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Introduction To Jet Engines


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Purpose
Demonstrate differences between piston
and jet aircraft engines
Familiarize with jet engine operation
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Objectives
Identify jet engine principles
Identify the basic sections of a jet engine
Know the primary power setting method for the
737 NG
Identify two components that control engines in
the 737 NG
Define Maximum Takeoff and Go Around Thrust
Define two methods of takeoff thrust reduction
Be familiar with fuel mileage as a function of
altitude
Identify some engine malfunctions
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Jet Engine Principles
The jet engine has the same four distinct cycles
that a reciprocating piston engine has: intake,
compression, power (combustion), and exhaust.
In a jet engine these cycles occur simultaneously
and continuously. They are sequential in
reciprocating piston engine..
The cycles in a jet engine occur in different
sections of the engine. In reciprocating piston
engines they are in the same location - the
combustion chamber (cylinder).
The four sections of the jet engine are inlet,
compressor, combustor, and turbine.
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Jet Engine Principles
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The turbofan engine has a fan on the front of the
engine and also primary airflow through the core
Think of it as a fixed pitch propeller where the
air flow is diverted into an extra duct around
engine.
Bypass ratio = mass airflow fan divided by
mass airflow core. A bypass ratio of 5 means
that five times more mass airflow goes
through the fan duct than goes through the
primary core.
Approximately 75-80% of the total thrust
comes from the fan air in high bypass ratio
engines.
Turbofan Engine Principles
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Turbofan Engine Profile
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Commonly Encountered Jet Engine
Terms
EPR - Engine Pressure Ratio:
Ratio of total pressure at the exhaust or turbine exit (e.g., PT7
or PT5 ) to total pressure at the front of the fan/compressor (PT2 )
This is commonly used as a measure of engine thrust, and is
the primary thrust setting parameter on Pratt and Whitney and
Rolls Royce engines.
N1 or %N1:
N1 is the rotation rate, in RPM, of the low-speed rotor of a two
or three-spool engine.
N1 is usually expressed as %N1, a percentage of some
nominal value.
General Electric and CFMI engines use %N1 as the primary
thrust setting parameter.
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Power Setting Methods
Power is set and controlled on jet
engines with N1 RPM (revolutions
per minute).
N1 RPM is physical fan rotor speed, as
indicated on a flight deck N1 RPM
guage (used for power setting on CFMI
engines).
Manifold pressure is not used for jet
engine operation/control.
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Power Setting Methods
When EPR is the primary power
setting method, N1 RPM can be used
as an alternate method in the event
of an EPR system malfunction.
Some jet engine models, such as GE
and CFMI, use only N1
guage
RPM for
engine power control.
Corrected N1 (N1
guage
/) is used for
performance calculations as a reference
basis, since airplanes operate over a
wide range of ambient conditions.
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Power Setting Versus Outside Air
Temperature
Thrust is limited by:
Combustion section pressure in the pressure
limited region
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT margins) in the
temperature limited region
Corrected
N1 (N1/)
OAT
Pressure Limit
Temperature
(EGT) Limit
Thrust Break Point
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Bleed Air Extraction System Effects
When bleed air is extracted from the engine, less primary airflow if
available to generate thrust and a power setting reduction is
required
Typical uses of bleed air are:
Anti-ice systems
Air conditioning
Turbine clearance control


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Electronic Engine Controls
Jet engine thrust/power is controlled by the
amount of fuel injected into the combustion
chamber (through fuel nozzles).
The engine hydro mechanical unit (HMU)
meters this fuel flow and receives control
signals from the electronic engine control or
power management control system.
Earlier power management controls
schedule fuel flow based on power lever
angle, engine pressure and temperature,
and rpm.
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Modern electronic engine controls fine tune
engine performance and manage thrust,
schedule fuel flow, process information, and
control engine sub-systems with much
greater precision and accuracy.
Electronic engine controls simplify thrust
management procedures. However, pilots
should still monitor engine parameters and
verify that proper thrust is obtained.
Electronic Engine Controls
(continued)
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Electronic Engine Controls
(continued)
Some engine control terminology
FADEC: Full Authority Digital Engine Control
advanced technology, very accurate and
precise
EEC: Electronic Engine Control is the main
component of the FADEC that has two basic
functions - information processing and engine
control
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Thrust Versus Speed
Thrust available decreases as airplane
speed increases since thrust is a
function of mass airflow x velocity.
As the airplane speed increases, the relative
velocity of the engine exhaust decreases.
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60
70
80
100
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Mach
KTAS
% of
Static
Takeoff
Thrust
Thrust versus Mach
(Sea Level ISA Day)
0 66 132 198 265
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Thrust Versus Altitude
Thrust available decreases as airplane
altitude increases.
Takeoff and climb performance are
significantly reduced at higher elevation
airports.
90
60
70
80
100
0 5000 10000
Altitude (ft)
% of Sea
Level
Static
Takeoff
Thrust
Thrust versus Altitude
(ISA Temperature)
15000
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Takeoff Thrust Versus Altitude
Thrust available decreases as airplane
altitude increases.
Takeoff and climb performance are
significantly reduced at higher elevation
airports.
90
60
70
80
100
0 5000 10000
Altitude (ft)
% of Sea
Level
Static
Takeoff
Thrust
Thrust versus Altitude
(ISA Temperature)
15000
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Cruise Thrust Versus Altitude
Maximum cruise thrust available decreases with altitude.
Thrust required, at a fixed true airspeed and gross weight, will
decrease with altitude up to the tropopause and then will increase
(pressure and temperature effects).
Fuel flow will trend the same as thrust required.
Altitude
Thrust
or
Fuel Flow
Thrust versus Altitude (ISA Temperature)
Cruise thrust available
Cruise thrust required
Fuel flow
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Jet Engine Spool-up Versus
Piston/Prop Spin-up
Reciprocating piston engines spin up
Jet engines spool up at a slower rate.
FAR 25.119 : thrust in eight seconds
SoPlan Ahead

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Methods of Thrust Reduction
Reduced thrust
When actual takeoff weight < performance
limited takeoff weight
Why?
Reduces maintenance cost
Increases engine reliability and life cycle
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Methods of Thrust Reduction
Two established methods of thrust
reduction
Derate
Assumed temperature
Two different philosophies
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Derate
Typically a fixed percent reduction of
takeoff rated thrust
Programmed and selectable in the FMC.
Derate
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Assumed Temperature
A higher than actual ambient air
temperature
Programmed and selectable in the FMC.
Maximum reduction is 25% of actual
thrust
Assumed Temperature
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Assumed Temperature
MTOW
OAT
actual
Thrust
25% Maximum
Reduction
OAT
Pressure Limit
EGT Limit
Weight
Available thrust
Actual Required thrust
T
assumed
T
break T
max assumed
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737NG FMC NI LIMIT Page
Derate selection in FMC.
N1 LIMIT
1 / 1
SEL / OAT
/ + 20

C
26K
< T O
24K DERATE
< TO - 1 <ACT> <SEL>
22K DERATE
< TO - 2
<PERF INIT
26K N 1
98.8/ 98. 8
CLB >
CL B - 1>
CL B - 2>
TAKEOFF>


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737NG FMC NI LIMIT Page
N1 LIMIT
1 / 1
SEL / OAT
/ + 20C
26K
< T O
24K DERATE
< TO -
<ACT> <SEL>
22K DERATE
< TO - 2
<PERF INIT
26K N 1
98.8/ 98. 8
CLB >
CL B - 1>
CL B - 2>
TAKEOFF>

Assumed temperature in FMC
Can be accomplished with derate also
+ 40C
1
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737NG Upper Center
Display Panel
Assumed temperature and target %N1 setting display
ENG 1
START VALVE
OPEN
OIL FILTER
BYPASS
LOW OIL
PRESSURE
EGT
N
1
ENG 2
START VALVE
OPEN
OIL FILTER
BYPASS
LOW OIL
PRESSURE
663 663
87.7
98.8
10
TAI
8
6
4
2
0
87.7
98.8
10
TAI
8
6
4
2
0
TAT +20C D - TO + 40C
FUEL
KG
1
900 3
CTR
2
900 3
600 7
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Fuel Mileage Engine
Contributions
Thrust/
Mach
Constant W/
Min. Drag curve
W/
Increasing
Cruise fuel mileage = TAS/fuel flow = NAM/Lb of fuel
Thrust required equals drag (airframe effect)
Fuel flow (engine effect)
Power setting required (EPR or %N1)
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Cruise Fuel Flow versus Altitude
Fuel flow, at a fixed true airspeed and gross weight, will
decrease with altitude up to the tropopause and then will
increase (pressure and temperature effects on thrust).
Thrust required will trend the same as fuel flow.
Altitude
Thrust
or
Fuel Flow
Fuel Flow vs Altitude (ISA Temperature)
Cruise thrust available
Cruise thrust required
Fuel flow
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Thrust Specific Fuel
Consumption versus Altitude
Thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC)
for a given true airspeed and weight will
decrease with altitude.
Altitude
TSFC
Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption
(TSFC) versus Altitude (ISA Temperature)
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Engine Malfunctions /
Anomalies
A few anomalies on jet engines that
are different than what is
encountered on reciprocating piston
engine airplanes are:
Compressor surge
Roll back or flameout
Foreign Object Damage (FOD) from bird
ingestion into engine
Tailpipe fire
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Compressor Surge / Stall
Compressor blades are airfoils that can stall if the
airflow conditions in the engine are not correct.
When compressor stall occurs, the airflow
through the jet engine becomes unstable to the
point where normal compression can no longer
take place.
There is a rapid reverse flow of higher pressure
air from a higher stage of compression.
This rapid escape of high pressure air can cause a
loud bang that may be accompanied by flames
shooting out the inlet and/or tailpipe.
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Compressor Surge / Stall
Compressor surge can be caused by:
Malfunction of surge bleed control system
Bird or foreign object ingestion
Engine deterioration
Other engine damage occurring
Strong crosswinds at low airspeeds (during
takeoff)
Very rapid acceleration or deceleration of
the engine
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Surge / Stall Engine Indications
A loud bang, vibration, and/or airplane yaw may be
the first indication of a surge at high power settings
High EGT and rapid EPR or rotor speed changes
are the main engine indications of a compressor
stall
These changes may be more rapid than can be
displayed on engine instruments
Abnormal engine noises or no response to throttle
movement can also be indications of a surge
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Engine Surge / Stall Recovery
Compressor stalls are infrequent
events with modern electronic engine
controls.
The engine control system may perform a
self-recovery for single or multiple surges.
Multiple or severe surges may be
unrecoverable and the engine may flame
out (roll back) or require pilot action to
shutdown.
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Surge / Stall Pilot Response
The general pilot response is to:
Fly the airplane (maintain control)
Disconnect the autothrottles
Immediate power reduction on the surging
engine (throttles to idle)
Refer to the appropriate non-normal
checklist
Assess the engine condition and attempt
recovery if engine damage is not severe
Partial thrust or idle thrust operation is better
than having an engine shut down
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Flameout is a condition in which the
combustion process is stopped (fire or
flame in combustion section has gone
out).
A drop in EGT and rapid decrease in
EPR or rotor speed are the main
engine indications of a flameout.
Engine system malfunctions, such as
generators offline, may be the first
indication of a problem.
Flameout / Engine Rollback
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Flameout may be caused by:
Unsteady airflow (e.g., strong
turbulence or severe weather)
Engine control system malfunctions
Improper fuel management / fuel
starvation
Volcanic ash ingestion
Unstable engine operation (stall or
surge first)
Flameout / Engine Rollback
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Flameout / Engine Rollback
The general pilot response is to:
Fly the airplane (maintain control)
Assess damage
Attempt relight (airstart) if no engine
damage
Refer to non-normal checklists
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Engine Foreign Object Damage
Jet engines are more susceptible to foreign object
damage (FOD) due to:
High inlet velocity and large inlet areas
Lower engine to ground clearances
Engine may pick up runway debris, tire fragments,
animals in the vicinitybird ingestion
Be alert for engine damage malfunctions at high
power settings on the runway and / or taxiway due
to FOD (avoid high power during taxi)
Indication of FOD may be surge/stall, loud thud or
bang, high vibration, or even smell in bleed air
system from bird ingestion
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Tailpipe Fire
Tailpipe fires are caused by fuel puddling in the
turbine or exhaust section during start up or shut
down of the engine.
A flame may shoot out the back of the engine and
it may startle or panic the passengers.
If the tailpipe fire is not accompanied by any other
engine malfunctions, there may not be any
indications on the flight deck that something is
wrong.
Cabin crew, ground control, or passengers
usually notify the pilots of the problem.
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Tailpipe Fire
The general pilot response is to:
Accomplish the tailpipe fire procedures
This usually includes motoring the engine to
purge the fuel from the exhaust
A typical jet engine fire extinguishing
system does not inject flame retardant into
the tailpipe so pulling the fire handle and
discharging a fire bottle will not put out the
tailpipe fire
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Summary
There are significant differences
between piston and jet engines
Thrust vs altitude and speed
Takeoff thrust reductions
Engine malfunctions