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SITE PLANNING

SITE PLANNING REVIEW RAP


SITE PLANNING
SITE PLANNING
INTRODUCTION
Site Planning is defined by Kevin Lynch as the art of arranging structures
on the land and shaping the spaces between; an art linked to architecture,
engineering, landscape architecture and city planning. (Site Planning)
Harvey M. Rubenstein defines it as the art and science of arranging the
uses of portions of land. These uses are designated in detail by selecting
and analyzing sites, forming land use plans, organizing vehicular and
pedestrian circulation, developing visual form and materials concepts,
readjusting the existing landforms by design grading, providing proper
drainage, and developing the construction details necessary to carry out the
projects. (A Guide to Site and Environmental Planning, 1980)
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INTRODUCTION
In site planning, as in other forms of problem-solving, the critical thinking
process of research, analysis and synthesis makes a major contribution to the
formation of design decisions.
Research material may be gathered from existing projects, books
photographs, or experiments. A program is then formulated and the
elements required to develop the project is listed.
Analysis of the site shall consider all existing features, both natural and
man-made in order to determine those inherent qualities that give a site its
personality. A topographical analysis is mandatory. Emphasis should be
made on the sites relationship with the total environment and its special
values or potentials .
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INTRODUCTION
There are two methods of establishing a SITE :
1. SITE SELECTION PROCESS
This process selects from a list of potential sites one that suits best the
given use and requirements of the project .
2. DEVELOPMENT SUITABILITY PROCESS
This process selects the best possible use and development suited for a
given site .
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INTRODUCTION
SITE ANALYSIS involves the study of the site in terms of the following :
Natural factors :
1. Geology
2. Geomorphology physiography, landforms, soils, drainage,
topography and slopes, and soil erosion
3. Hydrology surface and ground water
4. Vegetation plant ecology
5. Wildlife habitats
6. Climate solar orientation, wind, and humidity.
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INTRODUCTION
SITE ANALYSIS
Cultural factors :
1. Existing land use ownership of adjacent property, off-
site nuisances
2. Traffic and transit vehicular and pedestrian circulation
on or adjacent to site
3. Density and zoning legal and regulatory controls
4. Socio-economic factors
5. Utilities sanitary, storm-water, water supply, power
supply, and communications.
6. Historic factors historic buildings, landmarks, and
archeology
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INTRODUCTION
SITE ANALYSIS :
Aesthetic factors :
1. Natural features
2. Spatial patterns spaces and sequences
3. Visual Resources views and vistas
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOLOGY is the natural science that studies the Earth its
composition; the processes that shaped its surface; and its history.
Earth is made up of rocks (including soil, sand, silt and dust); rocks are
composed of minerals; minerals are made up of atoms :
Igneous Rocks rocks produced by crystallization from a liquid.
THE NATURAL FACTORS
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOLOGY
Sedimentary Rocks when igneous rocks are exposed to surface and
weathering reduces them to particles, these particles are moved by
erosional process and deposited in layers into rivers and oceans .
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOLOGY
Metamorphosed Rocks when sedimentary rocks are pushed to
deeper levels of the earth, they transform into metamorphosed
rocks due to changes in pressure and temperature .
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY - is that branch of Geology that deals with
the origin, nature and distribution of landforms.
Physiography refers
to the description of
landforms.
Landforms are irregularities
on the earths surface. They
are derived from volcanic,
glacial, or erosional processes.
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Soil Properties Composition and Soil Texture
Drainage
Topography and Slopes
Soil Erosion
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
When designing a piece of property for architectural, landscape architectural
and engineering usage, it is essential for the designer to first confront the
nature of the land, particularly its form, its slopes, and its inherent capabilities
for surface and subsurface discharge of water, for supporting vertical and
horizontal structures, and for resisting erosion. This exercise requires four
basic geomorphologic information such as :
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1. COMPOSITION
2. TEXTURE
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
In site planning, it is important to establish the relationship between soil
composition and land uses (other than agriculture). Soil surveys help guide in
site selection for residential, industrial, and other forms of development that
involve surface and subsurface structures.
Several features, or properties, are used to describe soil for use in site
design. Of these ---
are generally the most meaningful; from them we can make inferences about
bearing capacity, internal drainage, erodibility, and slope stability.
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1. COMPOSITION refers to the material that makes up soil:
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
SOIL PROPERTIES:
organic matter, mineral particles,
water, and air.
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a. Mineral Particles
comprise 50% to 80%
of the volume of the
soil and form the all
important skeletal
structure of the soil.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
COMPOSITION:
Sand and gravel
particles provide for the
greatest stability,
usually yield a relat-
ively high bearing
capacity,
Bearing capacity is a soils resistance to penetration
from a weighted object such as a building foundation.
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BEARING CAPACITY FOR ROCK AND SOIL MATERIALS
Clas
s
Material Allowable
Bearing Value
(psf)
1

Rock
Massive crystalline bedrock, e.g.
granite, gneiss
200,000
2 Metamorphosed rock, e.g. schist,
slate
80,000
3 Sedimentary rocks, e.g. shale,
sandstone
30,000
4



Soil
materials
Well compacted gravels and sands
20,000
5 Compact gravel, sand/gravel mixtures
12,000
6 Loose gravel, compact coarse sand
8,000
7 Loose coarse sand; loose sand/gravel
mixtures, compact fine sand, wet
coarse sand
6,000
8 Loose fine sand, wet fine sand
4,000
9 Stiff clay (dry)
8,000
10 Medium-stiff clay
4,000
11 Soft clay
2,000
12 Fill, organic material, or silt (fixed by field
tests)
Source: Code Manual, New York State Building Code Commission
COMPOSITION
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
b. Organic Matter varies radically in soils and usually imposes a
limitation to any building structure. Organic matter is important only
for soil fertility, moisture absorption and retention and for
landscaping.
GEOMORPHOLOGY
COMPOSITION:
c. Water content varies with particle sizes, local drainage, topography
and climate. Most water occupies the spaces between particles; only
in organic soils do the particles themselves actually absorb
measurable amounts of water.
d. Air is what occupies remaining space that is not occupied by water.
In layers where groundwater is formed by gravity water in the subsoil
and underlying rock, there is absence of air.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TEXTURE - is the term used to describe the composite sizes of
particles in a soil sample.

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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TEXTURE

There are 12 basic terms for texture, at the center of which is Class LOAM,
Clay
Loam Sand
which is an intermediate mixture of 40% sand, 40% silt and 20% clay.
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GOOD DRAINAGE refers to the soils ability
to transfer gravity water downward through:
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
DRAINAGE:
2. Permeability - the rate at which water
within the soil moves through a given
volume of material (also measured in
cm or inches per hour)
1. Infiltration - the rate at which water
penetrates the soil surface (usually
measured in cm or inches per hour);
3. Percolation - the rate at which water in
a soil pit or pipe within the soil is taken
up by the soil (used mainly in
wastewater absorption tests and
measured in inches per hour)
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POOR DRAINAGE - means that gravity
water is not readily transmitted by the soil
and soil is frequently or permanently
saturated and may have water standing on
it caused by :
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
DRAINAGE:
2. A rise in the level of groundwater within
the soil column;
1. The local accumulation of water ;
3. The size of the particles in the soil
being too small to transmit infiltration
water.
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SLOPE ANALYSIS --
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
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Understanding slope forms for site design
requires understanding of local geologic, soil,
hydrologic, and vegetative conditions.
SLOPE FORM -- is expressed graphically in terms of a slope
profile, a silhouette of a slope drawn to known
proportions with distance on the horizontal axis
and elevation on the vertical axis
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GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
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Four basic slope forms are detectable on contour maps:
straight
S - shape
concave
convex
ANGLE OF REPOSE -- angle at which soil can be safely inclined
and beyond which it will fail.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP a map
of a portion of the earth that
describes the shape of the
earths surface by contour lines.
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
7,000
6,000
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
Contours are imaginary lines that
join points of equal elevation on the
surface of the land above or below a
reference surface such as the mean
sea level.
Contours make it possible to measure
the height of mountains, depth of the
ocean bottoms, and steepness of
slopes .
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
SLOPE ANALYSIS --
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
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0 5% Generally flat Highly buildable
5 10% Gently rolling Moderately buildable
10 15% Gentle to mild slopes Moderately difficult to build
15 20% Mild to steep slopes Difficult to build
20% and over Harsh, steep slopes Unbuildable
is an important analytical process made on a
topographic map that makes a proper match between land uses and
slopes and produces an overall pattern of slopes which helps the site
planner in determining the buildable portions of the site.
SLOPE PATTERN for ELEMENTARY AND HIGH SCHOOL CAMPUS
THE NATURAL FACTORS
The process involves breaking down of topography into grades which
will establish the desired patterns for a given land use as in the following
example :
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
In the analysis of the slopes, the
distances for each Slope Pattern
are computed from the given
topographic map, for use on the
Slope Map.
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
To compute the Distance of a slope
from a topographic contour map :
% slope
contour interval
D distance =
10.00 m .
5 %
D distance =
X 100
X 100
D distance = 200.00 m for slope pattern 0-5 %
This distance unit will figure in the graduated scale that
will be constructed for use in the slope map.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
A Slope Map is prepared to
visually express these slope
patterns on the topographic
map. Heres how to:
a. Establish the site
boundaries on the map.
b. Make a constructed
graduated scale on the
edge of a cardboard
sheet, representing the
distances of each slope
pattern (using same scale
as the topo map).
c. Place the scale on the map (see
illustration above) and mark the
edges where the scale matches the
distances between contour lines.
d. Color- or hatch-code each area
delineated by these edges.
The result is a colored or gradient-hatched SLOPE MAP.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
The result is a colored or
gradient-hatched SLOPE
MAP.
DESIRABLE SLOPES when
slopes are selected according to
building type and the activities
associated with it.
GEOMORPHOLOGY
TOPOGRAPHY AND SLOPES
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-- Flat or gently sloping sites
are preferred for industrial and
commercial buildings
-- Hilly sites are preferred for
fashionable suburban residences.
Slopes influence the alignment of modern roads according to class of
roads; the higher the class, the lower the maximum grades allowable.
THE NATURAL FACTORS
SLOPE REQUIREMENTS FOR VARIOUS LAND USES
Land Use Maximum Minimum Optimum
Housing Sites 20% - 25% 0% 2%
Playgrounds 2% - 3% .05% 1%
Public Stairs 50% --- 25%
Lawns (mowed) 25% --- 2% -- 3%
Septic Drainfields* 15% 0% .05%
Paved Surfaces
Parking Lots 3% .05% 1%
Sidewalks 8% 0% 1%
Streets and Roads 15% -- 17% --- 1%
20 mph 12%
30 mph 10%
40 mph 8%
50 mph 7%
60 mph 5%
70 mph 4%
Industrial Sites
Factories 3% - 4% 0% 2%
Lay Down Storage 3% .05% 1%
Parking 3% .05% 1%
* Special drainfield designs are required at slopes above 10 to 12 percent.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
SOIL EROSION when rocks are
broken down (weathered) into small
fragments, and carried by wind, water,
ice and gravity. Energy for this
process is solar and gravitational.
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GEOMORPHOLOGY
GEOMORPHOLOGY
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SOIL EROSION
PREVENTION
Four factors to consider in forecasting erosion rates:
vegetation
soil type
frequency and
intensity of rainfall
slope size and
inclination
THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
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SOIL EROSION
PREVENTION
1. Vegetation:
Foliage intercepts
raindrops
Organic litter on the
ground reduces
impact of raindrops
Roots bind together
aggregates of soil
particles
Cover density, in form of
ground cover or tree
canopy, decreases soil
loss to runoff
THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
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SOIL EROSION
PREVENTION
2. Soil Type:
Intermediate
textures like sand
will usually yield
(erode) first
To erode clay, the
velocity of the runoff
should be high
enough to overcome
cohesive forces that
bind the particles
together
Similarly, high velocities would be
needed to move masses of pebbles
and particles larger than those of
sand
THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
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SOIL EROSION
PREVENTION
3. Slope Size and Inclination:
The velocity of runoff is
closely related to the
slope of the ground
over which it flows.
Slopes that are both
steep and long produce
the greatest erosion
because they generate
runoff that is high in
velocity and mass.
Slope also influences the quantity
of runoff since long slopes collect
more rainfall and thus generate a
larger volume of runoff.
THE NATURAL FACTORS
GEOMORPHOLOGY
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SOIL EROSION
PREVENTION
4. Frequency and Intensity of
Rainfall:
Intensive rainfalls produced
by thunderstorms promote
the highest rates of erosion.
Accordingly, the incidence of
storms plus total annual
rainfall can be a reliable
measure of the effectiveness
of rainfall in promoting soil
erosion.
THE NATURAL FACTORS
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
HYDROLOGY
Hydrologic cycle or
the planets water cycle,
described by the
movement of water from
the oceans to the
atmosphere to the
continents and back to
the sea .
the natural science that studies the Waters of the
Earth, their occurrence, circulation and distribution, their chemical
and physical properties, and their reaction to the living environment
including their relation to all living things.
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HYDROLOGY
Water table is the upper boundary of the zone of groundwater;
the top of unconfined aquifer .
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
HYDROLOGY
Aquifer A permeable geological stratum or formation that can
both store and transmit groundwater in significant quantities.
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HYDROLOGY
Watershed a
geographic area of land
bounded by topographic
features and height of
land that captures
precipitation, filters and
stores water and drains
waters to a shared
destination. Knowledge
of watershed
boundaries is critical to
water quality and storm
water management.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
1. Climatic control

2. Environmental Engineering

3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses

VEGETATION:
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The relevance of Plant Materials in site planning is in their role in :
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
1. Climatic control
VEGETATION:
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a. Solar Radiation is Earths source of light and heat. It warms
the earths surface, is reflected by paving and other objects,
and produces glare.

Trees are one of the best controls for solar radiation because:
they block or filter sunlight;
they cool the air under their canopies providing natural air
conditioning;
Scientists have recorded that with an air temperature of 84deg F,
surface temp of a concrete paving was 108 deg, while surface temp
under shade trees were 20deg lower.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
1. Climatic control
VEGETATION:
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b. Wind helps to control temperature. When winds are of low
velocity, they may be pleasant, but when velocity increases,
may cause discomfort or damage.
Trees help to buffer winds in urban areas caused by convection
and Venturi effects.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
1. Climatic control
VEGETATION:
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c. Precipitation . Plants help to control precipitation reaching the
ground. By intercepting rain and slowing it down, they aid in
moisture retention, and in the prevention of soil erosion. They
also help soil retain water by providing shade, or protection
from the wind, or by water shedding function of trees roots.
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
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a. Air Purification Plants
clean air through the
process of photosynthesis
where they use up carbon
dioxide emissions of cars
and trucks and in the
process release oxygen
into the air.
Trees also help filter out
other pollutants, i.e. sulfur
dioxide, dust, pollen, and
smoke.
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
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b. Noise To understand noise:
The sound level of normal conversation is about 60 decibels; a
plane taking off produces 120 decibels at a distance of 200 ft.
Sound energy usually spreads out and dissipates in transmission.
Sound waves can be absorbed, reflected or deflected.
Plants absorb sound waves through their leaves, branches,
twigs, especially those with thick fleshy leaves and thin petioles.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
b. Noise
thick fleshy leaves and thin petioles
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
b. Noise
Tree trunks deflect
sounds and it has
been estimated that
a 100 ft. depth of
forest can reduce
sound by 21
decibels.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
c. Glare and Reflection
Plants reduce glare and
reflection caused by sunlight.
A light source received
directly produces primary
glare while reflected light is
secondary glare. Plants may
be used to filter or block
glare by use of plants with
the appropriate size, shape,
and foliage density.
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
d. Erosion Control Plants are a primary means of preventing
erosion from stormwater runoff and of controlling erosion during
construction. Erosion is also minimized by the plants action of
intercepting rain, decreasing splash, and increased water
absorption.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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2. Environmental Engineering
VEGETATION:
d. Erosion Control
Vegetation with extensive
root systems imparts
stability to slopes.
On sandy slopes, the
presence of woody
vegetation can increase the
angle of repose by 10 to 15
degrees.
Vitiveria ziziainoides or
Vitiver Grass miracle grass
of amazing bio-engineering
capabilities.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses
VEGETATION:
a. Space Definition Plants can help in several ways: as wall
elements to form outdoor spaces, as canopies to provide
shade, or as ground covers to provide color and texture on the
base plane.
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3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses
VEGETATION:
b. View Control While
trees and shrubs can
screen out objectionable
views, they can also
provide backdrops for
sculpture and fountains.
Additionally, they may
provide filtered views of
buildings or spaces, or
frame a view,
maximizing its effect.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
3. Architectural and Aesthetic Uses
VEGETATION:
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c. Mood Plants affects peoples moods.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
Wildlife relates closely to habitats provided by plant communities. The three
groups of habitat elements essential to the different species of wildlife are:
WILDLIFE:
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1. Openland Wildlife includes birds and mammals commonly associated
with crop fields, meadows, pastures, and non-forested lands. Habitat
elements essential for openland wildlife include:
a. Grain and seed crops
b. Grasses and legumes
c. Wild herbaceous upland plants
d. Hardwood woody plants
2. Woodland Wildlife These species need various combinations of:
a. Grasses and legumes
b. Wild herbaceous upland plants
c. Hardwood woody plants
d. Cone-bearing shrubs such as pines.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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WILDLIFE:
3. Wetland Wildlife wetland species include birds and mammals needing
habitats with:
a. Wetland food plants or wild herbaceous plants of moist to wet
sites, excluding submerged or floating aquatic plants;
b. Shallow water development with water impoundments not deeper
than 5 ft.;
c. Excavated ponds with ample supply of water at least one acre and
average 6ft depth.
d. streams
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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CLIMATE:
In each, a site should be investigated in terms of:
a. Solar orientation
for buildings;

b. The best facing
slopes; and

c. Wind flows for
breezes.
Climates can be generally classified into four types: COLD, TEMPERATE,
HOT ARID and HOT HUMID.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
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CLIMATE:
Solar orientation
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
CLIMATE:
Best facing slopes
Temperatures vary with elevation
by about 3 deg for every 1000 ft.
(300m) in the daytime.
The more perpendicular a slope is
to the rays of the sun, the warmer
the surface temperature.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
CLIMATE:
Wind flows
Abrupt forms cause unpleasant
air turbulence.
Smooth forms induce smooth
flow of air.
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THE NATURAL FACTORS
SITE PLANNING CONCEPT USING NATURAL FACTORS:
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PASSIVE COOLING the technology of cooling spaces through
proper siting of structure and use of energy-efficient materials, with the
overall objective of energy conservation.
Solar Orientation
Altitude
Topography
Vegetation
Water Bodies
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
EXISTING LAND USE:
Land Use Plans are available in each city and municipality to determine the
areas for commercial, institutional, industrial, residential, and open space
uses. These were planned according to the most rational use of land in
relation to the natural and socio-economic factors, and in accordance with
compatibility with adjacent land uses.
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Each site must conform to the land use plan: a residential subdivision, for
example, cannot be developed in a site designated as Industrial.
THE CULTURAL FACTORS
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
TRAFFIC AND TRANSIT SYSTEMS:
The relationship of traffic pattern to each other and to the site must be
studied for adequacy of access and efficiency of circulation within and
outside of the site.

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Efficient traffic and transportation systems will result in successful
integration of the different developments in the vicinity.
Direction of dominant traffic flow, both vehicular and pedestrian will also
help establish points of highest visual impact for the site.
Access must also consider pedestrian movement.
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
DENSITY AND ZONING:
Density refers to the population per unit land area. This data will determine
whether existing utilities and land areas will be sufficient to sustain additional
future development, which will naturally add to the existing population and
bear on the capacity of these utilities.
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Density is expressed in number of families or dwelling units per hectare. It
may also be expressed in Floor Area Ratio (FAR).
Density influences the privacy, social contact among people, and freedom of
movement of an individual or a group of people.
Zoning regulations, laws and codes are present in every city and municipality
to regulate the type of development. It divides the city or municipality into
land use areas that are designated by building height, building coverage,
density of population, and open space.
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS:
The study of the community and its social and economic structures are done
to determine whether there is a need, an interest, or any objections on the
project.
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Any proposed project must be compatible with the economy of the particular
community. For example, a high-end boutique is hardly suitable in a low-
income community.
The social structure of the community must be taken into consideration to
ensure that a proposed development will not result in any displaced families,
and any major disruption in their businesses and other activities.
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
UTILITIES / SERVICES:
It is important to determine the existing availability of utilities on site in terms
of adequacy and efficiency. This includes:
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Sanitary/sewage system
Electric power supply
Water supply
Drainage
Most water systems will supply domestic, industrial, and fire stand-by supply
from a distribution system. Storm drains collect surface water and conduct it
to rivers, creeks, or other bodies of water.
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THE CULTURAL FACTORS
HISTORIC FACTORS:
1. Historic Buildings
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2. Historic Landmarks
3. Archeology
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THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
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THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
NATURAL FEATURES:
When sites are
characterized by
outstanding natural
features of earth,
rock, water or plant
material,
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these may
be incorporated in the
site development as
natural assets of the
land.
THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
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THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
SPATIAL PATTERNS:
Spatial pattern is defined as the way an open space of a given site is
configured according to an arrangement of elements that evoke activity or
flow, both physically or
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visually.
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THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
VISUAL RESOURCES:
1. View is a scene observed from a vantage point.
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A view can be a theme that may
suggest and give added meaning
to buildings.
The full view is not always
the best view.
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THE AESTHETIC FACTORS
VISUAL RESOURCES:
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2. Vista is a confined view, usually directed toward a terminal or
dominant feature. It has three components: a viewing station, a view,
and a foreground.
A view is usually
better if enframed or
seen through an
appropriate screen.
End of Site Planning Lecture
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THE FINAL PRODUCT
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