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Approach to

Reading
Awang Syarifuddin Afif,
Hamzah Shibli.
What Are Sight Words?
Sight words are words, usually Anglo-Saxon in
origin, that must be memorized because of
their non-phonetic structure and high degree
of usage.

Examples of nonphonetic words: come, said,
was, two and through

Sight Words
important building block in the
construction of a childs ability to read
The more one-on-one time a child has
learning and practicing sight words with
an adult the greater his chances to
integrating them into his long-term
memory.
Teaching Sight Words
With Pictures
Many learners think in pictures, often visualize what
we are attempting to learn to help solidify the
information in our memories.
Presenting children illustrations of sight words
along + their print versions = helps them make
important connections between the object and the
word.
Excellent sight words tools Flashcards or posters
with a colorful picture
Teaching Sight Words (cont.)
Listening to and Saying
Sight words are not only frequently used in writing,
also essential to conversational English.
Teachers should make explicit connections
between the print version of a word and its sound.
Ways to do: Pointing to a word while
repeating it.
Asking them to repeat a sight word
while writing it.
Teaching Sight Words (cont.)
Through repetition
Young readers should be given opportunities
to read and write a new sight word multiple
times.
Repetitive reading of texts featuring certain
sight words is one strategy for helping children
commit these words to memory.
Practice spelling sight words, parents and
teachers can have children write and say
aloud words several times.
Teaching Sight Words (cont.)
With Games
Hands on way to help strengthen their retention.

Examples: WordoPlayed just like the game Bingo, but this version uses sight
words instead of numbers on a grid card.
ConcentrationSight word concentration cards can easily
be made using index cards. Simply write each word on two
cards, shuffle and lay face down to play.
Word SearchesCreate word searches featuring sight
words or use one of the many available on the
Internet.
Go FishGo fish cards can easily be made using index
cards. Simply write each word on two cards, shuffle and
deal to play.
Letter Magnet SpellingTo reinforce sight word spelling, provide
the child with a set of letter magnets and a metal surface. Call
out sight words and ask the child to use the magnets to spell the
word.

Language Experience
Approach
LEA= approach that promotes reading and
writing through the use of personal
experiences and oral language
Can be used in tutorial or classroom settings
with homogeneous or heterogeneous groups
of learners.
Beginning literacy learners relate their
experiences to a teacher or aide, who
transcribes them. These transcriptions are then
used as the basis for other reading and writing
activities.
Features
Materials are learner-generated.
All communication skills--reading, writing,
listening, and speaking--are integrated.
Difficulty of vocabulary and grammar are
determined by the learners own
language use.
Learning and teaching are personalized,
communicative, creative.

Variations of LEA
The Personal Experience
The teacher or aide sits with the learner so
that the learner can see what is being written.
The session begins with a conversation, which
might be prompted by a picture, a topic the
learner is interested in, a reading text, or an
event the learner has participated in.
Once a topic evolves, the learner gives an
oral account of a personal experience
related to that topic. The transcriber may help
the learner expand or focus the account by
asking questions.
Variations of LEA (cont.)
The Group Experience
Groups may also develop language
experience stories together. An
experience can be set up and carried out
by the group, or stories can grow out of
experiences and stimuli from any part of
the learners' personal, work, or classroom
lives.

How To Use
1. Students choose an experience that they would like to
write about. For groups, this should be a shared
experience. For individual students, it could be anything
that the student feels is important or interesting or fictional
stories.
2. Discuss the experience with the students. This helps them
to clarify what they want to write about, organize their
thoughts, and come up with specific, descriptive
vocabulary.
3. Write the story down as the students dictate it. For groups,
have students take turns dictating sentences describing
their experience. Record what they say on large chart
paper, repeating the words as they are written. For
individual students, this can be done on a single sheet of
paper, or it can be made into a book. Try to stick to the
students' own words exactly as they are spoken with a
minimum of correction for grammar or sentence structure.
4. Read the text aloud. Students can illustrate their individual
texts and read them aloud to the class.
Phonics Approach
Essential part of a comprehensive approach to the teaching of
reading.
Needs to be explicit and direct; incidental and opportunistic
approaches to developing phonics are less effective.
Can and must be meaningful, lively, and engaging; phonics
should not be equated with repetitious drill or the mindless
completion of worksheets.
In order for children to gain full use of phonics skills they need
guidance in integrating them with other word identification
skills and in strategically and fluently applying those skills.
In order for children to gain full use of phonics skills they need
many opportunities to apply them to functional and interesting
reading and writing activities.
While the development of phonics and other word
identification skills is essential and necessary for skillful, mature
reading, it is not sufficient; skillful mature reading must also build
upon language, vocabulary, and concept development as
well as a variety of thinking skills.

Phonics Approach (cont.)
Phonological/Phonemic Awareness -- In order to
learn to read an alphabetical language like
English, children must grasp what is called the
alphabetic principle--that printed words are not
an arbitrary sequence of letters to be memorized,
but that letters represent a limited number of
speech sounds that combine to form spoken
words. Phonological awareness refers to children's
conscious awareness of the fact that spoken
words are composed of identifiable units including
syllables, rimes, and sounds (phonemes). It also
refers to children's ability to manipulate (segment,
blend, substitute) those sound units.
Phonics Approach (cont.)
Spelling -- Phonics elements that are
taught in a unit of instruction are
reinforced in spelling instruction in the
same unit. In spelling lessons, children
learn to carefully process the letters in
words from left to right and to segment
and blend the sounds the letters
represent.

Phonics Approach (cont.)
Vocabulary -- Beyond the initial stages of
learning to read, there is a very strong
relationship between knowledge of word
meanings and reading comprehension.
Vocabulary instruction and learning to
derive word meanings from context begin
in kindergarten.
Phonics Approach (cont.)
Fluent Reading -- Decodable text is essential
to provide opportunities for children to
practice and apply phonic elements in the
context of real reading. In addition to a wide
variety of reading materials that are part of
the program, it provides carefully developed
reading lists, frequent suggestions to teachers,
and extensive communications with the
home to encourage the wide independent
reading that leads to fluency.

Phonics Approach (cont.)
Writing -- Writing offers the opportunity to
apply phonics and related spelling
knowledge. In shared writing and other writing
activities, children learn to think about the
sounds in words they want to write and to use
phonics skills to represent the sounds. As they
proofread their writing, they apply spelling
patterns and phonic elements they have
been taught.