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Introduction to Designing

Elastomeric Vibration Isolators


Christopher Hopkins
OPTI 512
08 DEC 2009
Introduction
Why elastomers?
Key design parameters
Loading
Configuration
Spring rates
Design considerations
Steps to designing a simple isolator

Elastomers
An eastomer is any elastic polymer
Silicone Rubber
Butyl Rubber
Fluorosilicone Rubber
Material selection dependent on application
Ulitimate Loading
Sensitivity to Environment
Internal Properties
Elastomeric Isolators
Engineered properties can meet specific
applications
Modulus of elasticity
Internal dampening
Homogeneous nature allows for compact
forms
Easily manufactured
Molded
Formed in place
Key Isolator Design Parameters
Configuration
Loading
Spring rate
Shear, Bulk, and Youngs modulus
Geometry
Ultimate strength
Internal dampening
Maximum displacement
Simple Isolator Configurations
Planer Sandwich Form
Laminate
Cylindrical
Spring Rates
Isolator spring rate sets system resonant
frequency
Ratio of resonant frequency to input frequency
plus dampening control amount of isolation
For an elastomer, spring rate is determined by
Shape factor
Loading: shear, compression, tension
Material Properties: bulk, shear, and youngs
modulus
Transmissibility
0.1
1
10
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
y

f
r
/f
Transmissibility vs. Frequency Ratio
= 0.01
= 0.05
= 0.1
= 0.5
Shape Factor
Ratio of load area to bulge area
Easy to calculate for simple shapes simply loaded
Planer sandwich forms are simple
Tube form bearings are more difficult, but can be
approximated as a planer form
Shear Spring Rate
Design isolator to attenuate in shear if possible
Dependent on load area, thickness, and shear
modulus
Shear modulus is linear up to 75%-100% strain
Shear modulus for large shape factors is also
effected by high compressive loads
When aspect ratio exceeds 0.25 a correction
factor is added to account for bending

Compression Spring Rate
Designed properly, compression can
provide high stiffness
Depends on load area, effective
compression modulus, and thickness
Effective compression modulus
Linear up to 30% strain
Can be tricky to compute
Tension Spring Rate
Try to avoid having elastomeric
isolators in tension
Low modulus
Can be damaged by relatively low loads
Apply preload avoids this
Easy to do for cylindrical isolators
Must include correction to shape factor

Finding Modulus
Many elastomers are listed with only with
Durometer Shore hardness
Ultimate strength (MPa or psi)
Contacting manufacturer may be useful
Perform tests
Shear stress is 1/3 Youngs modulus as poissons ratio
approaches 0.5
Use Gents relation between Shore A hardness and Youngs
modulus (if you gotta have it now)
Effective Compression Modulus, E
c
Dependent on shape factor, youngs modulus and
bulk modulus
Also know as the apparent compressive modulus
As Poissons ratio approaches 0.5, E
c
may be
separated into three zones depending on shape
factor
For large shape factors: E
c
bulk modulus
For small shape factors: E
c
youngs modulus
Transisiton zone for intermediate shape factors

Computing E
c
Gent provides a reference graph
Hatheway found empirically that the
transition zone is (E
c
/E)(t/D)
1.583
=0.3660
Can calculate E
c
or the simple case of a circular
load area of diameter D and thickness t
Find the break points
First break point: (t/D)
1.583
= 0.366(E/E
B
)
Second break point: (t/D)
1.583
= 0.366
Compression Modulus vs. Shape
Factor [Gent]
1
10
100
1000
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100
S
t
i
f
f
e
n
i
n
g

R
a
t
i
o

E
c
/
E

Thickness Ratio, t/D
Stiffening vs. Thickness Ratio [Hatheway]
Circular Cross Section, Eb=1.2 GPa, E=1.6 Mpa
Laminate Isolator
Shear modulus is not effected by
shape factor (if aspect ratio is
<0.25)
Effective compression modulus
strongly influence by shape factor
Possible to design an isolator that is
very stiff in compression and
compliant in shear
Cylindrical Isolator
Shear
Axial loading
Torsion
Compression
Radial loading
Shape factor calculation for
compression
Design Considerations
What is being Isolated?
What are the inputs?
Are there static loads?
What are the environmental conditions?
What is the allowable system response?
What is the service life?

Example Design Process for a Simple
Isolator
Single excitation frequency
Circular cross section, planar geometery
All other components infinitely rigid
Low dampening
Attenuation provided in shear


Design Process
Specifications
Mass, input vibration, required attenuation, max
displacement
Use transmissibility to determine resonance
frequency and spring rate
Find isolator minimum area (A)
Total number of isolators and max allowable stress
Select modulus (G)

Design Process (cont)
Knowing area (A), modulus (G), and spring
rate (k
s
), calculate thickness (t)
Calculate radius, verify aspect ratio < 0.25 to avoid
bending effect
Find static deflection
Is static plus dynamic deflection < max allowable
deflection?
Find static shear strain
Low strain reduces fatigue (<20%)


Conclusion
Careful selection of parameters necessary to use
methods presented. Can get complicated quick
Low strains
Low loads
Try to stay clear of the transition zone between
Youngs and the bulk modulus
For multiple input frequencies, need to consider
if dampening () is necessary
May need to include considerations other than
just isolation
Stresses due to CTE mismatch
References
P. M. Sheridan, F. O. James, and T. S. Miller, Design of
components, in Engineering with Rubber (A. N. Gent,
ed.), pp. 209{Munich:Hanser, 1992)
A. E. Hatheway, Designing Elastomeric Mirror
Mountings,Proc. of SPIE Vol. 6665 (2007)
Daniel Vukobratovich and Suzanne M. Vukobratovich
Introduction to Optomechanical design
A. N. Gent, On The Relation Between Indentation
Hardness and Youngs Modulus, IRI Trans. Vol. 34,
pg.46-57 (1958)

Questions?