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Chapter 4 : Road Loads and Tires

By
Dr. Gan Leong Ming
Semester 2012/2013-II
Aerodynamics
Major impact on modern cars and trucks through
its contribution to road load

Causing DRAG, LIFT (or down load), LATERAL
FORCES, moments in ROLL, PITCH and YAW,
and NOISE, FUEL economy, HANDLING and
NVH

Forces arise from FORM (PRESSURE) DRAG
and VISCOUS FRICTION
Aerodynamics
Usage of Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics
Based on the Bernoullis Equation,
car) the to (relative air of Velocity V
air of Density
where
P V 1/2 P
P P P
t
2
s
l
tota dynamic static
=
=
= +
= +

Aerodynamics
Increasing
pressure
Decreasing
pressure
P
atm
C
p
=1
C
p
=0
C
p
=-3
Bernoullis Equation explains how
the pressure and velocity must vary
in the gross air flow over a car body
Aerodynamics Flow Separation
-Prevents the flow from simply proceeding down the back side of a car
-The drag forces arising from the action of viscous friction in the
boundary layer on the surface of the car is the friction drag

Separation
point
Vortices
Pressure Distribution on a Vehicle
+
-
-
-
-
- +
= Pressure
As flow rising
over the hood
Adverse pressure
create potential
stall and hence
drag
Flow turn upward,
thus high pressure
Ideal region for climate
control system, intake
system, keeping wiper
in location
Air try to flow over
the roof contour
Continuing over the
backlite on to the trunk
because of the continue
curvature
Region for flow
separation
Flow along the
sides will also
attempts to feed
air into this region
Add to the potential for
separation
Combination of low pressure and flow
over roof form VORTICES trailing off
the back of the vehicle
Pressure Distribution on a Vehicle
Vortices
Flow from side
Flow from side
Aerodynamic Lift and Drag Pressures Backlite angles and deck lid
lengths
-Control of the separation point (not eliminate, but reduce)
-Ideal aerodynamic shape : teardrop rear shape
-Can be cutoff without much penalty of a large separation area
-Size of separation area affects the aerodynamic drag directly (affects the
aerodynamic lift at the rear)
Aerodynamic Lift and Drag Pressures Backlite angles and deck lid
lengths
Potential of dirt deposition due to flow separation (which cause
turbulence flow in the separation zone)
Cause vision obstructed
Dirt on rear roof
block vision
Dirt which block tail light
History of Coefficient of Drag
Heavy Truck Parasitic Loss
Heavy Truck Power Loss
Aerodynamic Forces
Result of the air stream interacting with the vehicle
Direction Force Moment
Longitudinal Drag Rolling Moment
(x-axis, positive rearward)
Lateral Sideforce Pitching Moment
(y-axis, positive to the right)
Vertical Lift Yawing Moment
(z-axis, positive upward)
Aerodynamic Forces
Lift (Down force)
Increases tire loading for better traction
Increases as a function of the speed squared

Induced Drag
The drag that results from production of down
force
Increases as a function of the speed squared

Down force and Drag change the balance of the
car front to rear
Drag Components
Drag largest and most
important force encountered
by passenger car

65% arises from body due to
separation zone at the rear

Drag Components - rear end inclination angle
Graph indicate influence of rear end inclination angle on the drag for
various lengths of rear extension

Slope angles up to 15 degrees consistently reduce drag

Drag increase again as the angle increase due to flow separation
Drag Components - Forebody drag
Forebody drag
influenced by the
design of the front end
and windshield angle

roundness of the front
end cause dynamic
pressure to induce drag

Minimum drag is
obtained when the
stagnation point is kept
low on the frontal
profile
Drag Components - Windshield
Windshield establishes the
flow direction as it approaches
the horizontal roof

Shallow angle reduce drag

Steep angle cause the air
velocity reduce by the high
pressure in that region

Shallow angle cause high
wind speed, adding to
dynamic loads on the
windshield wipers
Drag Components - Underbody
Suspensions, exhaust systems
and other protruding
components on the underbody
responsible for the drag

Smooth underbody panel help
to minimize underbody drag

Wheels and wheel wells are
major contributor for underbody
drag

Decrease the clearance
between the underside and the
ground and minimize the wheel
cavity decreases the total
aerodynamic drag from the
wheel
Drag Components - Cooling System
Cooling system is the last
major contribution to drag

Air flow through the
radiator exerting dynamic
pressure as drag on the
vehicle

Affect the drag coefficient
by as much as 0.025

Cooling inlet size is held
to the practical minimum
in order to reduce drag
Aerodynamic Aids Bumper Spoiler
Aerodynamic surfaces extending downward from the
bumper to block and redirect the shear flow that impacts
on the underbody components
Although it also contribute drag, it is significantly reduce
underbody drag
Low pressure produced also has the effect of reducing
front-end lift

Aerodynamic Aids Air Dams
Flow-blocking surfaces installed at the perimeter of the
radiator
To improve flow through the radiator at lower vehicle
speeds
Decrease pressure behind the radiator/fan
Reduce drag by reduction of pressure on the firewall
Aerodynamic Aids Deck Lid Spoilers
Deflecting the air upward
cause pressure increased on
the rear deck

It will create down force at the
most advantageous point on
the vehicle to reduce rear lift

Stabilize the vortices in the
separation flow

tend to increase drag
Aerodynamic Aids Window and Pillar Treatments
Drip rails and offset between windows and pillars
sources of drag
Cause small separation zones
Disturbance to the air in the high velocity air stream
causes momentum loss which creates drag
Smooth contour could help reduce drag and
aerodynamic noise
Optimization
Adaptation of streamlined
shapes from other
disciplines (ship)

Application of the fluid
mechanics from aircraft
aerodynamics

Optimize detail design to
obtain good air flow
characteristics
Optimization Wind Tunnel
Drag
A semi empirical models to represent the drag effect.
The aerodynamic drag is characterized by
headwind and speed vehicle to due velocity Total V
Density Air
area) (projected vehicle the of area Frontal A
t coefficien drag c Aerodynami C
where
A C V 1/2 D
D
D
2
A
=
=
=
=
=

Density of the air is variable depending on temperature, pressure and


humidity conditions.
Could be estimated using the following equation:
Celsius degrees in ature Air temper T
s kiloPascal in pressure c Atmospheri P
where
T 273.16
288.16
101.325
P
225 . 1
r
r
r
r
=
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
Drag Coefficient
Determined experimentally from wind tunnel tests
(area) pressure) (Dynamic
force Drag
A V
D
C
2
2
1
A
D
= =

Drag Coefficient
In practice, vehicle driving along a road experiences atmospheric
winds in addition to the wind component arising from its speed

When the atmospheric wind blows toward the vehicle a headwind is
present, and the total velocity is
speed Wind V
speed Vehicle V
where
V V V
w
v
w v
=
=
+ = Tailwind
(V
w
=-tive)
Headwind
(V
w
=+tive)
speed vehicle V
where
A C ) V V ( V 1/2 P
A C ) V V ( 1/2 A C V 1/2 D
D
2
w v A
D
2
w v D
2
A
=
+ =
+ = =


Power ,P =DaV
Side Force
Impose by lateral wind when car changing its travel direction

Value depend on the vehicle and the nature of the wind

For strong crosswind, side force will be larger than drag force

For steady state wind conditions, the side force imposed on a vehicle
in a crosswind is given by
area frontal A
angle) wind relative the of (function t coefficien force Side C
velocity wind Total V
force Side S
where
A C V 1/2 S
S
A
S
2
A
=
=
=
=
=
Side Force
C
S
as a function of wind angle

Side force acts on the body at the center of pressure (located ahead
of the center of gravity)

Results in an overturning moment and a yaw moment whenever a
side force is present
Lift Force
Cause by the pressure differential from the top to the
bottom of the vehicle

Significant concern in aerodynamic because of their
influence on driving stability

Measured at the centerline of the vehicle at the center of
the wheelbase
area Frontal A
t coefficien Lift C
force Lift L
where
A C V 1/2 L
L
A
L
2
A
=
=
=
=
Lift Force
Depend on the overall shape of the vehicle

Cause pitching moment to the vehicle

Have negative impact on handling through the reduced control forces
available at the tires

FRONT LIFT reduces steering controllability

Reduce by front bumper spoilers and rearward inclination of front
surfaces

REAR LIFT reduces stability, the most variable with vehicle design

Flow depart with a downward angle at the rear of the vehicle create
rear lift

Decreased by use underbody pans, spoilers, and change in the angle
of attack of the body
Pitching Moment
Lift force decrease (or increase) the weight on the
axles
Pitching moment acts to transfer weight between
the front and rear axles
Wheelbase L
area Frontal A
t coefficien moment Pitching C
moment Pitching PM
where
AL C V 1/2 PM
Moment, Pitching
PM
PM
2
=
=
=
=
=
Wheelbase is use as a characteristic length to
achieve dimensional consistency in the
equation
Yawing Moment
Arise because the lateral force by the side wind
does not normally act at the mid-wheelbase
position
Wheelbase L
area Frontal A
t coefficien moment Yawing C
moment Yawing PM
where
AL C V 1/2 YM
Moment, Yawing
PM
YM
2
=
=
=
=
=
C
YM
varies with wind direction
Rolling Moment
Wheelbase L
area Frontal A
t coefficien moment Rolling C
moment Rolling PM
where
AL C V 1/2 RM
Moment, Rolling
PM
RM
2
=
=
=
=
=
Arise because the lateral force by the side wind acts at an
elevated point on the vehicle
Give minor influence on vehicle stability, depending
largely on the roll steer properties of the suspensions
Rolling moment coefficient is sensitive to
wind direction much like the yawing
moment coefficient
Crosswind Sensitivity
Generally refers to the lateral and yawing
response of a vehicle in the presence of
transverse wind disturbances

Affect the drivers ability to hold the vehicle in
position

Dependent on
Aerodynamic properties
Vehicle dynamic properties (weight distribution, tire
properties and suspensions)
Steering system characteristics (compliances, friction
and torque assist)
Driver closed-loop steering behavior and preferences
Rolling Resistance
Major vehicle resistance force on level ground is
the rolling resistance of the tires

Primary motion resistance force at low speed
condition

Significant retardation force for off-highway and
level ground operation

Cause large part of the power expended in a
rolling wheel is converted into heat within the tire
(limiting factor in the tire performance)`
Rolling Resistance
Mechanisms responsible for rolling resistance

1. Energy loss due to deflection of the tire sidewall
near the contact area
2. Energy loss due to deflection of the tread elements
3. Scrubbing in the contact patch
4. Tire slip in the longitudinal and lateral directions
5. Deflection of the road surface
6. Air drag on the inside and outside of the tire
7. Energy loss on bumps
Total Road Loads
vehicle the of Weight W
t coefficien resistance Rolling f
rear tires the of resistance Rolling R
s front tire the of resistance Rolling R
where
W f R R R
resistance rolling Total
r
xr
xf
r xr xf x
=
=
=
=
= + =
Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Tire Temperature
-Energy loss due to
deflection in the tire
material
-As tire begin to roll from
cold condition,
temperature rise and the
rolling resistance will
diminish over a first
period of travel
Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Inflation Pressure/Load
-Inflation pressure
determine the tire
elasticity
-In combination with load,
determines the deflection
in the sidewalls and
contact region

Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Velocity
-Direct proportional to
speed because
increased flexing work
and vibration in the tire
body
-Small effect at low and
moderate speed
-More pronounced when
speed is combined with
lower inflation pressure
Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Tire Material and Design
-Materials and thickness of both
the tire sidewalls (plies) and
thread determine the stiffness
and energy loss in the rolling
tire
-Although hysterisis important
for wet condition, it degrades
rolling resistance performance
-Worn-out, smooth thread tires
show coefficient values up to
20% lower than new tires
Factors Affecting Rolling Resistance
Tire Slips
-Wheel slip during wheel
transferring tractive or
braking forces, cause rolling
resistance
-Increased as the total of slip
percentage increased.
-Same effect during cornering
performance
-Effect of tire slips to rolling
resistance is readily observed
in normal driving when
vehicle loss grip during
cornering
Typical Coefficient
Virtually impossible to devise a formula that take all
variables into account
mph in Speed V
where
V/100) 0.01(1 f
speed, low For
r
=
+ =
t coefficien effect Speed f
t coefficien Basic f
mph in Speed V
where
V/100) (1 3.24f f f
speed, high For
s
o
2.5
s o r
=
=
=
+ + =
Typical Coefficient
1.5 C blacktop, hot For
1.2 C blacktop, cold brick, concrete, For worn
1.0 C concrete, smooth For
t coefficien surface Road C
mph in speed V
where
ply tires - Bias C 0.000046V) (0.0066 f
tires Radial C 0.000041V) (0.0041 f
k, heavy truc For
h
h
h
h
h r
h r
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
Tractive forces
The forces acting at the tire footprint to
either maintain velocity or change
velocity.

Road Load Forces
The forces acting at a given velocity
that oppose vehicle tractive forces.
Road load forces usually are simply
rolling plus aerodynamic forces.

Forces on a Vehicle
Total Road Load
Summation of rolling resistance, aerodynamics drag, road grade (if
available)
u Wsin A C V 1/2 W f R
D
2
r RL
+ + =
Total power loss due to Road load is equal to the total road load
multiple by vehicle speed
V ) Wsin A C V 1/2 W f ( P
D
2
r RL
u + + =
Tires
Tire serves essentially three basic
functions:

i. It supports the vertical load, while cushioning
against road shocks

ii. It develops longitudinal forces for acceleration
and braking

iii. It develops lateral forces for cornering
Tire Construction
Two basic construction are broadly used
- Parallel plies, reinforced
by nylon, rayon, polyester
or fiberglass

- Extremely flexible
sidewall, soft ride,
provide little or no
directional stability

- Directional stability : by a
stiff belt of fabric or steel
wire in circumference
direction
- Made of two or more
plies extending from
bead to bead with
cords at high angles

- High angles result in
tires which are soft
for ride comfort but
low angles best for
directional stability
Tire Construction
Tire Construction
Tire Construction
Tire tread pattern is important for many tire
performances such as traction, wear,
hydroplaning, noise and vibration.
Tire tread pattern has strong interaction
with the road, and water, snow, mud, etc
on the road.
Size and Load Rating
Denoted by one of several methods, including
section height, aspect ratio and rim diameter
Bias tire : 6.95-14 (section width, rim size) in
inches
Radial tire : 175R14 (section width in mm, rim
diameter in inches)
P-metric method : P175/70R14 (passenger car,
175mm section width, 70 aspect ratio, R-radial,
B-belt, D-bias) and 14 inch rim)
Terminology and Axis System
Terminology and Axis System
Wheel plane central plane of the tire normal to
the axis of rotation
Wheel center intersection of the spin axis and
the wheel plane
Center of tire contact intersection of the wheel
plane and projection of the spin axis onto the
road plane
Loaded radius distance from center of tire
contact to the wheel center in the wheel plane
Terminology and Axis System
Longitudinal force, Fx component of the force
acting on the tire by the road and parallel to the
intersection of the wheel plane with road plane
Lateral force, Fy component of the force acting
on the tire by the road in the plane of the road
and normal to the intersection of the wheel plane
with the road plane
Normal force, Fz component of the force acting
on the tire by the road which is normal to the
plane of the road
Terminology and Axis System
Overturning moment, Mx moment acting on the
tire by the road in the plane of the road and
parallel to the intersection of the wheel plane with
the road plane
Rolling resistance moment, My moment acting
on the tire by the road in the plane of the road
and normal to the intersection of the wheel plane
with the road plane
Aligning moment, Mz moment acting on the tire
by the road which is normal to the plane of the
road
Terminology and Axis System
Slip angle, - angle between the direction
of wheel heading and the direction of
travel.
Camber angle - angle between the wheel
plane and the vertical
Study on Tire
The focus for tire FEM simulation
Durability
Ensure tire will not fail during the life of a tire.
Tread wear
Tire tread should be worn as even as possible and as long as
possible.
Environmental concerns
Reduction of tire rolling resistance.
Vehicle handling
Tire fitted to vehicle to provide best braking, traction and emergency
handling.
Vehicle comfort
Tire with optimized Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH)
performance.

Study on Tire
Question
A heavy truck weighting 72,500 Ib rolls along
170 in Denver at a seed of 67 mph. The air
temperature is 55oF and the barometric
pressure is 26.01in Hg. The truck is 8 wide
by 13.5 high, and has an aerodynamic drag
coefficient of 0.65. the truck has radial-ply
tires. Calculate the aerodynamic drag, the
rolling resistance (according to the SAE
equations) and the road load horsepower at
these conditions.
Question
A passenger car has a frontal area of 21
square feet and a drag coefficient of 0.42. it is
traveling along at 55 mph. Calculate the
aerodynamic drag and the associated
horsepower requirements if it is driving into a
25mph headwind, and a 25mph tailwind.