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RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

BKC 3833
BACKGROUND
Waste unwanted material from a process.
Manufacturing processes and biological
processes.
Type of waste:
Scheduled waste
Non scheduled waste
Scheduled waste toxic, hazardous, pollute the
environment, harmful to human and living things
Non scheduled waste non toxic.
Handling of waste
Non scheduled waste can send to landfill,
does not impose danger or pollution to
environment
Scheduled waste needs proper handling, e.g.
from cradle to grave.
Types of scheduled waste
SCHEDULED WASTES FROM NON SPECIFIC
SOURCES.
Spent oxidizing agents
+ Spent oxidizing agent

Contaminated soil, water, debris or matter resulting
from clean-up of a spill or chemical or scheduled
waste
+ Contaminated soil, water, debris or matter resulting from clean-up of a spill
of chemical or scheduled waste

Immobilized scheduled wastes, including chemically
fixed or encapsulated sludges
+ Immobilized scheduled wastes
Discarded drugs except living vaccines and euphoric
compounds
+ Discarded drugs except living vaccines and euphoric compounds

Pathogenic and clinical wastes and quarantined
materials
+ Pathogenic and clinical wastes and quarantined materials

Containers and bags containing hazardous residues
+ Used containers or bags contaminated with cyanide, arsenic, chromium or
lead compound or salts
Mixtures of scheduled wastes

+ A mixture of schedule wastes
+ A mixture of scheduled and non-scheduled wastes

Types of scheduled waste
Scheduled waste from specific sources
Mineral oil and oil contaminated wastes
Waste oil or oily sludge from wastewater treatment plant of oil refinery or
crude oil terminal
Oily residue from automotive workshop or service station oil or grease
interceptor
Oil contaminated earth from re-refining of used lubricating oil
Oil or sludge from oil refinery maintenance operation

Tar or tarry residues from oil refinery or
petrochemical plant
Tar or tarry residues from oil refinery or petrochemical plant

Discarded or off specification batteries containing lead,
mercury, nickel and lithium
Discarded or off specification batteries from battery manufacturing plant

Pharmaceutical wastes
Wastewater from washing of reaction vessels and floors of pharmaceutical
products manufacturing plant

Spent acqueous inorganic acid solution
Wastewater from acid and battery manufacturing plant

Waste from manufacturing or processing or use of explosives
Waste from manufacturing or processing or use of explosives

Handling of Scheduled Waste
DOE provides comprehensive regulations to the
management of the scheduled waste that based on
the cradle to grave principle.
Scheduled waste generator must appoint a licensed
third party contractor to dispose the waste.
There must be certain that the waste is directed to,
and actually reach, a permitted disposal site.
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (SCHEDULED WASTES)
REGULATION 1989
Under the regulations, 107 categories of wastes have
been classified as scheduled wastes

Scheduled wastes can be stored, recovered and treated
within the premises of a waste generator.

Waste generators shall also keep up-to-date inventory
of scheduled wastes generated, treated and disposed
off.
In the case of transporting the waste from the waste
generator to the treatment and disposal facilities, shall
be monitored until it reaches the approved destination.
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Scheduled
Waste Treatment and Disposal Facilities) Order, 1989
6 types of premises prescribed under the order that require written
permission and license from the DOE.
- Land treatment facilities such as sludge farming for oil waste or sludges.
- Off-site recovery facilities such as a solvent recycling plant.
- Off-site treatment facilities such as a centralised physical/chemical
wastewater treatment plant.
- Scheduled wastes incinerators.
- Off-site storage facilities including the premises of waste transport
contractors.
- Secure landfills designated for the disposal of scheduled wastes.
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY (PRESCRIBED PREMISES)(SCHEDULED
WASTES TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES) REGULATIONS, 1989.
Procedures of
License application
Renewal and ownership transfer
Requirements for record keeping
Submission to the Department of Environment.
TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES
Biological Treatment
Chemical Treatment
Physical Treatment
Incineration
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
Biodegradation
Novel microorganisms for biological treatment of
anthropogenic compounds is a new concept
Certain organism biodegrade certain waste
e.g. trickling bed filter, maturation pond, aeration
pond, activated sludge.
Aeration via overhead
propeller
Aeration via
bubbling
Clarifier-settler
CHEMICAL TREATMENT
Convert the waste to another form which are
less problem than the starting material
Spectrum of chemical methods:
Neutralization
Oxidation
Precipitation
Reduction

e.g. coagulation/flocculation using PAC, Alum, PE
CHEMICAL TREATMENT -
NEUTRALIZATION
Application of the law of mass balance to
bring the waste to acceptable pH
pH between 6 to 8
CHEMICAL TREATMENT - OXIDATION
The cyanide molecule is destroyed by
oxidation
Electrolytic oxidation
Carried out by anodic electrolysis at high
temperature
Wet air oxidation
Zimmerman process
Oxidized by oxygen at sufficient temperature
and pressure
CHEMICAL TREATMENT -
PRECIPITATION

E.g. Removal of metals from plating rinse waters
Application of the solubility product principle
CHEMICAL TREATMENT - REDUCTION

Some metals have to be reduced before it can
be precipitated
Exp:
Hexavalent chromium used in plating solutions
must be reduced to trivalent chromium
PHYSICAL TREATMENT
Not detoxified but only concentrated for
further treatment or recovery
Carbon adsorption
Distillation
Ion exchange
Reverse osmosis
Solvent extraction
Ion exchange system
Solvent extraction plant
PHYSICAL TREATMENT CARBON
ADSORPTION
Adsorption is a mass transfer process in
which gas vapors or chemicals in solution
are held to a solid by intermolecular
forces
Adsorbents
Activated carbon
Molecular sieves
Silica gel
Activated alumina
PHYSICAL TREATMENT DISTILLATION
Separation of more volatile materials from less
volatile materials by a process of vaporization
and condensation
The larger the vapor pressures differences,
more efficient the separation
PHYSICAL TREATMENT ION EXCHANGE
Metals and ionized organic chemicals can be
recovered by ion exchange
Ion to be removed is passed through a bed of
resin
PHYSICAL TREATMENT REVERSE OSMOSIS
Solvent is forced to pass through a semi-
permeable membrane from concentrated
medium to less concentrated medium

PHYSICAL TREATMENT SOLVENT RECOVERY
Liquid extraction and liquid-liquid extraction
Contaminants migrate from the wastewater
into the solvent
INCINERATION
Most efficient means of dealing with many
wastes
Reduce in volume and weight
Completely destroy even the most hazardous
materials
Heat can be recovered
Chemical waste incinerator
FROM WASTE TO WEALTH
Why do we recycle/recover product from waste?
- minimize pollution, generate income, save natural
resources
What are the requirements to do recycling activities?
- raw materials, knowledge, purpose.
What type of waste can be recycled/recovered?
- scheduled and non-scheduled wastes
Why recycling activities in Malaysia are not widely
practiced?
- lack of awareness, lack of knowledge
RECYCLING OF LUBE OIL
Introduction
What is used oil ?
Refined from crude oil and has been used.

No longer useful to the original purchaser
(extended storage, spillage or contamination
with non-hazardous impurities such as dirt
and water).
Where does used oil come from?

Used Oil sources :



Automotive 70%
Industrial 15%
Mixed (Other) 15%
What is used lube oil?
Produce from refined heavy fraction of crude oil or
other hydrocarbons.

Additives are blended (detergents, corrosion
inhibitors, and rust inhibitors).

Lubricants applications: engine and transmission
lubricants, hydraulic fluids, metal working fluids,
greases.
2.5 quarts
lube oil =
42 gal crude
oil
What is used lube oil:
Hazardous Waste
During service the lubricant collects heavy metal (lead,
cadmium, zinc, and barium), iron steel particles and copper.

These contaminants are toxic and harmful to the
environment.

The hazards associated with used oil result from various
additives used in its manufacture and from the heavy metal
contaminants picked up from use in internal combustion
engine.
Impact .
Illegally disposed of oil can pollute the
groundwater with contaminants : lead,
magnesium, copper, zinc, chromium,
arsenic, chlorides, cadmium and
polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

One quart of oil can pollute 250,000
gallons of drinking water.
Impact
Used oil from a single oil change can ruin a million
Gallons of fresh water
a one years supply for 50 people !

One quart of used motor oil will pollute up to 40,730
square feet of soil
making it non-productive for farming or plant
growth for up to 100 years !
Impact
Look at any back label of Petroleum or Synthetic
Motor Oil after 1985, and you will find following
statement :

"CAUTION: Avoid prolonged or repeated skin
contact with used motor oil. Used motor oil has
been shown to cause skin cancer in laboratory
animals. Thoroughly wash exposed areas with soap
and water."
So

RECYCLE !!
Benefits of recycle
Used lubricating oil has an inherent value. To save
scarce resources, this inherent value should be
recovered, economically justified.

Back to useful product: furnace fuels, power station
start-up fuels, diesel fuel extenders.

Reduce pollution issues.
What Really happens with Recycled Oil ?

The well intentioned and well sounding
"theory" that is propagated by
environmentalists, State agencies and many
other entities is a fact illustrated below:
So in theory using similar "slightly" deceptive
presentation it appears that recycling oil from
two typical automotive oil changes would
"save" 84 gallons of crude oil.
Recycling Technology

Lubricants undergo changes in physical and chemical
properties with service.

These changes may include contamination with water, other
fluids, such as coolants, and particulate matter (e.g., dirt,
wear metals), formation of oxidation products resulting from
air and high temperatures, and the loss of performance by the
depletion of additives.

Recycling is a generic term that involves a variety of types of
oil purification methods that restore spent oils to a useful
material.
Recycling Techniques
Acid / Clay Treatment
Distillation / Clay Treatment
Distillation / Hydro Treatment
(Vacuum Distillation)
Solvent Extraction
ACID / CLAY TREATMENT
Acid/clay process is one of the successful methods in
recovering the used oil for the last three decades
ago.
This treatment is most dominated process in re-
refining of used oil (Figure 1).
It consist five stages of processes, which the oil is
firstly dehydrated in flash dehydrator.
The overhead product is condensed and separated
from light oil, while the bottom product is the
treated in wastewater disposal system
ACID / CLAY TREATMENT
Used oil

Flash Dehydrator

Acid Treatment

Clay Treatment
Fractionation
Filtering
Spent Clay
Oil Residue
Lube Oil
ACID / CLAY TREATMENT
The dehydrated oil is treated with 98% sulphuric acid, which
results in large quantities of acid sludge.
Acid sludge is then separated, and the remaining oil is then
treated with clay and filtered.
The treated oil is dark in color with some odor, while the acid
sludge and oil-soaked clay are disposed to environment in
acceptable manner.
The lube stock yield is 45-75% depending upon the operating
condition and the feed composition.
However, this method is inhibit to operate even the quality of
the base oil produce is good.
The process ends up with production of acidic sludge in large
volume.
DISTILLATION / CLAY TREATMENT
Thin-film distillation under high vacuum allows the separation
of gas oil, lube oil and an asphaltic residue containing most of
the additives and contaminants from the used oil.

The lube oil stream is finished by clay treatment.

Compare to acid/clay treatment, this process need high
energy due to vacuum distillation, but removes the additives
and the contaminants easily with little generation of
hazardous waste.
DISTILLATION / CLAY TREATMENT
In this method, the used oil is dehydrated at 300
O
F at
atmospheric pressure for water and light hydrocarbons
removal.
The bottom product from distillation is mixed with 20% by oil
volume of light oil and small amount of caustic 0.2-2% to
break the oil water emulsion and precipitate solids.
It is then separated by centrifugation.
The centrifuged oil is heated to 700
O
F, producing the naphta
oil to be used as fuel in the plant.
The bottom product is used as fuel also, while the remaining
oil is treated by clay as lube blending stock.
DISTILLATION / HYDRO-TREATMENT
Kinetics Technology International (KTI) and Mohawk processes
are the two that used the fundamental concept in the
process.
In this process, the base oil fraction is hydro-treated under
moderate condition after pre-treatment and thin-film
distillation.
A final distillation step yields a range of base oil streams of
different viscosity.
By-products are produced, which are low boiling distillate, gas
oil, and a non-hazardous asphaltic residue.
DISTILLATION / HYDRO-TREATMENT
In KTI process (Figure 2), the oil is first distillated via a
distillation column to separate water and light ends fraction.
The pre-treated oil is then mixed with a hydrogen-rich gas,
heated and passed through a reactor holding a fixed catalyst
bed.
Hydrogen is added to the oil to saturate or rebuilds the oil
to bring it back to specification, where it reacts with oxygen
and nitrogen-containing impurities and unsaturated.
The yields are claimed to be between 80-85% (Klamann,
1983).
DISTILLATION / HYDRO-TREATMENT
Residue
Dewatering

Gas Oil Stripping

Lube Oil Distillation
Hydro-finishing
Fractionation
Used Oil
Gas-Oil
Hydrogen
Refined Oil
Light Neutrals
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
In re-refining of base oil from used lubricant oil, solvent
extraction is defined as a refining process to separate reactive
components (unsaturated hydrocarbons) from lubricant
distillates in order to improve the oils oxidation stability,
viscosity index (VI) and additive response.
This method has been reported to be well suited for re-
refining multi-grade motor oils formulated with high
concentration of additives and containing large amounts of
residual compounds generated by heat and friction during
use.
Basically, there are two types of solvent extraction method,
either using a solvent or composite solvents.
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Using solvent/s can overcome such a problem that occurs
when using those conventional methods;
such as eliminating the requirement for hydrogen
reduce the production of environmentally problematic byproducts
(acid sludge formation),
the need of high temperature or high pressure operations
need for periodic catalyst replacement and handling
In solvent extraction process, the base fluid is extracted using
various selective types of solvents, sometimes composite or
the solvent alone.
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
In Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP) process, propane is used as
the extracting solvent.
This process combines the solvent extraction method and
acid/clay process (Kimball, 1975).
Nevertheless, acid and clay amount is reduced in this process,
thus removing the color and the odor.
Propane extracts the base fluids from the additives and
impurities.
The asphaltic residue is generated, which contains the most
additives and other impurities.
Dirt and insoluble sludge are settle out and are withdrawn off
(Klamann, 1983).
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
The main purpose of using solvent as extracting agent is to
recover the base fluids, as well as to remove the additives and
particulate matter. The solvent/s must (Reis, 1988a):
Miscible with the base oil contained in the used oil
Reject the additives and disperse particles from solution
Stable, easy to recover and low price
NEW TECHNOLOGY TO RECYCLE
USED LUBRICANT OIL
Re-Refining Used Lubricant Oil: Pilot Scale Rig
T3
T2

Activated
clay
V305
L1
TI2
V309




T4


V101
V115
V112
T5
V105
V102
P1
V110
V104
V103
V201
V302
V303
V307
V304
V202
CWout
P2
P3
CS1
C1
F1
CE1
CU1
P4
M2
M1
FP1
T6
Filtered
base oil
Lubricant Oil
Additives
CWin
Wet Sludge
Waste Treatment
VC1
P5
V301
V311
Y STRAINER
PRESSURE GAUGE
PUMP
VALVE
TEMP. GAUGE
RELIEF VALVE
T1
T3
T2
EXTRACTION TANK
COLLECTION TANK
ADSORPTION TANK
T5
T6
Used Lube Oil, KOH,
n-hexane, isopropanol
T1
M1
M2
P5
P4
P3
P2
P1
VC1
FP1
CU1
C1
CS1
CE1
FILTER PRESS
CENTRIFUGAL UNIT
CONDENSER
CLIMBING EVAPORATOR
CYCLONE SEPARATOR
VACUUM CHAMBER
H1
H2
MEMBRANE FILTER F1
BLENDING TANK
EXPANSION TANK
MIXER 2
MIXER 1
PUMP 1
PUMP 2
VACUUM PUMP
PUMP 3
PUMP 4
T4
SOLVENT TANK
HEATER
H2
H1
HEATER 2
HEATER 1
DRAWN BY : SHAHROM IRWANI MOHD. SANI
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA DAN KEJURUTERAAN SUMBER ASLI
APPROVED BY: PM. DR. ROSLI MOHD. YUNUS DATE : 10 JAN 2004

DATE : 10 JAN 2004
RECOVERED BASE OIL FROM USED
LUBRICANT OIL
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Solvent extraction is a process to separate additives from used
lubricant oil and produce base oil using composite solvent.
The composite solvent used in this process are n-hexane and
2-propanol.
Certain amount of KOH used to enhance the flocculation
process.

RECOVERED BASE OIL FROM USED
LUBRICANT OIL
SOLVENT EXTRACTION
Ratio used lubricant oil to solvent 1:4
Ratio 2-propanol to n-hexane 3:2
Amount of KOH 4 g/L 2-propanol
Time for mixing 30 minutes
Retention time 1 hours
SOLVENT RECOVERY FROM WASTE
SOLVENT E.G. PAINT AND
ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIES
Sources of Solvent Wastes
Mainly from washing of electronics and semi-
conductors.
Printing industry
Paint manufacturing
Pharmaceutical industry
Tank cleaning degreasing, desludging etc
e.g. in 2007, 119,000 tons of Irelands hazardous
waste generated were organic solvent
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
c Hydro carbon of petroleum group
c Chlorinated Hydro carbon
cKetone group
c Ester group
c Ether group
c Alcohol group
c Polymerized monomer
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
Hydro carbon of petroleum group
cBenzene
cToluene
c Xylene
cTrimethylbenzene
cn-Hexane
cHeptane
cNaphtha
cRubber Oils
cCyclo-hexane
cThinner
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
Chlorinated Hydro carbon
cTrichloroethylene
cPerchloroethylene
c1.1.1-Trichloroethane
cMethylene chloride
cDichlorobenzene
cTrichlorobenzen
cCarbon tetrachloride
cChloroform
cDichloropropane
cFreon
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
Ketone group
c Acetone
c MEK
c MIBK
c Cyclohexanone

Ester group
c Ethyl acetate
c Butyl acetate
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
Ether group
c Ethyl ether
c Dioxane
c THF
c Furfural
c Methyl cellosolve

Alcohol group
c Methanol
c Ethanol
c IPA
c Butanol
APPLICABLE SOLVENT
Polymerized monomer
c Vinyl chloride,
c Vinyl acetate,
c Acrylic acid,
c Acrylonitrile,
c Styrene,
c Ester acrylate group
APPLICABLE INDUSTRIES
c Automobiles
c Electrical
c Printing Painting
c Rubber
c Adhesion
c Film
c Textile
c Plastics
c Synthetic leather
c Pharmaceuticals
c Dry cleaning
c Fermentation and chemicals
SOLVENT RECOVERY
cActivated carbon fiber which
is much superior to
conventional activated
carbon as an adsorptive
material and also made it
possible to utilize for the
solvent recovery apparatus.

cThis solvent recovery
apparatus has been
appreciated in many
industrial sectors for the
purpose of the
environmental protection
and of the saving resources.
Basis of separation is different in boiling point (distillation/evaporation)
Commercial system
Recover Solvent from Exhaust Gas
Exhaust gas
MICROWAVE RECOVERY SYSTEM
cSimilar to other types of solvent recovery systems, the goal of
the microwave system is to recover clean usable solvents from
waste solvents contaminated with ink and other
contaminants.
cHowever, the microwave recovery system is more versatile
than traditional recovery systems.
cAs can be seen in the attached diagram, the microwave
system works in a one-step process subjecting the print
towels and blanket wash to intense microwaves that break
the emulsion between the water and solvent.
cBreaking the emulsion allows the clean solvent to be
recovered and reused without any additional processing.
cThe recovered water and solvent mixture is collected together
and then separated into separate containers.
MICROWAVE RECOVERY SYSTEM
cAfter being treated by the microwave unit, the soiled print
towels are then ready to be laundered by a commercial
laundry.
cThe wastewater, which ends up as distilled water, generally
meets the local regulatory requirements and can be
discharged to the local sewer authority.
cIt is important to recognize as with any discharge to a sewer
authority, it is imperative to contact them to ensure the
acceptability of the discharge.
cDischarges of industrial wastes to septic systems are generally
prohibited.
MICROWAVE RECOVERY SYSTEM
(recover solvent from contaminated ink)
POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE (PET)
PLASTICS : WASTE RECOVERY AND
RECYCLING PROCESS
BACKGROUND
PET is a particularly high quality plastic for use in the
packaging industry and in particular for the production of
bottles.

- Transparency ensures optimum product presentation.

- Low weight means that customers carry only the drink and
not the packaging.

- Strength ensures sturdy, practically unbreakable, and safe
packaging.

PET can also meet the strictest hygiene requirements for
the packaging of cosmetics and foodstuffs, where product
purity is paramount. It is a material with a great future,
offering a unique combination of benefits throughout the
value chain in preform and bottle production, and also for
consumers.

PET has excellent material properties. It is not only very
light, it is also very strong and PET bottles are practically
unbreakable. As transparent as glass, PET is also
tasteless, satisfying very strict regulations for packaging
food and drink.

PET provides a protective barrier in both directions,
preventing oxygen penetrating from the outside and
keeping in carbon dioxide for sparkling beverages.

A further advantage is that PET is 100% recyclable and
discarded packaging can be re-used in other applications
through a variety of recycling procedures.

Compared with glass bottles, the low weight of PET
bottles means that the same amount of beverage can be
transported with much less packaging weight. This results
in better transport utilization and economics through the
value chain, with lower fuel consumption and reduced noise
and pollution.


THE MARKETS for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and
polyester fiber are experiencing pricing volatility. Demand
in China is still disrupted, and exports from Asia are
pressuring prices in Europe and the US.

Edgar E Acosta, polyester manager at DeWitt & Company
Inc., Houston, says it is unclear why demand in China has
dropped off so sharply, although the SARS epidemic is
generally blamed.

Operating rates at PET bottle plants in South Korea have
plummeted to as low as 50 to 60 percent, and Asian
producers, especially in China, are exporting polyester and
PET at prices that are well below domestic levels.





PET is around $900 to $1,000 per ton in China, but the
Chinese are exporting it for around $650 to $700. South
Korea is exporting at around $700, but its domes- tic
market is around $750 to $800.

Falling Asian export prices have forced European
producers to lower their prices for bottle-grade resin
from $1,100 to $1,200 per ton a month ago to around
$800 to $900. The impact on the US market has been
similar, although the US is less susceptible to imports.

Domestic PET producers announced price increases of 5
cents per pound for January 1, 5 cents for March 1 and 8
cents for April 1, followed by a decrease of 5 cents for
May 1.

GLOBAL OUTLOOK
Producers are seeking price increases for polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) of 3 cents per pound in the US and
[euro]70 to [euro]100 per metric ton in Europe.

Of the 5 cent increase announced earlier in the year,
producers have realized about 3 cents. List pricing for
bottle-grade PET is 56 cents to 62 cents per pound.

Analysts note that paraxylene pricing has cooled off and is
no longer pressuring the PET market, but Asian purified
terephthalic acid pricing has surged to $650 per metric
ton for spot material and $635 to $650 for June contract
nominations.


MALAYSIA OUTLOOK

Chemical company which involve in the production PET
- Hualon Corporation at Gebeng
- MPI Polyester Industries at Selangor 20,000 tpy
- Petlin Malaysia 30,000 tpy

The capacity production of PET about 50,000 MT/yr.

The demand for PET in Malaysia market in 2001 are quite
high. It is about 70,000 MT/yr



RECOVERY AND RECYCLING OF
PET PLASTIC WASTES
_There are two stages needed in recycling PET plastics waste.
Stage 1 is physical process while stage 2 is chemical process or
solid state polymerization (SPP) process.






COLLECTION / RETRIEVAL
SEGREGATION
CLEANING
GRINDING / FLAKING
DRYING
LOW GRADE OF PET FLAKES
COLLECTION AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

_The PET plastic wastes are collected together with other
recyclables such as cartoons, papers, tin cans, scrap metals,
glass and other types of plastic wastes by scavenging.

_This is practice of collecting solid waste by means of sorting
recyclables from different public sites as a way of making
living
SEGREGATION
_The segregation of sorting is conducted manually.
_This is a process of separating PET plastics from other plastics.
_The selection is based of any of the following: plastic
type/number, color, processing method, brand and product
type.
_This is critical for PET.
_Contamination with PVC I very common when the sorting
process is not rigidly done.
_Sorting is commonly based on color and processing method
CLEANING









CLEANING
_ The cleaning process is also done manually. It involves the
following steps:

1. Removal the plastic caps
2. Removal of label and rinsing

_ For some PET recyclers/processors, rinsing/washing is done
during and after grinding/flaking
GRINDING / FLAKING
_The cleaned bottles/container are fed into grinder.
_These are two types of grinding: the wet and dry method
_In the dry grinding, the materials are ground to the desired
size and bagged normally in a 30kg or one ton capacity plastic
sacks
_In wet grinding, water is continuously fed on the material
during and after grinding is performed.
_The dirty liquid or overflow is discharged as wastewater for
treatment.
_In some cases, detergent is added efficiently remove the
stubborn dirt, additives or glues in the plastic waste.
DRYING
_A centrifugal dryer is used to dry the flakes.
_Water is expelled through the fine holes of
the dryer by applying centrifugal forces.
_The flakes are bagged after drying.
Alternatives Process
Description of the process

1) Shreadding and washing
2) Separation of PE/PP and drying of the flakes
3) Heating by means of extrusion and addition of the
reaction additive
4) Addition of extra ethyleneglycole
5) Separation of the non reacting plastic material
6) Separation reaction of terephtalic acid
7) Filtering and washing of the acid substances
8) Drying
9) Storage of the terephtalic acid
10) Recuperation of ethyleneglycole
11) Storage of ethyleneglycole

Advantages of PET
Inexpensive

Excellent transparency its clarity enhances the presentation values
of a product.

Lighter weight reduces your transportation costs and improves your
margins.

Outstanding processability allows it to be processed reliably at high
speeds.

Good impact resistance strong and practically unbreakable.

Protective barrier in both directions acts as an effective barrier for
oxygen and carbon dioxide (for sparkling beverages).

Design freedom features great design flexibility.

100% recyclability can be recycled for other applications using a
variety of recycling procedures.



Product Application
The flakes and pellets of cleaned postconsumer recycled PET
are in heavy demand for use in spinning carpet yarns and for
producing fiberfill and geotextiles.

PET is the fastest growing plastic used in household applications.
PET has a wide variety of packaging applications as soft drink
bottles, water bottles, sports drink bottles, beer bottles,
mouthwash bottles, peanut butter containers, salad dressing
containers, juice bottles, vegetable oil bottles, ketchup bottles,
pickle jars, jam and jelly jars, and other similar container uses.
Its properties make it particularly useful for films that cover
food products that can be used in ovens and microwave ovens.

PET is in high demand as a recycled product for the manufacture
of yet other extremely valuable commodities. Among the
products that are manufactured with recycled PET, are fiber,
tote bags, clothing, film and sheet, food and beverage
containers, carpet, strapping, fleece wear, luggage and bottles.


Prospects of Malaysian Plastics
Industry
Despite the challenges of reconstruction and
conformity with the economic situation in
Europe and US, MPMA has forecasted that
the Malaysian plastic industry will grow by 3
percent in 2003. the sector is anticipated to
achieve a higher growth of 8 percent in 2004
as a result of the development in the E&E,
automobile and construction industries
(source MPMA)
Types of Pet
PET-401Used PET bottles,
80%clear 20%colour



PET-402PET x-ray film, silver
removed, washed



PET-403PET bottles grinded,
clear, blue and green
PET-404PET fiber on
rolls natural



PET-405POLYESTER TIRE
CORD WASTE, mixed
colours belt
Recovery of Oil from Spent
Adsorbent
Introduction
OSpent adsorbent - by-product of the palm oil refining industry

OSpent adsorbent activated carbon & spent bleaching clay
(SBC)

OClay & activated carbon use in bleaching process

OSpent adsorbent contained an average of 20%-26% mineral oil

ODue to its toxicity it is classified as a Scheduled Waste,
requiring special handling and disposal




Performance feature and benefits of SBC:


removes colours from a variety of lauric acids

minimizes free fatty acid rise during bleaching

does not contain mineral acid, which can damage
oil
Bleaching
OIs a refining process where oils are heated at 90120C for
1030 minutes in the presence of a bleaching earth (0.22.0%)

OIn the absence of oxygen by operating with nitrogen or steam
or in a vacuum

OTo remove colours and suspended material from crude palm
oils



Global Trend
world production of oils 2004 ('000 tonnes)
Palm Oil
Palm Kernel Oil
Soyabean Oil
Cottonseed Oil
Groundnut Oil
Sunflower Oil
Rapeseed Oil
Corn Oil
Coconut Oil
Olive Oil
Castor Oil
Sesame Oil
Linseed Oil
palm oil (28% )
Most efficient oil crops -yields are higher than other edible oil
crop

Remain strong in 2005

It is expected to exceed other vegetable oil

contribute more fatty acids & energy to diet of the growing
world population

The increase of oleo chemical industries
WORLD MAJOR PRODUCERS OF PALM OIL :
2004 ('000 TONNES)
Malaysia
Indonesia
Nigeria
Colombia
Cote d'Ivoire
Thailand
Papua New Guinea
Ecuador
Costa Rica
Honduras
Brazil
Venezuela
Guatemala
Others
Malaysia (48%) %)
WORLD MAJOR EXPORTERS OF PALM OIL:
2004 ('000 TONNES)
Malaysia
I ndonesia
Papua New
Guinea
Cote
d'I voire
Colombia
Singapore*
Hong Kong*
Others
Malaysia
(54%)
World Petroleum Consumption
LOCAL TREND
Malaysia
Worlds largest producer and exporter of palm oil

In 2003, 17 oleo chemical companies were in operation in
Malaysia with a total production capacity of 1.9 million tonnes.

1.55 million tonnes of these oleo chemicals were exported.







PALM OIL PODUCTION : 1995-2004 ('000 TONNES)
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Spent adsorbent used mostly in palm oil refineries

Oil refineries use around 2wt% adsorbent in bleaching process

Expected that 20-26wt% of oil will be recovered from spent
adsorbent

Recovered oil can be mainly for industrial purposes and as
oleo chemical feedstock.

The spent adsorbents were disposed by incineration, in animal
feeds, in landfills or used in concrete manufacturing.

Besides, it can also be regenerated and reuse as secondary
adsorbents.












TECHNOLOGY

Injection of compressed air and/ or steam

Solvent extraction

Ultrasonic assisted extraction

Injection of compressed air and/ or steam
o Oil can be extract from spent earth by injecting compressed
air, or steam or compressed air followed by steam injection in
the filter.
o This way, oil content in the spent earth can be reduced from
40% to 30%, if only compressed air is used.
o If compressed plus steam are used, it can be reduced from 25%
to 20%.
o The recovered oil can be reintroduced in the process at
bleaching.
o Considering this last option (with final oil content of 22%),
possible savings can be estimated to be about 0.18 ton of oil /
ton of spent earth.
Solvent extraction
Total oil content of the spent earth can be decreased to only
5wt%

Solvent Hexane

The colouring substances remain in the spent earth, while the
oil is separated and is extracted forming a miscella with the
solvent.

The spent earth can be sent back to the supplier and can be
used, as a raw material for the preparation of new fuller's
earth.
Hexane and oil can be separated by distillation.

The oil can be re-processed and the hexane can be
stored for reuse in future extractions.

Annual savings by industry by means of solvent
extraction of oil can be roughly calculated assuming
that the oil content in the spent earth would be
reduced from 40% to 5%, thus resulting in a 35% of
oil recovery (on the total spent earth weight).

It gives a saving of about 0.35 ton of oil /ton of spent
earth
Ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE)
Extraction technique - ultrasound wave

Ultrasonic sound waves having frequencies about 16kHz

The presence of high intensity ultrasound wave fields
enhances the extraction process by accelerating the extraction
rate and increasing the product yield.

Uses less solvent and energy than conventional techniques,
hence reduce the volume of solvents required for extraction.
How the Ultrasonic improves the
extraction process?
Produce cavitation in the liquid solution, especially at the
interface of solid-liquid

Implosion of microbubbles disrupt concentrated layer near the
surface, create turbulent and vacuuming effect.

Decrease flux resistance, hence increase diffusion rate

Maintain high diffusion rate by continuously controlling the
solute concentration in the solvent

Ultrasonic Cavitation
Oil recovery using Ultrasonic and
Solvent Extraction
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5
Extraction time (hr)
M
i
n
e
r
a
l

O
i
l

E
x
t
r
a
c
t
e
d

(
%
)
Ultrasonic extraction Soxhlet extraction
Schematic diagram of Ultrasonic Solvent
Extraction System
Advantages of UAE
Extracting nearly 100% solute

Extracting approximately 8 to 40 folds faster than the
conventional method

Reduce the amount of solvent used (up to 75%)

Reduce overall operating time tremendously (up to
88%)
Economic Potential
Kewalram Oil Sdn Bhd
Plant capacity 60,000tonne/year

Collect all the SBE in Pasir Gudang

Charge RM45/tonne

Use Soxhlet extraction

Recovered oil lubricant oil, animal feed

Spent adsorbent incinerated to produce ash






Kualiti Alam
Disposal or incinerated

Charge RM 2970/tonnes




State In Operation Not in Operation Under Planning Total
No. Capacity No. Capacity No. Capacity No. Capacity
Johore 17 6,975,400 0 0 0 0 17 6,975,400
Penang 3 532,000 2 16,200 0 0 5 548,200
Perak 3 789,000 2 216,000 1 825,000 6 1,830,000
Selangor 10 2,482,000 1 240,000 1 60,000 12 2,782,000
Other States 3 624,000 0 0 0 0 3 624,000
P.Malaysia 36 11,402,400 5 472,200 2 885,000 43 12,759,600
Sabah 9 4,169,000 0 0 4 1,574,000 13 5,743,000
Sarawak 3 1,090,500 0 0 4 1,004,000 7 2,094,500
Sabah/Sarawak 12 5,259,500 0 0 8 2,578,000 20 7,837,500
MALAYSIA 48 16,661,900 5 472,200 10 3,463,000 63 20,597,100
NUMBER OF REFINERIES APPROVED AND CAPACITY : 2004 (TONNES /YEAR )
Note :Source by MIDA
Year 2004

Total oil capacity in Malaysia = 16,661,900 tonnes/year

Spent adsorbent = 0.02 *16,661,900 tonnes/year

= 333,238 tonnes/year

Recovered oil = 0.26*333,238 tonnes/year

= 86,642 tonnes/year
Cost Saving
Period
(Year)
Amount of
Waste
Generated
(tonne)
Disposal Cost Disposal
Cost
Saving
(RM)
Before
Treatment
(RM)
After
Treatment
(Solid
waste
reduced =
26%)(RM)
1 333,238 989,716,860 732,390,476 257,326,384
Saving In Palm Oil Cost
Period
(Year)
Amount of
Recovered Palm Oil
(tonne)
*oil recovered= 26%
Saving (RM)
*Palm oil price
=RM 1400/tonne
1 86,642 121,298,800
Future Trend
Palm oil consumption keep
growing up in the future
market

Adsorbent used in palm oil
refineries will also increase



Conclusion

Generate saving for the plant in term of disposal cost
and repurchasing of oil

Oil recovery using Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction
save time and amount of solvent used


Oil recovery from spent adsorbent is a feasible
project









RECOVERY OF PRECIOUS METALS
FROM PHOTOGRAPHIC WASTE
INTRODUCTION
Film is used in a variety of businesses and for a variety of purposes.

Silver is a precious metal which used in photo film because of its
photosensitive properties.

Film development cause photographic waste of spent fixer/bleach solution
and rinse water containing1000-10,000 and 50-200 mg Ag/l, respectively,
in the form of silver-thiosulphate complexes.

Silver is classified as a hazardous substance by the Department of
Environment.
Several technologies exist for recovering silver
metallic replacement
electrolytic recovery
chemical precipitation
Ion exchange and
reverse osmosis

There are several reasons to be interested in the recovery of silver from
photo-processing waste.

Silver is a valuable natural resource of finite supply, it has monetary
value as a recovered commodity and its release into the environment
is strictly regulation
Limited number of companies have established a business by picking
up fixer solution and rinse water and accumulating profitable
quantities which are sent off-site for the recovery of the silver
+Silver Recovery from the Photo-Processing
Solution
The primary sources
fix (dilute aqueous Na2S2O3/NaHSO3)
bleachfix solutions (dilute aqueousNa2S2O3/NaHSO3/NaFeEDTA).


Silver halide is removed from the film or paper and is carried out in the
solution.

The reaction involve as equation below:

+ +
3
2 3 2 3 2 2
) ( O S Ag NaI AgI O S Na
In film processing operation
the fixer bath is continuously augmented with fresh fixer solution to maintain
its quality and strength

The concentration of silver compounds depending on
the type
and amount of film being processed(frequently exceeds 5,000 parts per
million (ppm).

Because of this high silver concentration, silver recovery from fixer
solutions is very cost effective.
+Environment Regulations

Environmental Quality Act 1974(ACT 127) and Subsidiary
Legislation
First Schedule (Part 1 Scheduled Wastes from Non Specific
Sources)
N141: Spent aqueous or discarded photographic waste
from film processing or plates making.

The fixer process typically contain high amounts of silver
(3,000-8,000 ppm) and designate as a hazardous waste.

The bleach solution contain 3 ppm silver, which exceeds the sanitary
sewer discharge limit of 0.2 ppm.
It is illegal to put bleach solution into the septic system, storm drain,
dry well, or on the ground.

Businesses
Whichever system was decide to purchase, it must comply with local discharge
regulations by ensuring that the wastewater never exceeds 0.2 parts per
million (ppm) total silver

Thus, all fixers must be treated on-site or properly disposed or recycled
off-site.


+Types of Systems
On-Site Recovery Systems
Off-Site Recovery Systems

In this business its preferred to used On-Site Recovery Systems.

The advantages of this On-Site Recovery Systems
Treated waste will not count towards your 220 lb. SQG limit
Reclaimed silver is valuable and may offset some of your treatment
system costs
Convenience
Eliminates liability risks associated with off-site shipment

There are downsides to sending the waste Off-Site Recovery Systems

Need utilize a company to pick up the waste
Need to purchase storage containers, which require extra space and
will add to your maintenance costs.
If produce small quantities of waste, may need to store the material
for a long time before filling the container.
Storing waste on-site for long periods increases the risk of spills or
leaks.
Even if the waste is managed by a third party, are still responsible
for the proper disposal of the material, so be sure to carefully select
the right company.

But in Off-Site Recovery Systems still has certain advantages such as:

No start-up costs
No need to worry about equipment failure or maintenance
Technology for Recovery of
Silver from Photographic Waste

Photographic Waste Focus On:
1. Fixer Bath solution/bleach solution
2. Rinse solution

The Most Common Methods:
1. Metallic Replacement
2. Electrolysis
3. Precipitation
4. Reverse Osmosis
5. Ion Exchange

1. Metallic Replacement
1. Makes use of the fact
that iron is more active
than silver
2. Available for all silver-
rich solution
3. Low capital costs
4. Low maintenance
5. 99% removal possible
with 2 units
6. Purity 30-50%
Oxidation :

+
+ e Fe Fe 2
2
Reduction:

+ +
2
3 2
3
2 3 2
2 ) ( O S Ag e O S Ag
2. Electrolysis

+ +
2
3 2
3
2 3 2
2 ) ( O S Ag e O S Ag
- most efficient
- Silver is deposited on the
cathode and stripped off
for sale or reuse
- Low refining costs
- Moderate capital costs
- Obtain >90% pure silver
- 95 percent of the potential
available silver can be
recovered
Cathode (Silver plat):
3. Precipitation

-additional of alkaline sodium sulfide
-resulting precipitation of silver sulfide
Advantages
a) >99% consistent removal
Possible
b) Moderate capital costs
c) Little maintenance
Disadvantages
a) Higher smelting cost than
electrolytic
b) Ongoing chemical usage
Moderate to high
operation costs
c) Treatment chemical
required
4.Reverse Osmosis

- uses high pressure to force a liquid solution through a
semi-permeable membrane
- separate larger molecule substances from smaller
molecule substances
Advantages
Up to 90% efficiency on
dilute streams
No treatment chemicals
required
Disadvantages
High capital costs
Frequent maintenance
required
Works best on dilute
solutions
Large installations noisy
5. Ion Exchange
Used for effective recovery of
silver from dilute solution
Involves the exchange of ions in
the solution with ions of a similar
charge on the resin
Silver is removed from the resin
column with a silver complexing
agent such as ammonium
thiosulfate
Silver is then recovered from the
thiosulfate regenerant with an
electrolytic recovery cell


Advantages
98-99.99% removal
efficiency from dilute
solutions
Disadvantages
High capital costs
Fouling problems
May require use of
hazardous chemicals
Works best on dilute
solutions
Monitoring required
for replacement or
regeneration

electrolysis is chosen

GLOBAL SILVER SUPPLY
-Mines major global supplies of silver
-10 producing countries responsible for 70% of
total mine production :-
-Peru, Mexico, China, Australia, Poland,
Canada, Chile, US, Kazakhstan, Bolivia

World Silver Mine Production,
2003
Peru, 15%
Mexico, 14%
China, 13%
Australia,
10%
Poland, 7%
Canada, 7%
Chile, 7%
Other, 27%
World's Leading Primary Silver Mines in 2004

(millions of ounces)

Rank Mine/Country Operating Company Prod.
1 Cannington, Australia BHP Billiton 45.91
2 Fresnillo (Proao), Mexico Industrias Peoles SA de CV 31.60
3 Dukat, Russia Polymetal OAO* 12.06
4 Uchucchacua, Peru Compaia de Minas Buenaventura SA 9.83
5 Greens Creek, U.S. Kennecott Minerals/Hecla Mining Co 9.71
6 Arcata, Peru Minas de Arcata SA 7.94
7 Rochester, U.S. Coeur d'Alene Mines Corp 5.67
8 Imiter, Morocco Socit Mtallurgique d'Imiter 4.95
9 Huaron, Peru Pan American Silver Corp 4.08
10 Lunnoye, Russia Polymetal OAO 3.70
11 Galena, U.S. Coeur d'Alene Mines Corp 3.52
12 Tayahua, Mexico Grupo Carso 3.38
13 Tizapa, Mexico Industrias Peoles SA de CV 3.04
14 Cerro Bayo, Chile Coeur d'Alene Mines Corp 2.94
15 Quiruvilca, Peru Pan American Silver Corp 2.53
-Other silver supply comes from silver scrap
-Silver scrap is generated primarily in industrialized
countries
-Sources of silver-bearing scrap :-
-electronics -jewelry
-spent catalyst -silverware
-photographic waste
-dental alloys
-In 2004, annual supply for silver from scrap recycling 150
million ounces
-In USA (2000), about 1800 metric tons of silver contained
in electronics, photographic waste and spent catalyst were
recycled
GLOBAL SILVER DEMAND
World Silver Demand (in millions of ounces)
Demand 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Fabrication
Industrial Applications 295.7 297.7 320.8 316.4 339.2 375.4 336.3 340.1 350.5 367.1
Photography 202.9 210.1 217.4 225.4 227.9 218.3 213.1 204.3 192.9 181
Jewelry & Silverware 236.9 263.7 274.3 259.4 271.7 278.2 287.1 262.7 274.2 247.2
Coins & Medals 26.1 25.2 30.4 27.8 29.2 32.1 30.5 31.6 35.8 41.1
Total Fabrication 768.6 796.8 842.9 829.1 867.9 904 867 838.7 853.4 836.7
Net Government Purchases - - 0.7 - - - - - - -
Producer De-Hedging - 14.3 - - 16 27.4 - 24.8 21 -
Implied Net Investment - - - - - - 17.8 - 8.7 42.5
Total Demand 768.6 811.1 843.6 829.1 883.9 931.4 884.8 863.5 883.1 879.2
For silver demand, fabrication place a major demand
GLOBAL SILVER PRICE
2005 Monthly Silver Prices
London Fix
(US dollars per ounce).
Month High Low Average
June 7.53 7.07 7.31
May 7.18 6.85 7.02
April 7.29 6.94 7.12
March 7.57 6.92 7.26
February 7.55 6.49 7.03
January 6.81 6.39 6.61
Silver Price (London US$/oz) from 2000 to 2004
DEMAND OF SILVER FROM PHOTOGRAPHIC
WASTE
o Photographic demand - 3
rd
largest demand for silver
- represents approximately 22% - 25%
of total silver
o 25% of worlds silver comes from recycling & 75% of this is obtained from
photographic waste
o Sources of recoverable silver - photo-processing
solutions/fixer solutions
- spent rinse water
- scrap film
- scrap printing paper
o 80% of total silver processed for black & white negatives and 100% of
silver processed in colour will end up in fixer solutions

U.S. Recoverable Silver in Photographic Industry
Coating
weight
(gram
per square
meter)
US
Consumption
(millions)
Silver
Content
(metric tons)

Photographic material Recoverable silver
Percentage Metric tons
Films :
Colour negative 5-8 1030 262 100 262
Colour reversal 4-6 51 11 100 11
Black and White 5-7 40 10 40-50 4
Motion picture 5-7 27.4 165 100 165
Plates :
X-ray (medical, industrial, dental) 4-6 110 550 40-50 248
Graphic arts 3-5 53.1 212 20-80 138
Paper :
Black & white (C.T.) 1-5 14.1 56 40-60 28
Black & white (line) 1-5 8.645 35 20-80 21
Colour 0.7-1/2 572 572 100 572
Total 1870 1450
SILVER RECOVERY IN MALAYSIA
2 silver recovery industries available in Malaysia
1) Victory Recovery Industries Sdn. Bhd., Krubong
Industrial Park, Melaka
2) Universal Cyclone Sdn. Bhd., Sungai Buloh,
Selangor
Both industries collect and recover silver from photo-processing solutions
(bleach-fixer solution)
But, Victory Recovery Sdn. Bhd. also recover silver from scrap films and
scrap printing papers
The products are with 99.9% purity and mainly exported to local
The price according to world market price
Silver sold for jewelry, silverware & industrial applications (electronics,
coating, batteries)

FUTURE TREND
the use of digital film- growing digital
photography market will have little overall
effect on silver demand
will order less prints but larger sizes
the number of prints goes
down, the usage of silver
halide paper will go up

Demand for New Silver
Photography accounts for 24% of
worldwide use of silver
Digital photography will not drive
the use of silver down
less silver required -do not print
images; send over the Internet
it seems silver use will decline-under
detailed analysis, it will
remain steady


Silver Recovery from Photographic
Waste in Malaysia


limited company
1) Victory Recovery Sdn.Bhd-Melaka.
-recover silver and gold
2) Universal Cyclone Sdn.Bhd-Sg Buloh
- recovery silver from
photographic waste
In Malaysia-at low level
feasible to be built up
why the business should be done in
Malaysia????????
i) limited company involve
ii) raw material is easy to get
iii)the global price of silver-increase

CONCLUSION
Business of recovery silver from photographic waste -
feasible to be built up in Malaysia
Silver is a valuable commodity and it is a regulated
environmental contaminant
The global price for the silver is increasing; that
means the market or the requirement of silver is still
wide
In Malaysia, there are only a few company
involve in this field. So there are no problems in
the competition to get the raw material (fixer
solution) and market for the recovery silver
Although the digital camera is introduces, but it
just little effect on the market of film. As a result,
there is not much effect on the market of silver.
USED COOKING OIL INTO BIODIESEL
Introduction
Definition of used cooking oil (UCO):
Oil-based substances consisting of animal and/or vegetable matter
that have been used in cooking or preparing foods and are no longer
suitable for human consumption.
Resulted from the cooking of food by food manufacturers and catering
establishments such as restaurants and industrial kitchens.
Chemical Structure of Used Cooking Oil
Glycerin
Triglyceride
Fatty acid
portion
Problem Encountered
Pose significant disposal problems in many parts of the world.

Why cant dump?????
- UCO are often in liquid or semi-liquid form and disposal of liquid
wastes in quantities of one gallon or more is prohibited in municipal
solid waste landfills.

Why cant drain it????
- To protect the environment form a film on the surface of river or
underground, which prevent oxygenation. If oils are disposed of via
drains, sinks or with ordinary waste, they are likely to seep into
nature. Oils also impair the efficiency of sewage treatment plants.
- Because pipes may be blocked by oils poured directly into the sink
even if diluted with hot water.

Thus, one of the alternatives to solve this
problem is to RECYCLE the USED
COOKING OIL
Useful Products from UCO
Animal Feed To produce high energy diets for certain
intensive livestock enterprises.
Lubricant
Soap
Direct burning for power generation
Biodiesel as fuel additive
Which product
should be chosen to
be produced and
which technology?
In term of economic aspect and
environmental factor, the
production of Biodiesel is the
most popular topic to be
discussed recently
Biodiesel
Definition:
A renewable substitute fuel for petrol diesel made from
vegetable or animal fats.
Can be used in any mixture with petrol diesel as it has very
similar characteristics but it has lower exhaust emissions.




Production of Biodiesel from UCO
There are three basic routes to biodiesel production from
UCO:
i. Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil with alcohol
ii. Direct acid catalyzed esterification of the oil with
methanol
iii. Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to Alkyl
esters with acid catalysis.

The majority of the alkyl esters (Biodiesel) produced today are
done with the base catalyzed reaction because it is the most
economic for several reasons:
1. Low temperature (150 F) and pressure (20 psi)
processing.
2. High conversion (98%) with minimal side
reactions and reaction time.
3. Direct conversion to methyl ester with no
intermediate steps.
4. Exotic materials of construction are not
necessary.
Process Description
Glycerin
Biodiesel
Triglyceride
NaOH (aq)
CH
3
OH
A fat or oil is reacted with an alcohol,like
methanol, in the presence of a catalyst to
produce glycerin and methyl esters or
biodiesel. The methanol is charged in excess
to assist in quick conversion and recovered for
reuse. The catalyst is usually sodium or
potassium hydroxide which has already been
mixed with the methanol.


Process Flow
Filter
Heating
UCO
Alcohol
Catalyst
Reactor
Washing
Purification Evaporation
Alcohol Recovery
Settler
UCO
Neutralization
Distillation
Settler
Evaporation
Mineral acid
Biodiesel
Glycerin
Fatty acid
Alcohol
Advantages
Main Product (Biodiesel)
Offers improved lubricity over petrol diesel
Runs in existing unmodified diesel engines
Higher cetane rating than petrol diesel for better engine
performance
Higher flashpoint than petroleum diesel makes it safer to
handle
Exhaust emissions are reduced
Integrates with the existing fuelling infrastructure
Low-risk - simple to phase in and out of use
Local renewable source of energy
Reduced toxicity to plants, animals and humans
Biodegradable

By-product (Glycerin)
used for medicines(pharmaceutical), tinctures, hand
lotions(cosmetics), dried plant arrangements and
wax.
Market Survey
Source of raw material (UCO):
- Fast food restaurant:
1. Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)
2. McDonalds and etc..
- Food manufacturing factory such as
Maggi, Mamee, etc..
- Household kitchen.
As to be more practical, the survey was done based on the
raw material from the fast food restaurants (KFC and McD).
Competitor: The cooking oil company that provide cooking oil
for the particular outlet such as NEPTUNE, EAGLE and etc..-----
-sell to recycling company (Kewalram).


KFC:
Amount of UCO : 40 tins/fortnight
Volume : 18L/tin
Impurities : 30%
Number of Outlet : 700
Amount of raw material (UCO)/year

=

= 4,586,400L/year
( ) 0.5 outlets 700 purity 3 . 0 1
Tin
L 18
year
Fortnight
2
52
outlet Fortnight
Tins 40

Rough Calculation
McDonalds:
Amount of UCO : 40(0.3) tins/fortnight
Volume : 18L/tin
Impurities : 30%
Number of Outlet : 700(0.5)
Amount of raw material (UCO)/year
= 1,965,600L/year

The total of UCO generated
= 2,260,440L/year



Seems like too little
raw material to
commission a UCO recycle
Plant to produce
Biodiesel..HOW??????
Group 1
Never mind, there is another alternative
MOBILE UCO RECYCLING MILL
Mobile Biodiesel Mill
Mobile UCO Recycling Mill
It has already been introduced in USA by a person named
Mike Pelley
Everything is just on a truck


Mike made front page new in
The Seattle Time.
September 30, 2002.
Mikes mobile Biodiesel mill
Mike and Joe, an organic farmer
who makes 40 gallons of biodiesel
a week for the farm truck and tractor.
So, why dont we
try this mobile technology
in Malaysia
View of sodium methoxide
mixer (left) and
transesterifyer vessel (right).
View of sodium methoxide
being drained into
transesterifyer vessel.
Valve on bottom of transesterifyer
vessel user to decant out more
dense glycerin from less dense esters.
Fuel pump and filters -- these are
used last, after soapy residues
and lye have had time to
settle out of biodiesel.
Overview of trailer-mounted processor
The finished product.
Economic Potential
Neglecting the price of methanol and caustic
Assuming the price of biodiesel is equal to the price of diesel
~RM1.80/L

2,260,440L/year of UCO can produce
approximately 2,000,000L Biodiesel / year.

Profit = 2,000,000L/year x RM1.80/L
= RM3.6million/year

Recycling of Used Tyres


Sources of Used Tyres
Two basic sources of used tyres:
Retail businesses collecting old tyres - includes tyre manufacturers (scrap
tyres), tyre retail stores, and tyre collectors, sometimes called tyre jockeys.
Existing piles

Other main sources of used tyres are:
Used car importers (some of the tyres on used imports are thrown away
when the vehicle arrives as they are unsuitable to be used)
Re-treaders (scrap)
Vehicle wreckers
Large transport companies (some transport operators have their own
workshops and replace their tyres themselves, which means that the used
tyres are not automatically returned to the tyre retailer).

Worldwide of Used Tyres
In the UK:
It is estimated that 427,000 tonnes of waste tyres were
produced in 2000 (Used Tyre Working Group, 2001).
This annual figure is now estimated to be approximately
440,000 tonnes (Used Tyre Working Group, 2004)
- 26% are reused as retreads
- 46% are reclaimed for other forms of reuse or recycling;
or are incinerated for 'energy recovery'
- The rest (28%) are landfilled or stockpiled, and represent
a major waste problem


In the US:
In 2001, 292 million scrap tyres were generated. Of
the 292 million, car supply two-thirds of scrap tyres,
the remainder are from trucks, heavy equipment, air-
craft, off-road and scrapped vehicles.
From the total of 292 million, 78 % were recycled.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates
that 250 million scrap tyres are generated in the
United States each year, not counting another 45
million scrap tyres that are used to make 34.5 million
automobile and truck tyre retreads every year.
In Australia:
170,000 tonnes of waste tyres are generated
each year.

In Europe:
Around 250 million tyres generated each year.
Of these tyres, around 60% are reused in some
way and the rest end up in landfills.
In 1994, the figures were almost the other way
round, with over 60% of tyres ending up in
landfills.
Country Used Tyres Tonnes / Year Population
Netherlands 65.000 15.492.800
Belgium 70.000 10.143.000
Spain 330.000 39.241.900
Ireland 7.640 3.591.200
Great Britain 400.000 58.684.000
Italy 360.000 57.330.500
Austria 41.000 8.045.800
Greece 58.500 10.474.600
Luxembourg 2.000 412.800
Portugal 45.000 9.920.800
France 380.000 58.265.400
Sweden 65.000 8.737.500
Germany 650.000 81.845.000
Finland 30.000 5.116.000
Denmark 38.500 5.251.600
Total 2.542.640 372.552.900
Table 1.1 The annual accumulation of used tyres in EU-countries
Malaysia
Year Number of vehicles
Estimated Scrap Tyres
Generated Two Years
Later (9kg per tyre)
2002 12,021,939 432,790 tonnes
2003 12,756,986 459,251 tonnes
2004 13,866,289 499,186 tonnes
2005 15,406,987 554,652 tonnes

almost 450,000 tonnes of used tyres,
equivalent to 12.5 million vehicles a year
are generated.

over 70% of these tyres are collected.
Used Tyres in Malaysia
City
Passenger
(tyre / year)
Truck
(tyre / year)
Total
(tonnage)
Kuching 200,000 30,000 2,750
Sibu 84,000 12,600 1,155
Miri 84,000 12,600 1,155
Bintulu 50,000 75,00 917
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah 200,000 30,000 2,750
Total number of tyres 618,000 92,700 8,727
Average weight kg / tyre
7 45
Annual tonnage, Sarawak
2,926 2,484 5,410
Total tonnage 4,326 4,172 8,498
Table 1.2 Used tyre generation (major towns in Sabah and Sarawak)
Area
Collection Percentage
Kuching
75
Other parts of Sarawak
55
Kota Kinabalu, Sabah
55
Table 1.3 Percentage of used tyres collected
Composition of Rubber Tyres
Component Weight %
SBR 62.1
Carbon black 31.0
Extender oil 1.9
Zinc oxide 1.9
Stearic acid 1.2
Sulfur 1.1
Accelerator 0.7
Total 99.9
Table 1.4 Rubber compounding composition
Environmental Problem
Associated with Waste
Tyres
Fire Hazards
Mosquitoes
Disease
Storage of Whole Tyres
Retreading
A tyre which worn tread has been
removed and replaced with new material
having similar charasteristic to tha
original

Inspection
Buffing Repair
Trimming and
painting
Final Inspection
Recuring
RECOVERY OF SECONDARY RAW
MATERIAL FROM OLD TYRES
I) Mechanical treatment
Tyres are cut or ground into pieces or crumbs to use either
the composite materials as a whole or to separate the
different materials from each other

II) Thermal treatment
Leads to depolymerisation or decomposition to recover
synthesis gas, liquid hydrocarbons or soot.
4 types of thermal treatment process:
i) Regeneration of waste rubber(devulcanised)
ii) Depolymerisation by microwave
iii) Co-refining with crude oil
iv) Depolymerisation by hydrolisis


ENERGY RECOVERY OF USED
TYRES
I) Combustion of Used Tyres
Used tyres make an excellent fuel since they have a
fuel value 20% greater than that of coal, about
12,000 to 16,000 Btu per pound compared to coal
(12,000 Btu per pound) and wood (5000 BTU per
pound).
As an energy source, used tyres can be used as fuel
either in shredded form (Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF))
or whole, depending on the type of combustion
furnace.
The important advantages of TDF are a
compact and consistent composition and low
moisture content.
In United State, the Scrap Tyre Management
Council reports that over 57% of scrap tyres were
used as fuel in 1996.
The energy recovered from used tyres in the U.K
is approximately 27%, which is low when
compared with other European countries, such as
Finland, Germany, Austria and Sweden, where
between 50% and 80% of used tyres contribute to
energy recovery.
The use of tyres and TDF in various
combustion facilities to recover the
energy included:
i) power plants
ii) cement kilns
iii) pulp and paper plants
iv) boilers
v) small package steam generators
vi) lime kilns
Market of TDF in US, 1996:

However, from the perspective of
economic feasibility as well as
environmental reason:
A researcher point out that burning of used tyres as TDF
is not as preferable as reusing, retreading or recycling
tyres.
Crumb rubber prepared for recycling sells for $200 to
$400 a ton, as much as 10 times the price paid for TDF
chips.
II) Pyrolysis
Offers another route for high temperature resource
recovery from tyres.
It involves the thermal decomposition of a
substance into low molecular weight products
under an inert atmosphere.
Tyre pyrolysis produces:
char or carbon black (22%)
oil (30%)
gas (28%)
steel (10%)
a small quantity of inorganic slag or ash (5%)

Market for Pyrolysis
Markets exist for all of the products of pyrolysis but
product quality limits the potential commercial values.
A number of pyrolysis plants operating around the
world (none of which are in Australia), apparently
none have been particularly successful and the
economics of pyrolysis appear to be marginal.
An examination of current practice reveals that
although more than 30 major pyrolysis projects have
been proposed, patented or built over the past decade,
none have been commercially successful.
As of 1997 no tyre pyrolysis plants were operating in
the United States (STMC, 1997).
Civil Engineering Projects
Lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls
Leachate drainage material at municipal solid waste
landfills
Alternative daily cover at municipal solid waste landfills
Insulating layer beneath roads and behind retaining walls
In civil engineering, used tyres are applied for:
Artificial tyre reef structure
Road surfaces
Lightweight fill in civil engineering
applications
Paving Applications
Reuse through landfill engineering
Highway Noise Barriers
Other Civil Engineering
Overpass fill
Levee slurry wall (mix with concrete)
Retaining wall fill
Roadway base fill
Bridge abatement fill

CRUMB RUBBER
Crumbing is a process which reduces rubber
compounds to a fine granular or powdered form
The scrap tyres are ambiently reduced in size with
the use of shredder, grinder and cracker mills
Referred to as ground rubber, is a wire-free fine
rubber particle made by size reduction from scrap
tyres
Various size reduction technique can be used to
achieve a wide range of particle sizes down to 600
microns or less
Scrap/waste tyre
Crumb rubber
Surface modication
technology
Granule
Truck Tyre Buffings
Buffing Dust
-manufacture of
mats/matting and
playgrounds
PROCESSING OF CRUMB
RUBBER
Divided into 2 major processing categories
Mechanical Grinding
Cryogenic reduction

I) Mechanical grinding
Most commonly used process
Consists of mechanically breaking down the rubber
into small particles using a variety of grinding
technique
~cracker mills, granulators

The steel components are removed by a
magnetic separator
~centrifugal, air classification,density
The fiber components are separated by air
classifiers or other equipments
These systems are well established and can
produce crumb rubber at relatively low cost
Also easy to maintain and require few people
to operate and service
Replacement parts are generally easy to
obtain and install
II) Cryogenic reduction
Consists of freezing the shredder rubber at an
extremely low temperature (far below the glass
transition temperature of the compound)
The frozen rubber compound is then easily shattered
into small particles
The fiber and steel removed same fashion as in
grinding
Systems are cleaner and faster operation resulting in
the production of fine mesh size
Slightly higher cost due to the added cost of cooling
~liquid nitrogen
Application of crumb rubber
Road and Rail Applications
Rubber modified bitumen
Hot mix bitumen
Reflective crack sealant
Waterproof membranes
Gap seals
Stress absorbing membranes
Acoustic barriers
Road base
Portable traffic control devices
Ripple strips and speed bumps
Rail crossings, sleepers and buffers
Roadside safety railing
Construction & Industrial
Foundation material
Industrial flooring & footpaths
Anti-static computer mats
Acoustic barriers
Sprayed up roofing, insulation and waterproofing
Adhesive sealants
Mounting pads and shock absorbers
Membrane protection
Airfield runways
Shoe soles
Carpet underlay
Children's playground surfacing

Sporting
Flooring
Sporting fields, athletic tracks, tennis courts
Gymnasium flooring and matting
Equestrian surfaces and workout areas
The application of crumb rubber
Primary shredder

Tyres being shredded

Packaging rubber crumb
The new black gold
DEVULCANIZED AND SURFACE
MODIFIED RUBBER
Are similar method to reduce scrap rubbers to
crumb rubber
Devulcanization involves breaking the sulfur bond
that helps rubber hold its shape in extreme weather
Early methods involved exposing cured rubber to
elevate temperature for extended periods of
time,but there are problems with the process
It is not only severs the sulfur bond, but breaks
polymer chain and causes a degradation of quality


Research by using ultrasound to break sulfur bonds
or mechanical means to essentially chew them up to
promise experimental methods using bacteria to eat
away the sulfur bonds are complex and too
expensive
Surfaces activation involves treating crumb rubber
particles so they stick together better
A compromise between using recycled rubber
strictly as a filler and wholesale devulcanization


Collection of Used Tyres for Crumb Rubber
Production
Due to the simplicity of crumb rubber processing, hence, we
choose it as our used tyres recycling method
It is estimated that 450,000 tonnes used tyres were generated
per year in Malaysia
We propose that 20% (90,000 tonnes) of used tyres to be used
for production of crumb rubber annually
We estimate that the collection cost of used tyres is RM 1.00
RM 1.50 per tyre
Estimation: 1 tyre = 9 kg
1 tyre 3 kg crumb rubber
Therefore, about 30,000 tonnes of crumb rubber will be
produced
The company that supply the used tyres:
~ Sepang Capital(M) Sdn Bhd,Selangor
~ GoodYear Malaysia Berhad,Selangor
~ Yoong Sing Tyre Retreaders Sdn Bhd,
Selangor
~ Sime tyres International (M) Sdn
Bhd,Selangor

Crumb rubber
markets
Crumb Rubber Market Demand
The market value of crumb is determined by
its size and purity
The costs of production for rubber crumb
increase with decreasing particle size and
increasing purity (removal of metal and
fabric).
The ability of the Malaysian market to use the
number of waste tyres generated annually is
considered to be limited - only a few percent
A nationwide average of crumb rubber
prices
The price ranges reflect variables such as
regional conditions, raw material supply,
competition, location of manufacturing
facilities or end-users, State and local
regulations, subsidies, credits, or other market
incentives
Average Prices of Crumb Rubber for the
year 2000, 2001 and 2002
Assuming that approximately 3kg of tread
crumb rubber can be recovered from a waste
tyre, about 330 tyres are required to generate 1
tonne of raw buffings (crumb rubber)
The average price for raw buffings in 2002
was $164.78 (RM 619.57) per tonne
Average price for 1-inch-minus shreds used as
tyre derived fuel (TDF), the average price for
2002 was $32.10 (RM 120.70) per tonne
Market Prices for Tire-Derived Materials
Crumb Rubber
Size 2002 2002 2001 2001 2000 2000
Avg. Price
Per Ton
Range Avg. Price
Per Ton
Range Avg. Price
Per Ton
Range
$232 $141-$440 $221 $140-$440 $185 $110-$325
3/8 $226 $121-$440 $226 $120-$440 $195 $110-$325
10 mesh $238 $202-$268 $227 $200-$268 $235 $175-$350
20 mesh $267 $200-$294 $267 $200-$294 $275 $175-$395
30 mesh $310 $240-$372 $310 $240-$372 $345 $250-$450
40 mesh $358 $280-$402 $358 $280-$402 $385 $300-$520
80 mesh $420 $400-$510 $420 $400-$510 $435 $250-$550
100+ mesh $550 $500-$610 $550 $500-$610 $610 $550-$725
200+ mesh $1,275 $600-$1,500 $1,275 $600-$1,500 - -
The Latest Price of Crumb Rubber
SPOT MARKET PRICES
GRADES INCLUDED
Click on the Grade name for more specific details.
LTL TL UNI
TS
FUNDS
Retreaders Tire Buffings 420.00 420.00 ton USD $
No.1 Tire Granule (minus 40 mesh) 660.00 660.00 ton USD $
No.1 Tire Granule (minus 20 mesh) 620.00 620.00 ton USD $
No.1 Tire Granule (minus 10 mesh) 580.00 580.00 ton USD $
No.1 Tire Granule (minus 1/4inch) 560.00 560.00 ton USD $
No.1 Rubber/Fluff 440.00 440.00 ton USD $
No.2 Tire Granule (minus 40 mesh) 400.00 400.00 ton USD $
No.2 Tire Granule (minus 20 mesh) 380.00 380.00 ton USD $
No.2 Tire Granule (minus 10 mesh) 340.00 340.00 ton USD $
No.2 Tire Granule (minus 1/4inch) 320.00 320.00 ton USD $
No.2 Rubber/Fluff 220.00 220.00 ton USD $
No.3 Tire Granule (minus 40 mesh) 280.00 280.00 ton USD $
No.3 Tire Granule (minus 20 mesh) 260.00 260.00 ton USD $
No.3 Tire Granule (minus 10 mesh) 240.00 240.00 ton USD $
No.3 Tire Granule (minus 1/4inch) 220.00 220.00 ton USD $
No.3 Rubber/Fluff 100.00 100.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 80 mesh) 240.00 240.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 60 mesh) 200.00 200.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 40 mesh) 180.00 180.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 20 mesh) 140.00 140.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 10 mesh) 120.00 120.00 ton USD $
No.4 Tire Granule (minus 1/4inch) 80.00 80.00 ton USD $
No.4 Rubber/Fluff 40.00 40.00 ton USD $
No.5 Tire Granule 20.00 20.00 ton USD $
Other Granulated Tire Crumb - - - -
Crumb Rubber Producer
In Malaysia, there are several crumb rubber
production companies available:
Jeng Yuan Reclaimed Rubber Sdn. Bhd, Port
Klang
Lien Huat Alliance Sdn. Bhd, Klang
Dyno Rubber Sepang Capital (M) Sdn. Bhd

China
China leads the crumb rubber production in
Asia:
Sanhe Great Waal Rubber Co. Ltd
Shanghai Jennifer International Co.
Yangjiang Cohesion Trading Co. Ltd

Future Trend in Malaysia
In Malaysia, it is estimated that there is 10% increase
in number of vehicles every year. Hence, the used
tyres generated will also increase.
Over 600,000 tonnes of scrap tyres will be produced
in the next few years.
There are about 36,354 ,343 million scrap tyres were
recovered for a 75 percent collection rate in 2004.
About 347,194 tones of scrap tyres are collected in
2005, and assuming that 377,385 tonnes in 2006 and
419,317 tonnes in 2007.

Therefore, there are no problem of getting raw
material for our investment plant.
It is predicted that there will be more new
competitors of used tyre recycling exist in the
future.
However, it will not bring the high risk to our
investment as we can expand our market by
exporting the products to oversea.
As our country develops to more sophisticated era,
people will be educated with the more knowledgeable
recycling technologies and discover new technology
to recycle the used tyres instead of dumping them.
It will help to increase the awareness among the
Malaysian so that do not throw the used tyres
elsewhere or just land filling as the wastes can be
recycled to produce profitable products.
Therefore, the collection of used tyres to be recycled
will increase and it helps to reduce the inappropriate
tyre disposal.
In order to reduce the problem of tyres
disposal, government should implement the
practice of waste avoidance in future.
Waste avoidance is reducing the number of
tyres that are disposed by reducing the number
of tyres generated.
The possible approaches those are amenable to
waste tyre policy consist of encouraging the
purchase of tyres with extended tread life,
increased use of retreaded tyres and better
maintenance of tyres by vehicle owners.
Various types of programs should be
implemented to raise public awareness of the
financial costs and environmental impacts and
to provide information on better practices.
Lastly, the government may also have to do
more to encourage greater recycling of used
tyres. For example, a number of modest steps
should be taken to identify possible recyclers
and recycling options as well as encourage
promising recyclers to pursue existing sources
of funding and support.
Worldwide of Future Trend
In Australia, the most straightforward approach
to estimate future trend of used tyres
generation is to base predictions of waste
generation on tyre usage, as measured by the
number and type of vehicles and the distance
travelled.
The net increase in the
generation rate of waste
tyres is forecast to be
approximately 2% per
year, driven by increases
in population, vehicle
ownership and distance
travelled, assuming
constant retreading rates
and tyre design life.
By the year 2010, the
number of waste tyres is
forecast to be in excess of
20 million, from the
current level of 18
million.
* EPU = Equivalent passenger unit
assumed weight of one EPU is taken to be
9.5 kg
Figure 4.1 Preliminary estimates of the
trend over time in the number of waste
tyres generated in Australia
Recycling of Used Computer
Introduction
Recycling reduces the demand for raw
materials.
Recycling is the processing of waste
manufactured products to provide the raw
material to make new ones.

Problem Statement
The hazardous materials (i.e., phosphor coatings of cathode ray
tubes (CRT), high-lead content in the CRT funnel glass,
batteries, PCB capacitors, mercury-containing parts, and
plastics containing flame-retardant bromine, etc.) contained in
computers may seriously pollute the environment if they are not
properly disposed of.

some valuable materials (i.e., copper-containing motors, plastic
or iron parts, gold-, silver- and copper-bearing printed circuit
boards, etc.) contained in scrap computers make them worth
being recycled.
Objectives
To study the technology in recycling of used
computers.

To study the feasibility of starting up a used
computer recycling plant in Malaysia.
Main Machines
Table 1: Analysis of components main machine of an IBM 286 PC
CRT Monitor
Table 2: Analysis of components in a 14 in. Philips color monitor
Table 3: Components of panel and funnel glass in a 14 in. Philips color
monitor analyzed by EDS
PC Keyboard
Table 4: Analysis of components in a typical PC keyboard
Scrap IC Board
Table 5: Typical composition of a scrap IC board
Table 6: Composition of a Desktop Personal Computer
Uses of the Precious Metals


Metal Atomic
Symbol
Atomic
Weight
Melting
Point
Boiling
Point
Cost
(USD/kg)
Uses
Gold Au 196.9665 1064.18
o
C 2856
o
C 14381.03 monetary systems, jewelry,
decoration, dental work, plating,
coating certain space satellites,
as it is a good reflector of
infrared and is inert.
Aluminum
Al 26.98154 660.32
o
C 2519
o
C 1.823 kitchen utensils, building
decoration, industrial
constructed material, catalyst,
constructions of modern aircraft
and rocket.
Copper Cu 63.546 1084.6
o
C 2562
o
C 3.728 electrical industry, agricultural
poison, as an algaecide in water
purification, widely used in
analytical chemistry tests for
sugar.
Silver Ag 107.868 961.78
o
C 2162
o
C 224.09 jewelry, silverware, photography,
industrial application, printed
circuits
Metal Atomic
Symbol
Atomic
Weight
Melting
Point
Boiling
Point
Cost
(USD/kg)
Uses
Iron Fe 55.847 1538
o
C 2261
o
C 0.02969
(1998)
vital constituent of plant and
animal life works as an oxygen
carrier in hemoglobin, usually
alloyed with carbon
Nickel Ni 58.7 1455
o
C 2913
o
C 14.675 stainless steel, corrosion-
resistant alloys, coins, nickel
steel for armor plates and
burglar-proof vaults, catalyst
Palladium

Pd 106.4 1554.9
o
C 2963
o
C 6574.96 Catalyst, jewelry trades,
dentistry, watch making, and in
making surgical instruments
and electrical contacts
Source: http://periodic.lanl.gov/ ; http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/metal_prices/ ; http://www.certifiedgoldexchange.com/
http://www.nickelalloy.com/ ; http://silverprice.org/ ; http://goldprice.org/index.html

Specific Hazards of E-Waste
Lead
Cadmium
Mercury
Hexavalent Chromium (Chromium VI)
Plastics
PVC
Brominated Flame Retardants
Global Market Trends
Overview

By 2005, more than 250 million personal computers will
become obsolete.

A study done estimates that nearly 150 million
computers will be recycled in 2005. ( Carnegie Mellon
report )

Average lifespan of PCs,
1992 - 4.5 years
2005 - estimated 2 years
Electronics recycling activity is anticipated to grow 18
percent annually between 1998 and 2007

Estimates indicate that over 40 million units of electronic
equipment will be recycled in 2007, with notebook PCs and
desktop CPUs experiencing significant growth in recovery

Introduction
A study was carried out in the United States. This analysis
presents the results of the Used Electronics Market Study
conducted by the Northeast Recycling Council, Inc.
(NERC)

The project began with the development of a list of more
than 100 non-profit and for-profit consumer electronics
reuse facilities either located in or serving the Northeast.
Non-profit Organizations - take used electronics and either
repair them and/or distribute them "as is" to schools or
other institutions for little or no fee. In some cases, whole
units may be sold or demanufactured.

For-profit Electronic Recycling Companies - are similar to
other for-profit ventures. Their goal is to be financially
successful.

Type of Operation
Operation Comparison
Table 7: Operation comparison
Figure 1: Non-profit operation Figure 2: For-profit operation
Table 8: Parts used for remanufacturing
Table 9: Non-profit customer
Table 10: For-profit customer
Table 11: Materials accepted
Table 12: Economic Feasibility Criteria of Electronics Reuse
Figure 3: Domestic Markets for Used Electronics
Figure 4: Continents Receiving Exported Used Electronics
Figure 5: Middle East & Asian Countries Receiving Used Electronics Exports
Figure 6: African Countries Receiving Used Electronics Exports
Figure 7: North & South American Countries Receiving Used Electronics Exports (Excluding the U.S.)
Local Market Trends
There are estimated 26,186,054 populations in Malaysia.

There are 32.6% (8.53million) of population are below
15 years old, 63.1% (16.52million) of population are
between 15 to 64 years old and the rest, 4.3%
(1.13million) of population are above 65 years old.

In the years 1998/99, the average monthly consumption
expenditure was RM1,943 per month in the urban areas
and RM1,270 per month in the rural areas.

It is believed that there is a large portion of population that
contributes to buying a desktop computer or notebook,
which are the people between 15 to 64 years old, and most
of the household stay in urban areas.

Amount of the Computers
computers 098 , 532 , 2
PTA/IPTS] 1000com)[I * (15Uni
s] subscriber up - dial al 1com)[norm * ppl (2,041,075
s] subscriber porate 10com)[cor * (8,000corp
s] subscriber myx com)[strea 1 * l (396,023pp
=
+
+
+
Estimate..
can be recycled by 2010 if we assume that the
computer life-cycle around 2-5 years.
Technology Recycling Computer
Due to rapid improvements in electronic manufacturing
technologies, the personal computer can be regarded a short-
life-cycle electronic product.

This phenomenon results in a large quantity of
relinquished personal computer.

The hazardous materials contained in computer may
seriously pollute the environment if they are not properly
disposed of. So, many of technologies are used to decrease
the problem.
Disassembly of Monitor

Three types of sorting process

manual separation
automatic separation
chemical separation
Manual Separation
For hand sorting and manual disassembly, tables and/or
conveyor belts are necessary along with the purchase and
maintenance of tooling.

Manual disassembly will generally be labour not equipment,
intensive.

Safety training is necessary due to lead exposure, sharp
objects, and handling.

A packaged monitor weighs about 55 pounds and special
handling aids are generally used for moving large amounts.
Automated Separation
Automatic disassembly of monitors is presently available.

This consists of loading an entire monitor into a crusher that
feeds various conveyor belts performing separation based on
magnetic and charge density and mass density.

The process is also capable of reclaiming other scrap
electronics.

In this process large amounts of recyclable materials can be
concentrated providing a steady supply.
Chemical Separation
Chemical separation is the use of chemical properties
including melting and oxidation potential to separate
and recover value from materials.

This can be approached by two different methods.

One method is to charge the entire set into a smelting
furnace and recover the heat value of organic chemicals
through burning, the heavy metals through reduction
and boiling point separation, the steel as an oxidation
potential reaction driver and the silica as a fluxing agent.

Another approach is to add value to the scrap by first
crushing and feeding into the sintering process.

Technology Separation
Funnel and Panel Glass
Two method to separate funnel and panel Glass

Electric-wire heating method

Gravitational-fail
Electric-wire Heating Method
An electric wire heats interface between panel and
funnel glass.

Cool air blown on heated interface to cause a
sudden breakage along surface, due to thermal
shock.

Broken surface is relatively regular, implying that
recyclablity of separated glass is higher.
Gravitational-fail Method
CRT is lifted to a designated elevation, with
funnel glass facing downward.

Tube id dropped so that funnel glass breaks
on impact with a surface.

Broken surface is irregular, resulting in a
relatively poor separation of glass.
Technology of CRT Coating-Removal
Four method to removal CRT coating

Vacuum-suction

Sandblasting

Ultrasonic-cleaning

Wet-scrubbing
Vacuum-suction Method
Principles: A vacuum-suction device is manually
applied to panel glass surface.

Advantages: Low capital cost; simple operation; no
associated wastewater problem.

Disadvantages: Panel glass must remain in a large piece;
rely on manual operation; is usually associated with
fine dust emission problem; effective only for
fluorescent coating removal but not for other types of
coatings.
Sandblasting Method
Principles : Fine steel balls are blasted onto glass
surface by a high-pressure air jet.

Advantages : Automation degree is high; no associated
Wastewater problem; other surface coatings can also
be removed; round-edged final product is easy to
handle

Disadvantages : Capital cost is relatively high; is
usually associated with fine-dust emission and waste
steel-ball disposal problem; coating removal efficiency
may not be 100%.
Ultrasonic-cleaning Method
Principles : Broken CRT glass is immersed into a
cleaning Fluid (water + acid) and placed in an
ultrasonic device for a period of time.

Advantages : Automation degree is high; removal
efficiency is high when acid is added to cleaning fluid;
no additional solid waste is generated.

Disadvantages : Usually associated with wastewater
(containing acid) problem; removal efficiency is good
for panel glass but not for funnel glass.
Wet-scrubbing Method
Principles : Broken CRT glass is placed in a tumbling
mill device with water; coatings scrubbed off by self-
scrubbing action of particles.

Advantages : Automation degree is high; removal
efficiency is high for fluorescent and other coatings; no
additional chemical is needed; wastewater can be
recycled; round-edged final product is easy to handle.

Disadvantages : A portion of CRT glass is scrubbed off
as solid waste.
Recycling Technology for
Scrap IC boards
Three method to recycle scrap IC boards

Physical separation

Copper smelting

Scraping method
Physical Separation Method
Principles : Scrap IC board is subjected to crushing,
grinding, Magnetic separation, eddy-current separation,
Air separation, etc., to separate metal from non-metal
fragments.

Advantages ; No associated wastewater problem; high
grade metals can be recovered.

Disadvantages : Usually associated with dust emission and
high-noise; recovered metals may also need further
purification before they can be utilized.
Physical separation Flow sheet for
Recycling of Scrap IC boards.
Copper smelting method
Principles : Scrap IC board can be sent to a copper
smelting plant to recover constituent copper and precious
metals.

Advantages ; No additional facility needs to be built for
treatment; constituent copper can be totally recovered;
due to high temperature smelting process, no associated
solid-waste problem.

Disadvantages ; Due to incineration of resin in board,
special air-pollution problems may occur.
Copper-smelting Flow sheet for Recycling
of Scrap IC board
Scraping method
Principles ; After solder is heated to a liquid state,
mounted electronic parts can be mechanically scraped off;
then, clean board and scraped-off parts can be processed
separately.

Advantages : Recycling efficiency may be increased, due
to separate processing of clean board and scraped-off
electronic parts.

Disadvantages ; Economic efficiency is not well
established.
The cost effectiveness of the recycling process will be based
upon maximizing the value of recovered material from the
computer at the lowest possible recovery cost.
Cost to Recycle Value Recovered
s
s
s
Recycling of Monitor
Table 13: Material content of the monitor and price per kilogram recycled value or (loss) for material
Table 14: Recycling value in dollars obtain from a monitor using a basic sort of disassembly and a detailed sort of disassembly
Site Studies
Scrap computer recycling practice in Taiwan
Table 14: Data on scrap main machines from computer recycling plant
Table 15: Data on scrap monitors from computer recycling plant
Product Life Cycle
The current average useful life of personal computer is
3.1 years

projected to decrease to 2 years by 2005 (National Safety
Council, 1999).

Now, it is rare to see a computer in use that is 5 years
old

A truism of the computer market seems to be that as
soon as one buys a top of the line computer, a better one
comes out and the model just purchased drops in price.
The Useful Life of a Computer
Varies according : -

the combination of the computers technical capabilities
(such as speed and memory)

the needs of the user

the price of a replacement

the users financial status
Environmental Impact for All Stages of the
Computer Life Cycle
Waste
20 million computers became obsolete in the United States
in 1998 alone (National Safety Council,1999).

This is in comparison to 36.7 million new computers
shipped to the United States the same year.

In 2002, number of obsolete computers will exceed the
number of new units shipped, 55.4 million to 52 million.

By 2007, 500 million computers will have obsolesced since
they first appeared on the market

50 million more will continue to obsolesce every year
thereafter.
large quantity of obsolete electronics, contains a lot of hazardous
materialslead and other heavy metalscan be released into the
environment during disposal with potential adverse effects on
human health.

one billion pounds of lead from computers and other electronics
will enter the waste stream within the next decade in the United
States alone (Salkever, 1999).

In response, policies are now being proposed in the US and other
countries to increase the recycling of electronic equipment
through subsidies and other measures or to ban its disposal
altogether (thus requiring complete recycling or reuse).
Use of Computers
According to the fact from Computer Industry Almanac,
1999:

98 million in 1990

222 million in 1995

364 million personal computers were in use around the
world in 1998

During the first 50 years of the info-tech era, about 1
billion people have come to use computers and
majority of them from:

North America,

Western Europe

Japan.


Computers Industry
In US
increase just 6% per year from now to 2008
To thrive, the industry must reach out to the next 1 billion customers

In China, India, Russia, and Brazil
11% per year over the next half decade, to $230 billion, according to IDC.
Increase in the growing ranks of the middle-class consumers.
Already, there are 60 million in China and 200 million in India, and their
numbers are growing fast.
These newly wealthy consumers are showing a taste for fashionable
brands and for products every bit as capable as those available to
Americans, Japanese, and Germans.
Conclusions
Advantages :
Reduce waste
Make profit
Environmental concern
This project is feasible to run and can give a lot of
advantages for company, environment and also the
consumer.
Recycling expired/damaged canned
food into animal feed and fertilizer
1
Defining the Problem
2
Developing an Approach to the Problem
3
Formulating a Research Design
4
Doing Field Work or Collecting Data
5
Preparing and Analyzing Data
6
Preparing and Presenting the Report
Problem Statement
To investigate the amount of
expired/damaged canned food available as
raw materials for this project.
The availability of raw materials is calculated
monthly

Approach to the Problem
Interview with supplier (eg: manager of
supermarkets) of the raw material was done.
Questionnaires were distributed to consumers
of canned foods in order to obtain desired
data.
Research Design
Questionnaires consisting 8 specific questions
were constructed.
From interviews with managers of
supermarkets, data on the amount of
expired/damaged canned food from the
supermarkets were obtained.
Field Work/Collecting Data
Questionnaires were distributed to consumers
by members at main supermarkets around
Kuantan (eg: Tunas Mart, Eng Hong, Carrefour
and Cold Storage)
Only two managers were available for
interview whom are managers from Eng Hong
and Cold Storage.
Analyzing Data
Questionnaire
Interview
K.H.Choy, Eng Hong Branch Manager
Amount of damaged/expired canned food per month
deduced to 1.25% from purchase.
Action Taken:
Damaged/expired canned food is returned to manufacturer
without charge
Therefore, no reason to sell to recycle plant.


Interview
Ben Wong, Cold Storage Supermarket Manager
The amount of damaged canned food adds up to RM
80000 RM90000 per year.
Action taken:
The damaged canned food are disposed manually by staffs of
supermarket
Other than that, cans are also collected by cleaning company
staffs.
It is possible to negotiate for the purchasing of damaged
canned foods.

The Report
Availability of raw material is abundant and
easily obtained
Products of recycling food waste from
damaged/expired canned food are animals
feed, electricity and heat, liquid fertilizer and
organic fertilizer
Technology has been introduced by Pollution
Engineerings (M) Sdn Bhd