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Chemical Bonding

At the end of the chapter students should be able to:



1. Define chemical bond, valence electron and octet rule.
2. Explain chemical bond formation using Lewis structure
involving ionic and covalent bonding for simple compound.
3. Describe covalent bonding using electron pairing and
overlaps of orbitals ( and ); s and s, s and p, p and p,
sp, sp
2
and sp
3
hybridization, with examples.
4. Describe the general physical characteristics of covalent
compounds.
5. Define and identify dative covalent bond, hydrogen bond
and Van der Waals forces.

A force which hold two or more atoms, ions,
molecules or any combination of these together.


Chemical bonds
Ionic covalent
Metallic
bonds
Valence electrons are the outer shell electrons of an
atom which participate in chemical bonding.
1 1 ns
1

2
2 ns
2

13
3 ns
2
np
1

14
4 ns
2
np
2

15
5 ns
2
np
3

16
6 ns
2
np
4

17
7 ns
2
np
5

Group No. valence e
-
e
-
configuration
Valence Electrons
Group 18 elements exist as monoatomic gases.
Helium has 2 valence electrons (1s
2
, duplet) Other
noble gas atoms have 8 valence electrons (ns
2
np
6
,
octet).
The atom of a noble gas does not need to bond to
other atom as it is already stable.
Stability of atoms is associated with having either a
duplet or octet of valence electrons.
Atoms combine in order to achieve a more stable
electronic configuration.
Atom can achieve noble gas configuration through :
( a) transfer of electron ( b) sharing electron


Chemical symbol of element surrounded by dot ( ) or
crosses (x).
The dots and crosses represent the valence electrons
in an atom.

Lewis symbol for a positive ion (cation)
For a positive ion lewis symbol written same
way as the ion with positive charge.
[Na]
+
[Mg]
2+
Lewis structure for a negative ion (anion)
Written with eight dots surrounding the
chemical symbol.
Charge of the ion is written as superscript.
[ O ]
2-

In the formation of electrovalent bonds,
An ionic bond is formed by the
electrostatic forces.
Ionic bond formed between 2 ions with
different charge and through e transfer.
Metal elements will donate electron while
non-metal elements receive electron to
achieve stability.
This happen because metals are more
electropositive while non-metals more
electronegative.

Example :

Na Na
+
+ e
-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
(obey the octet rule)

Cl + e
-
Cl
-
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
5
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6

(obey the octet rule)
Formation can be described by Lewis structure
valence e
-
represented as dot or cross.

(formation of
electrovalence bond )
xx
Na
xx
x
x
x
Cl
Cl Na
xx
xx
+
-
Example:
Draw lewis structure for the formation of
following ionic compounds.
a) KF


K + F [ K ]
+
[ F ]
-


When K and F atoms come in contact with
each other, the outer 2s
1
valence electron
of K is transferred to F atom.
.
.
..
..
..

b) Na
2
O

Na .
+ O 2 [ Na ]
+
[ O ]
2-
Na .

When Na and O atoms come in
contact with each other, 1 electron of
3s orbital from 2 Na atoms are
transferred to O.
..
..
.
.

Draw lewis structure for the formation
of following ionic compounds.


I. Calcium bromide, CaBr
2

II. Plumbum oxide, PbO
Formed by sharing 1 or more pairs of
valence electrons between the bonded
atoms, involving only-non metal atoms.
H + H H

H or H H



. . ..
Atoms other than H tends to form bonds until
it is surrounded by 8 valence electrons.

Lone pairs are pairs of valence electrons that
is not involved in covalent bond formation.

Can form different types of covalent bonds
single bond, 2 atoms are held by 1 pair of e.
double bond, 2 atoms shared 2 pairs of e.
Example: HCl

H + Cl
Example: F
2
F
xx
xx
x
x

x
F
xx
xx
x
x

x
Non metal Non metal
Covalent bond (share 1
pair electrons)
+
F
xx
xx
F
xx
x
x

xx
x
x

..

H Cl
x
.
.

..
.
x
.
.

..
.
..
F F +
7e
-
7e
-

F F
8e
-
8e
-

Lewis structure of F
2

F F
lone pairs lone pairs
single covalent bond
Single bond two atoms share a pair of
electrons
Double bond two atoms share two
pairs of electrons
O C O or O C O
8e
-
8e
-
8e
-

double bonds
double bonds
Triple bond two atoms share three pairs of
electrons
N N
8e
-
8e
-

N N
triple bond
triple bond
or
bond length decreases in the order
single > double > triple

Bond
Type
Bond
length(p
m)
Bond
Type
Bond
length(p
m)
C-H 107 C-O 143
C=O 121 C-C 154
C=C 133 CC 120
C-N 143 C=N 138
CN 116 N-0 136
N=O 122 O-H 96
Table : Comparison of the bond length
Using lewis structure show the formation
of bonding between Phosphorus and
chlorine.
VIDEO 1
Covalent bond is formed when atomic
orbitals overlap.

Only 2 electrons with their spins paired
may be shared in one set of overlapping
orbitals.

2 types of bond:
sigma bond ()
pi bond ()
- Sigma bond occurs when there is one
bonding interaction that results from the
overlapping of two orbitals.

- A bond can result from overlapping end to
end of atomic orbitals on neighbouring
atoms.

(i) Result from the overlapping of two s orbitals.

Example: H
2


H :
1s
VIDEO 6
(ii) Result from the overlapping of s and p
orbitals.

Example: HF
F : _
2s 2p
valence electrons


One of the 2p orbital of F atom is
occupied by a single electron.
H electron and the F electron pair up
and be shared between the two nuclei.
H :
1s
iii) Result from overlapping of two p
orbitals.

Example: Cl
2

Cl : .
1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

valence electrons
One of the 3p orbitals is
occupied by a single e
Cl Cl Cl - Cl

3p 3p
+

Two lobes of p orbitals overlap side-to-
side gives pi bond (sideways overlapping of
two p orbitals).

It occurs in molecules with double or
triple bonds

Example: N
2

N :
1s 2s 2p
valence electrons
N N

P
x
P
y
P
z
P
z
P
x
P
y


Example 2:
7
N :
1s 2s 2p
valence electrons
8
O
+
:
1s 2s 2p
valence electrons
Nitrogen monoxide ion, NO
+
The Lewis structure is :N O:
+

There is a bond and two bonds.
N O

P
x
P
y
P
z
P
z
P
x
P
y


Give the number of and
bonds in :

a)O
2
molecule

b)F
2
molecule


Mixing the s orbital and p orbital will
form two sp hybrid orbitals .

The shape of sp hybrid orbital will form
a linear and the angle is 180
o

Formation of sp Hybrid Orbitals

The orbital diagram for the valence
electrons in Be is.
Ground state Be:
2s 2p
In ground state, Be atom does not form
covalent bond with Cl atom because
electrons are paired in the 2s orbital in Be
atom.

Electron from 2s orbital is promoted to a 2p
orbital,

Excited state Be:
2s 2p
Mixing 2s orbital and 2p orbital to form
two equivalent sp orbitals.
Hybrid state Be:
sp

unoccupied
These two hybrid orbitals lie on the same
line, angle between them is 180
o
.

Each of BeCl bond is then formed by the
overlapping of a sp hybrid orbitals atom Be
and p orbital atom Cl resulting BeCl
2

molecule with a linear geometry.
Mixing the s orbital with the two p
orbitals to form three sp
2
hybrid orbitals.

These three sp
2
orbital lie in the same
plane and the angle between any two of
them is 120
o
.
Formation of sp
2
Hybrid Orbitals
s
P
x
P
y

Orbital diagram for the valence electron
in boron is
Ground state B:
2s 2p
Boron atom has one unpaired electron
and can form only one bond with other
orbital.
This will form a very unstable BF
molecule.
The electron in 2s orbital is promoted to
an unoccupied 2p orbital.
Excited state B:
2s 2p
The mixing the 2s orbital with the two 2p
orbitals form three sp
2
hybrid orbitals.
Hybrid state B:
sp
2
unoccupied
Overlap of boron sp
2
hybrid orbitals and 2p
orbital flourin atom to form sigma ( ) bond
in each of the BF bond.

The BF
3
molecule is planar with all the FBF
angle equal to 120
o
.
Hybridization B atom in BF
3
Ground State :
2s
2p
2s 2p
Excited State:
(Promotion of e)
sp
2
unoccupied
sp
2
hybridized state :
The sp
3
hybrid orbitals - one s orbital and
three p orbitals .

These four hybrid orbitals are directed
towards the four corners of a regular
tetrahedral shape

all the angles are 109.5
0
The carbon atom has two unpaired
electrons (one in each of the two 2p
orbitals).



H
l
H C H
l
H
The orbital diagram for valence electron in
carbon atom is
Ground state C:
2s 2p
It can form only two bonds with hydrogen
in its ground state.

Four C H bond in methane, one electron
from the 2s orbital has to be excited to
unoccupied 2p orbital.
Excited state C:
2s 2p
In the exited state there are four
unpaired electrons in carbon atom. The
2s orbital and 2p orbitals mix to form sp
3

hybrid orbitals.
Hybrid state C:
sp
3
The four sp
3
hybrid orbitals of carbon
overlap with s orbital of hydrogen to
form bonds in methane molecule.
Hybridization C atom in CH
4
Ground State :
2s 2p
2s 2p
Excited State:
(Promotion of e)
sp
3
sp
3
hybridized state :
1. Low melting and boiling points
form simple molecular crystal, molecules held together
by the weak van der Waals forces.
macromolecular compounds or crystals (eg. SiO
2
)have
very high melting points.

2. Insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolarsolvents
no attraction between the polar water molecules and the
nonpolar or neutral molecules in the lattice or liquid.

3. Electrical insulators
Neutral molecules and atoms released by melted simple
molecular / macromolecular compounds are not attracted to
any electrode. Not able to conduct electricity.

A type of covalent bond, the shared pair electrons
is provided by one atoms only.

Atoms donate shared pair electrons : donor
must have at least one lone pair in its valence
shell.

Atoms accepts shared pair electrons : acceptor.
have vacant orbitals in its outer shell.

Same characteristic as covalent bond.
Eg. Hydronium ion, H
3
O
+


Example:
Hydroxonium ion, H
3
O
+

..
H
:O: + H
+
O
H
H
H H
+
Sometimes shown as arrow pointing from the
donor atom to acceptor atom.
Show the formation of bonding
between a water molecule and an
ammonia molecule

Hydrogen Bond: Molecules containing NH, O-H, or
FH groups, and an electronegative O, N, or F.

attraction force between the positively-charged H
atom of a molecule and the negatively-charged
electronegative atom of another molecule.
Non polar and polar molecule
Non- polar molecule
Formed when the polar bond arrange
symmetrically around central atom.
Example BeCl
2
, BF
3
and CH
4
Homonuclear diatomic molecules such
as H
2
, N
2
, O
2
and Cl
2
are also nonpolar
molecules.

(ii) Polar molecule
When the arrangement of all polar bonds around
the central atom are not symmetrical.

Example : H
2
O, NH
3
and CH
3
Cl.

Heteronuclear diatomic molecules such as HCl,
CO and HBr are also polar molecules.

Polar molecules have permanent dipoles.


Van Der Waals Forces
General term for those intermolecular forces
Dipole dipole interaction Electrostatic
forces between the oppositely charged ends of
polar molecules.]

Dipole induced dipole interaction in a
mixture of molecules (polar and nonpolar) the
polar molecule and induce momentary dipoles
in nearby nonpolar molecules. This give rise to
electrostatic attractions.
London dispersion forces exist between all
molecules (polar and non polar). Regardless to
presence and absence of dipoles.
When 2 electrons in 2 adjacent atoms occupy
positions that make the atoms form temporary
dipoles.
Also sometime refer to as induced dipole-
induced dipole interaction.
The End..