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Introduction to Community Med-

----Public Health
Dr.Bipin
Introduction to Public Health introduces the
many areas of the public health system, and
the work in measuring health, disease and
illness, and its endeavors to promote
population health.
Recommended Reading
Parks Text Book of Preventive and Social
Medicine by K Park



Public Health and Community Medicine by
Ilyas and Ansari (Pakistani Author)
Lecture Notes
Community Medicine
The field concerned with the study of health
and disease in the defined community or
group.
Its goal is to identify the health problems and
needs of people (community diagnosis) and to
plan, implement and evaluate the
effectiveness of health care system.

GOALS OF MODERN MEDICINE
Focus shift from treatment of sick
Prevention of Diseases
Promotion of health
Quality of life improvement for individuals
& groups

Knowledge regarding Study of :
Population to be served Demography
Patterns of Health and disease Epidemiology
Collection, compilation and
analysis of data
Biostatistics
Behavioral factors and their
effect on Health
Behavioral sciences
Control and prevention of
diseases
Preventive Medicine
The food people eat Nutrition
Environmental factors and their
effects on Health
Environmental Health
Delivery of Health Care Health Administration and
Planning
Core Contents
Concepts of Health and disease
Introduction to Public Health and Health
Systems in A country.
Epidemiology , Screening and Infectious
Disease Control
Non Communicable Diseases
Biostatistics .
Demography and Population Dynamics
Food and nutrition
Reproductive and Child Health
School Health Services
Environmental health
Occupational Health
Parasitic Diseases Prevention and control
Zoonotic diseases
Arthropods of Public Health Importance
Mental Health
Behavioral Sciences
Health Education and Promotion
Disaster Management
Medical Ethics
Concept of Health and Disease
Dimensions and Spectrum
of Health
Determinants of Health
Health Indicators
Primary Healthcare
Concept
Overview and Basic Principles
Achieve familiarity with the various
components of the public health system
Describe interrelationships among the public
health systems components
Identify eras in the historical development of
public health and ways that public health
affects literature and the arts, current events,
and everyones daily life

Evidence-Based Public Health
Explain the basic principles of epidemiology, including
rates, risk factors, disease determinants, causation, and
public health surveillance
Explain how practitioners assess interventions for
improving population health
Describe rates, risk factors, and health status indicators of
morbidity and mortality
Identify disease determinants and causation
Describe the types of epidemiologic research
Describe public health surveillance and vital statistics
Analyze and interpret epidemiological data and statistics
Identify population groups that experience health
disparities using epidemiological data and statistics
Population Health
Apply measures of population health and illness,
including risk factors, to community health
improvement initiatives
Describe the role of law and government in promoting
and protecting the health of the public and identifying
specific functions and roles of governmental public
health agencies in assuring population health
Describe the public health role, and their own level of
participation, in emergency responses for a range of
contingencies that might arise Explain how health
information and communications can be used to
improve population health.
Identify how social and behavioral
interventions affect population health Identify
the roles of public health in addressing health
disparities and the needs of vulnerable
populations
Explain how practitioners design and
implement culturally competent interventions
for improving health in diverse populations
Disease and Disabilities:
Determinants, Burdens, and
Interventions
Explain the burden of infectious and chronic diseases
and injuries on morbidity and mortality and
approaches to early detection and prevention
Identify and distinguish public health and prevention
strategies from curative strategies for prevalent health
problems
Explain the importance of promoting healthy behaviors
in reducing chronic diseases
Identify the impact of the environment and describe
how communicable diseases affect health
Healthcare and Public Health Systems
Illustrate public healths interdisciplinary, cross-cutting
character and the contributions of different disciplines and
professions to improving health
Describe the basic organization of health care and public
health systems and the contributions of health
professionals
Describe criteria for evaluating health systems, including
matters of access, quality, and cost
Identify basic payment mechanisms, including insurance,
for providing health services
Describe the public health professional occupations
including public health nursing, and the composition of the
public health workforce

Emerging Topics in Public Health (One Health; Infectious
Disease / Zoonosis; Food Safety, Security, and DefenseFood
Chain Security; Public Health Nutrition and Physical Activity)
Acquire the ability to apply this knowledge and
understanding to important health issues and
problems
Appreciate the unique characteristics of public health
practice as a social enterprise
Describe the impact of the environment and describe
how communicable diseases, including animal and
food-borne diseases, affect health
Describe the role of nutrition and physical activity in
health and illness
Describe the global problems and solutions in
international public health

Careers and Future Directions in
Public Health
Identify and describe key challenges facing
public health workers in the early 21st century
Identify and explain how various occupations,
professions, and careers contribute to carrying
out public healths core functions and
essential services

Epidemiology and Disease Control

Background and concepts,
uses
Basic measurements in
epidemiology
Epidemiological methods,
association and causation
investigation of epidemics,
screening for disease
Research and survey
methodology
Definitions: infection,
contact, host, carriers
Dynamics of infectious disease transmission
Control of infection
Epidemiology, control and prevention of
infectious diseases of public health
importance
Diseases transmitted through inhalation
Diseases transmitted through faeco-oral route
Diseases of animals conveyed to man
Diseases due to direct contact

Epidemiology, Control and Prevention of Non-
infectious Diseases of Public Health Importance

Hypertension
Coronary heart disease
Cancers
Injuries
Diabetes Mellitus
Obesity
Acute Rheumatic fever
Ischaemic heart diseases

Biostatistics
Concepts and uses
Data and its types
Rate, ratio and proportion
Crude, specific and standardized rates
Collection and registration of vital events in country
Sources of health related statistics
Measures of central tendency
(Mean, Mode, Median)
Demography and Population Dynamics
Concept, Principles, Demographic processes
Census, definition, types, methodology
Determinants of fertility, mortality
Population pyramid and its interpretation
Demographic transition, demographic trap
Demographic & social implications of high
population growth
Social mobilization
Urbanization
Food and Nutrition
Concepts of Nutrition
Malnutrition at all stages of life
Dietary requirements
Food hygiene, pasteurization, fortification,
adulteration and preservation
Food poisoning
Assessment of nutritional
status of Community

Reproductive and Child health

Safe motherhood & its components
Maternal mortality, causes and prevention
Infant care, growth & development,
breast feeding, common causes of morbidity and
mortality, their prevention and control
IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood
Illness)
Adolescent health
Reproductive tract infections,
managing STDs
Health of School age Children
Role of teachers and role of doctors in
maintenance of health
Procedures for determining the health status
of school children
Common health problems of school children
Environmental Health

Air Composition, pollution, purification, diseases
caused by air impurities & their prevention
Water, Sources, daily requirement, causes of pollution,
its prevention, purification, quality standards,
diseases
due to polluted water
Waste Disposal, Hazards and Safety Measures
Radiation sources, types, causes, hazards,
prevention
Healthful housing, urban & rural slums, Refugee camps
and hostels
Noise, causes, acceptance level,
hazards and control
Occupational Health

Concepts of occupational Health and
Medicine
Ergonomics and its Importance
Occupational Hazards
Principles of prevention and Control
Organization of Occupational Health Services
Health insurance and Social Security Schemes
Arthropods and Their Public Health Importance

Common arthropod borne diseases
Control of arthropod of medical
importance
Insecticides and their public health
importance
Prevention and control of parasitic
diseases of public health importance

Snake bites, personal protection and
management
Mental Health
Concept, common mental health
problems, causes and prevention
Juvenile delinquency
Behavioural Sciences and Life Style
Concept, attitudes, health and illness
behaviour
Drug abuse, addiction and smoking
Child abuse and child labour
Role of physical exercise in health and
disease
Information, Education and
Communication (IEC)

Concept, aims & objectives
Approaches used in public health
Contents, principles & stages of health
education
Communication methods, barriers, and skills
in health education
Planning, organizing and evaluating a health
education programme
Social marketing
Disaster

Definition, classification
Natural Disasters like Earthquakes, Floods
Epidemic of communicable diseases
Man made disasters
Accidents, thermonuclear warfare, causes and
prevention
Magnitude and effects of Disaster and Public
Health consequences
Disaster preparedness and management
Medical Ethics

Background concepts and components
National recommended guidelines
Code of Medical Ethics
Practical and Community Based Training

Students should have practical experience in:
Questionnaire development
Data collection
Compilation
Presentation
Analysis
Report writing

Field Visits
Visit to BHU and RHC
Visit to an NGO
Visit to a primary school to assess the nutritional
status of school children
Visit to MCH/Reproductive Health Centre to observe
the organization, function of the centre, Antenatal
care, FP services & Immunization
Visit to a hospital to see the hospital waste disposal
Visit to an industry
Visit to a physical/mental/social rehabilitation centre