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1.0 Introduction
1.1Modes of Failure
1.2Static Strength
1.2.1 Four Design Categories
1.3 Static Loads and Factor of Safety
1.4 Failure Theories
1.5 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory
1.6 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
1.7 Failure of Ductile Materials under Static
Loading
1.7.1 The Distortion-Energy Theory
1.8 Failure of Brittle Materials Under Static
Loading
1.8.1 Even and Uneven Materials
1.8.2 The Coulomb-Mohr Theory
1.8.3 The Modified-Mohr Theory
1.9 Flow Chart for Static Failure Analysis
1.10 Important Equations Used

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Introduction
STRENGTH is a property or characteristic of a
material or of a mechanical element.

Static Load
Sometimes a load is assumed to be
static when it is known that some variation
is to be expected.
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Failure due to Torsion with
corrosion fatigue
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Impact failure on lawn mower blade
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Bolt & Nut tensile failure
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Fatigue failure due to bending load
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Failure due to crack initiation by stress concentration
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Failure caused by spring surge in an oversped engine
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Modes of Failure
Ductile material is one which has a
relatively large tensile strain before fracture
takes place. For example, steels an
aluminium.

Brittle materials has a relatively small
tensile strain before fracture. For example,
cast iron.

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o
c
c
o
A B
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Ideally, in designing any machine
element, the engineer should have at
his or her disposal the results of a
great many strength tests of the
particular material chosen.

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1.Failure of the part would endanger human
life, or the part is made in extremely large
quantities; consequently, an elaborate testing
program is justified during design.

2. The part is made in large enough
quantities so that a moderate series of tests is
feasible.
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3. The part is made in such small quantities that
testing is not justified at all; or the design must
be completed so rapidly that there is not
enough time for testing.

4. The part has already been designed,
manufactured, and tested and found to be
unsatisfactory. Analysis is required to
understand why the part is unsatisfactory and
what to do to improve it.

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Static Loads and Factor of Safety
Factor of safety, n is defined by either of
the equations
or
F
F
n
u
=
o
S
n =
n = n
s
n
l

l
u
p
n
F
F =
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Example 1.1
Two plates, subjected to a tensile force of 50 kN, are fixed
together by means of three rivets as shown in Figure EX1(a). The
plates and rivets are made of plain carbon steel 10C4 with a
tensile yield strength of 250 N/mm
2
. The yield strength in shear is
57.7% of the tensile yield strength, and the factor of safety is 2.5.
Neglecting stress concentration, determine:
(i) the diameter of the rivets; and
(ii) the thickness of the plates.
d
t
t
x
x
200 p
p
(A)
200 p
p
d
(B)
Figure EX1
(a) Riveted joint;
(b) Tensile stresses in plate
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Internal stresses do not exceed the strength
of the material
Many of the more brittle materials, such as
the cast irons, do not have a yield point and
so we must utilize the ultimate strength as the
criterion of failure in design.
In designing parts of brittle materials it is also
necessary to remember that the ultimate
compressive strength is much greater than
the ultimate tensile strength.
The strength of ductile materials is about the
same in tension and compression.

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Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory
The theory states that the failure of a
mechanical component subjected to bi-
axial or tri-axial stresses occurs when the
maximum shear stress in the component
become equal to the maximum shear
stress in the standard specimen of the
simple tension test, when yielding starts.

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Maximum-Shear-Stress
Theory for Ductile Materials
It predicts that yielding begins whenever
the maximum shear stress in any
element equals or exceeds the
maximum shear stress in a tension-test
specimen of the same material when
that specimen begins to yield.
Is also referred as the Tresca or Guest
Theory
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The MSS theory for plane stress
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Shear-Energy Theory & The von Mises-
Hencky Theory
Best theory for ductile materials, even
materials which compressive and
tensile strengths are approximately the
same and whose shear strengths are
smaller than their tensile strengths.
These materials are considered to fail
from shear stress
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Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile
Materials
It predicts that yielding occurs when the
distortion strain energy per unit volume
reaches or exceeds the distortion strain
energy per unit volume for yield in
simple tension or compression of the
same material.

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The DE theory for plane stress states
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Failure of Ductile Materials
under Static Loading
The maximum normal-stress theory,
the maximum normal-strain theory, the
total strain theory, the distortion-energy
(von Mises-Hencky) theory, and the
maximum shear-stress theory.


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Chapter 6, Problem 14.

This problem illustrates that the factor of safety for a
machine element depends on the particular point selected
for analysis. Here you are to compute factors of safety,
based upon the distortion-energy theory, for stress
elements at A and B of the member shown in the figure.
This bar is made of AISI 1006 cold-drawn steel and is
loaded by the forces F = 0.55 kN, P = 8.0 kN, and T = 30 N
m.

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Chapter 6, Solution 14.

Given: AISI 1006 CD steel, F = 0.55 N, P = 8.0
kN, and T = 30 N m, applying the
DE theory to stress elements A and B with S
y
=
280 MPa
A:


( )
3 3
3 2 3 2
6
6
3 3
1/ 2
2 2 2 2 1/ 2
32 4 32(0.55)(10 )(0.1) 4(8)(10 )
(0.020 ) (0.020 )
95.49(10 ) Pa 95.49 MPa
16 16(30)
19.10(10 ) Pa 19.10 MPa
(0.020 )
3 [95.49 3(19.1) ] 101.1 MPa
280
101.
x
xy
x xy
y
Fl P
d d
T
d
S
n
o
t t t t
t
t t
o o t
o
= + = +
= =
= = = =
= + = + = '
= =
'
2.77 .
1
Ans =
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B:
3
6
3 2
3
3 3 2
6
2 2 1/ 2
4 4(8)(10 )
25.47(10 ) Pa 25.47 MPa
(0.020 )
16 4 16(30) 4 0.55(10 )
3 (0.020 ) 3 ( / 4)(0.020 )
21.43(10 ) Pa 21.43 MPa
[25.47 3(21.43 )] 45.02 MPa
280
6.22 .
45.02
x
xy
P
d
T V
d A
n Ans
o
t t
t
t t t
o
= = = =
(
= + = +
(

= =
= + = '
= =
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Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for
Brittle Materials
failure occurs whenever one of the
three principal stresses equals the
strength
S
t

S
t

S
t

-S
c

-S
c

-S
c

o
1

o
2

o
3
The maximum-
normal-stress (MNS)
hypothesis in three
dimensions.

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Graph of MNS theory of
failure for plane stress states.
Stress states that plot inside
the failure locus are safe
Load line plot
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o
1

o
2
= 0
o
t
o
1

o
1

t
max

(a) Mohrs circle for
stresses
(b) Stresses in simple
tension test
S
sy
= 0.5 S
yt

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Failure of Brittle Materials under Static
Loading
Brittle materials fracture rather than yield.
Brittle fracture in tension is considered to be due
to the normal tensile stress alone and thus the
maximum-stress theory is applicable.
Brittle fracture in compression is due to some
combination of normal compressive stress and
shear stress and requires a different theory of
failure.

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Even materials
Uneven materials
t
max
Failure line
Tensile
test
Compression
test
t
max
Failure line
o
(a) An even material - S
uc
= - S
ut

(b) An uneven material
Compression
test
Tensil
e
test
Failure line
Failure line

O |
o
t
t
i

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The Coulomb-Mohr Theory
For brittle failure, which is adaptation
of the maximum normal-stress theory.

The Modified-Mohr Theory
Uneven, brittle materials such as cast iron, are weakest
in tension, these theory is the best to describes their
failure.
A modified-Mohr effective stress can be calculated
using the principal stresses that result from the
particular combination of applied stresses at the point in
question.
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Static Loading
Failure Analysis
Materials are assumed
homogeneous and isotropic
Find all applied forces, moments, torques, etc. and
draw free-body diagrams to show them applied to
the part's geometry.
Based on the load distributions over the part's
geometry, determine what cross sections of the
part are most heavily loaded.
Determine the stress distributions within the cross sections
of interest and identify locations of the highest applied and
combined stresses.
Draw a stress element for each of the selected points of
interest within the section and identify the stresses acting on
it.
Calculate the applied stresses acting on each element and
then calculate the principal stresses and maximum shear
stress resulting therefrom.
A
Flow Chart for Static
Failure Analysis
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If the material is ductile, then
calculate the von Mises
effective stress at each
selected stress element
based on the calculated
principal stresses.
If the material is brittle,
calculate the Coulomb-Mohr
effective stress at each
selected stress element
based on its principal
stresses
Choose a trial material
and compute a safety
factor based on tensile
yield strength of that
material.
Choose a trial material and
compute a safety factor
based on the ultimate tensile
strength of that material.
If a known or suspected crack is present, calculate the
stress intensity factor and compare it to the fracture
toughness of the material to determine if there is any danger
of a crack propagation failure.
A