling will prove a conscious step
forward to the conservation of the Environment

Increasing Environmental
Awareness makes this operation
more professional & technical,
which finally leads to high
economic viability


Eco-Friendly Recycling
We Recycle to Save Environment
Initiating Eco-Friendly Lead Recycling World Wide

Website : www.gravitagroup.com
www.gravitaexim.com
www.gravitaindia.com
E-mail : info@gravitagroup.com
LEAD ACID BATTERY RECYCLING