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You are on page 1of 44

1.0 Introduction

1.1Modes of Failure

1.2Static Strength

1.2.1 Four Design Categories

1.3 Static Loads and Factor of Safety

1.4 Failure Theories

1.5 Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory

1.6 Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

1.7 Failure of Ductile Materials under Static

Loading

1.7.1 The Distortion-Energy Theory

1.8 Failure of Brittle Materials Under Static

Loading

1.8.1 Even and Uneven Materials

1.8.2 The Coulomb-Mohr Theory

1.8.3 The Modified-Mohr Theory

1.9 Flow Chart for Static Failure Analysis

1.10 Important Equations Used

2/44

Introduction

STRENGTH is a property or characteristic of a

material or of a mechanical element.

Static Load

Sometimes a load is assumed to be

static when it is known that some variation

is to be expected.

3/44

Failure due to Torsion with

corrosion fatigue

4/44

5/44

6/44

7/44

Impact failure on lawn mower blade

8/44

Bolt & Nut tensile failure

9/44

Fatigue failure due to bending load

10/44

Failure due to crack initiation by stress concentration

11/44

12/44

Failure caused by spring surge in an oversped engine

13/44

14/44

15/44

16/44

17/44

Modes of Failure

Ductile material is one which has a

relatively large tensile strain before fracture

takes place. For example, steels an

aluminium.

Brittle materials has a relatively small

tensile strain before fracture. For example,

cast iron.

18/44

o

c

c

o

A B

19/44

Ideally, in designing any machine

element, the engineer should have at

his or her disposal the results of a

great many strength tests of the

particular material chosen.

20/44

1.Failure of the part would endanger human

life, or the part is made in extremely large

quantities; consequently, an elaborate testing

program is justified during design.

2. The part is made in large enough

quantities so that a moderate series of tests is

feasible.

21/44

3. The part is made in such small quantities that

testing is not justified at all; or the design must

be completed so rapidly that there is not

enough time for testing.

4. The part has already been designed,

manufactured, and tested and found to be

unsatisfactory. Analysis is required to

understand why the part is unsatisfactory and

what to do to improve it.

22/44

Static Loads and Factor of Safety

Factor of safety, n is defined by either of

the equations

or

F

F

n

u

=

o

S

n =

n = n

s

n

l

l

u

p

n

F

F =

23/44

Example 1.1

Two plates, subjected to a tensile force of 50 kN, are fixed

together by means of three rivets as shown in Figure EX1(a). The

plates and rivets are made of plain carbon steel 10C4 with a

tensile yield strength of 250 N/mm

2

. The yield strength in shear is

57.7% of the tensile yield strength, and the factor of safety is 2.5.

Neglecting stress concentration, determine:

(i) the diameter of the rivets; and

(ii) the thickness of the plates.

d

t

t

x

x

200 p

p

(A)

200 p

p

d

(B)

Figure EX1

(a) Riveted joint;

(b) Tensile stresses in plate

24/44

Internal stresses do not exceed the strength

of the material

Many of the more brittle materials, such as

the cast irons, do not have a yield point and

so we must utilize the ultimate strength as the

criterion of failure in design.

In designing parts of brittle materials it is also

necessary to remember that the ultimate

compressive strength is much greater than

the ultimate tensile strength.

The strength of ductile materials is about the

same in tension and compression.

25/44

Maximum-Shear-Stress Theory

The theory states that the failure of a

mechanical component subjected to bi-

axial or tri-axial stresses occurs when the

maximum shear stress in the component

become equal to the maximum shear

stress in the standard specimen of the

simple tension test, when yielding starts.

26/44

Maximum-Shear-Stress

Theory for Ductile Materials

It predicts that yielding begins whenever

the maximum shear stress in any

element equals or exceeds the

maximum shear stress in a tension-test

specimen of the same material when

that specimen begins to yield.

Is also referred as the Tresca or Guest

Theory

27/44

The MSS theory for plane stress

28/44

Shear-Energy Theory & The von Mises-

Hencky Theory

Best theory for ductile materials, even

materials which compressive and

tensile strengths are approximately the

same and whose shear strengths are

smaller than their tensile strengths.

These materials are considered to fail

from shear stress

29/44

Distortion-Energy Theory for Ductile

Materials

It predicts that yielding occurs when the

distortion strain energy per unit volume

reaches or exceeds the distortion strain

energy per unit volume for yield in

simple tension or compression of the

same material.

30/44

31/44

The DE theory for plane stress states

32/44

Failure of Ductile Materials

under Static Loading

The maximum normal-stress theory,

the maximum normal-strain theory, the

total strain theory, the distortion-energy

(von Mises-Hencky) theory, and the

maximum shear-stress theory.

33/44

Chapter 6, Problem 14.

This problem illustrates that the factor of safety for a

machine element depends on the particular point selected

for analysis. Here you are to compute factors of safety,

based upon the distortion-energy theory, for stress

elements at A and B of the member shown in the figure.

This bar is made of AISI 1006 cold-drawn steel and is

loaded by the forces F = 0.55 kN, P = 8.0 kN, and T = 30 N

m.

34/44

Chapter 6, Solution 14.

Given: AISI 1006 CD steel, F = 0.55 N, P = 8.0

kN, and T = 30 N m, applying the

DE theory to stress elements A and B with S

y

=

280 MPa

A:

( )

3 3

3 2 3 2

6

6

3 3

1/ 2

2 2 2 2 1/ 2

32 4 32(0.55)(10 )(0.1) 4(8)(10 )

(0.020 ) (0.020 )

95.49(10 ) Pa 95.49 MPa

16 16(30)

19.10(10 ) Pa 19.10 MPa

(0.020 )

3 [95.49 3(19.1) ] 101.1 MPa

280

101.

x

xy

x xy

y

Fl P

d d

T

d

S

n

o

t t t t

t

t t

o o t

o

= + = +

= =

= = = =

= + = + = '

= =

'

2.77 .

1

Ans =

35/44

B:

3

6

3 2

3

3 3 2

6

2 2 1/ 2

4 4(8)(10 )

25.47(10 ) Pa 25.47 MPa

(0.020 )

16 4 16(30) 4 0.55(10 )

3 (0.020 ) 3 ( / 4)(0.020 )

21.43(10 ) Pa 21.43 MPa

[25.47 3(21.43 )] 45.02 MPa

280

6.22 .

45.02

x

xy

P

d

T V

d A

n Ans

o

t t

t

t t t

o

= = = =

(

= + = +

(

= =

= + = '

= =

36/44

Maximum-Normal-Stress Theory for

Brittle Materials

failure occurs whenever one of the

three principal stresses equals the

strength

S

t

S

t

S

t

-S

c

-S

c

-S

c

o

1

o

2

o

3

The maximum-

normal-stress (MNS)

hypothesis in three

dimensions.

37/44

Graph of MNS theory of

failure for plane stress states.

Stress states that plot inside

the failure locus are safe

Load line plot

38/44

o

1

o

2

= 0

o

t

o

1

o

1

t

max

(a) Mohrs circle for

stresses

(b) Stresses in simple

tension test

S

sy

= 0.5 S

yt

39/44

Failure of Brittle Materials under Static

Loading

Brittle materials fracture rather than yield.

Brittle fracture in tension is considered to be due

to the normal tensile stress alone and thus the

maximum-stress theory is applicable.

Brittle fracture in compression is due to some

combination of normal compressive stress and

shear stress and requires a different theory of

failure.

40/44

41/44

Even materials

Uneven materials

t

max

Failure line

Tensile

test

Compression

test

t

max

Failure line

o

(a) An even material - S

uc

= - S

ut

(b) An uneven material

Compression

test

Tensil

e

test

Failure line

Failure line

O |

o

t

t

i

42/44

The Coulomb-Mohr Theory

For brittle failure, which is adaptation

of the maximum normal-stress theory.

The Modified-Mohr Theory

Uneven, brittle materials such as cast iron, are weakest

in tension, these theory is the best to describes their

failure.

A modified-Mohr effective stress can be calculated

using the principal stresses that result from the

particular combination of applied stresses at the point in

question.

43/44

Static Loading

Failure Analysis

Materials are assumed

homogeneous and isotropic

Find all applied forces, moments, torques, etc. and

draw free-body diagrams to show them applied to

the part's geometry.

Based on the load distributions over the part's

geometry, determine what cross sections of the

part are most heavily loaded.

Determine the stress distributions within the cross sections

of interest and identify locations of the highest applied and

combined stresses.

Draw a stress element for each of the selected points of

interest within the section and identify the stresses acting on

it.

Calculate the applied stresses acting on each element and

then calculate the principal stresses and maximum shear

stress resulting therefrom.

A

Flow Chart for Static

Failure Analysis

44/44

If the material is ductile, then

calculate the von Mises

effective stress at each

selected stress element

based on the calculated

principal stresses.

If the material is brittle,

calculate the Coulomb-Mohr

effective stress at each

selected stress element

based on its principal

stresses

Choose a trial material

and compute a safety

factor based on tensile

yield strength of that

material.

Choose a trial material and

compute a safety factor

based on the ultimate tensile

strength of that material.

If a known or suspected crack is present, calculate the

stress intensity factor and compare it to the fracture

toughness of the material to determine if there is any danger

of a crack propagation failure.

A

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