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Tahun : 2007

Pertemuan 01

PENDAHULUAN:

Data dan Statistika

1

Outline Materi:

• Peranan dan Jangkauan Statistika

• Diagram Dahan dan Daun

• Sebaran Frekuensi

2

Business Basic Statistics

Collection

3

PERANAN DAN Jangkauan

Statistika

Statistics

• The Growth and Development of Modern

Statistics

• Some Important Definitions

• Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

4

Peranan dan Jangkauan Statistika

(continue

• Why Data are Needed d)

• Types of Data and Their Sources

• Design of Survey Research

• Types of Sampling Methods

• Types of Survey Errors

5

Why a Manager Needs to Know

About Statistics

Information

• To Know How to Draw Conclusions about

Populations Based on Sample Information

• To Know How to Improve Processes

• To Know How to Obtain Reliable Forecasts

6

The Growth and Development of

Modern Statistics

Needs of government to

collect data on its citizenry

mathematics of probability

theory

Some Important Definitions

Things Under Consideration

• A Sample is a Portion of the Population Selected

for Analysis

• A Parameter is a Summary Measure Computed to

Describe a Characteristic of the Population

• A Statistic is a Summary Measure Computed to

Describe a Characteristic of the Sample

8

Population and Sample

Population Sample

Use statistics to

summarize

features

Use parameters to

summarize

features

9

Statistical Methods

• Descriptive Statistics

– Collecting and describing data

• Inferential Statistics

– Drawing conclusions and/or making decisions

concerning a population based only on

sample data

10

Descriptive Statistics

• Collect Data

– E.g., Survey

• Present Data

– E.g., Tables and graphs

• Characterize Data

– E.g., Sample Mean = ∑X i

11

Inferential Statistics

• Estimation

– E.g., Estimate the

population mean weight

using the sample mean

weight

• Hypothesis Testing

– E.g., Test the claim that

the population mean

Drawing conclusions and/or making decisions

weight is 120apounds

concerning population based on sample results.

12

Why We Need Data

• To Provide Input to Study

• To Measure Performance of Ongoing

Service or Production Process

• To Evaluate Conformance to Standards

• To Assist in Formulating Alternative

Courses of Action

• To Satisfy Curiosity

13

Data Sources

Data Sources

Print or Electronic

Observation Survey

Experimentation

14

Types of Data

D a t a

C a t e g o r i Nc ua lm e r i c a l

( Q u a l i t a ( t Qi v u e a ) n t i t a t i v e )

D i s c r e Ct e o n t i n u o u

15

Design of Survey Research

– Reliable primary modes

• Personal interview

• Telephone interview

• Mail survey

– Less reliable self-selection modes (not appropriate

for making inferences about the population)

• Television survey

• Internet survey

• Printed survey in newspapers and magazines

• Product or service questionnaires

16

Reasons for Drawing a

Sample

• Less Costly to Administer Than a Census

• Less Cumbersome and More Practical to

Administer Than a Census of the

Targeted Population

17

Types of Sampling Methods

Samples

Samples

(Convenience)

Simple

Random Stratified

Judgement Chunk

Cluster

Systematic

Quota

18

Probability Sampling

on Known Probabilities

Probability Samples

Simple

Random Systematic Stratified Cluster

19

Organizing Numerical Data

Numerical Data 41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Frequency Distributions

Ordered Array

Cumulative Distributions

21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

2 144677

Stem and Leaf Histograms Ogive

3 028

Display

4 1

Tables Polygons

20

Stem and Leaf Display

• Data in Ordered Array from Smallest to

Largest:

Largest

21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

• Stem-and-Leaf Display:

2 144677

3 028

4 1

21

Tabulating and Graphing

Numerical Data

Numerical Data 41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Frequency Distributions

Ordered Array O give

100

80

60

40

20

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

2 144677 Ogive

Stem and Leaf Histograms

Display 3 028 7

4 1 5

Tables Polygons

4

3

2

1

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

22

Tabulating Numerical Data:

Frequency Distributions

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

• Find Range: 58 - 12 = 46

• Select Number of Classes: 5 (usually between 5 and 15)

• Compute Class Interval (Width): 10 (46/5 then round up)

• Determine Class Boundaries (Limits):10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60

• Compute Class Midpoints: 15, 25, 35, 45, 55

• Count Observations & Assign to Classes

23

Frequency Distributions, Relative Frequency

Distributions and Percentage Distributions

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Relative

Class Frequency Frequency Percentage

10 but under 20 3 .15 15

20 but under 30 6 .30 30

30 but under 40 5 .25 25

40 but under 50 4 .20 20

50 but under 60 2 .10 10

Total 20 1 100 24

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Histogram

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Histogram

7 6

6 5

Frequency

5 4

4

3

3 No Gaps

2

2 Between

1 0 0

0 Bars

5 15 25 35 45 55 More

Class 25

Class Midpoints

Boundaries

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Frequency Polygon

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Frequency

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

5 15 25 35 45 55 More

26

Class Midpoints

Tabulating Numerical Data:

Cumulative Frequency

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Limit Frequency % Frequency

10 0 0

20 3 15

30 9 45

40 14 70

50 18 90

60 20 100 27

Graphing Numerical Data:

The Ogive (Cumulative % Polygon)

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Ogive

100

80

60

40

20

0

10 20 30 40 50 60

Graphing Bivariate Numerical

Data (Scatter Plot)

M u tu a l F u n d s S c a tte r P lo t

40

30

Date Return (%)

Total Year to

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40

N et Asset V alu es 29

Tabulating and Graphing

Univariate Categorical Data

Categorical Data

Graphing Data

Tabulating Data

The Summary Table

Pie Charts

30

Graphing Univariate

Categorical Data

Categorical Data

Graphing Data

Tabulating Data

The Summary Table

Pie Charts

CD

S aving s

S toc k s

45 120

0 10 20 30 40 50 40

100

35

30 80

25

20

15

60

40

31

10

20

5

0 0

Bar Chart

(for an Investor’s Portfolio)

Investor's Portfolio

Savings

CD

Bonds

Stocks

0 10 20 30 40 50

Amount in K$

32

Pie Chart

(for an Investor’s Portfolio)

Amount Invested in K$

Savings

15%

Stocks

CD 42%

14%

Percentages are

rounded to the

Bonds

nearest percent

29%

33

Pareto Diagram

45% 100%

40% 90%

80%

Axis for 35%

bar 30%

70%

chart 25%

60%

shows 50%

% 20%

40%

invested 15%

30%

in each 10%

20%

category Axis for line

5%

graph

10%

0%

Stocks Bonds Savings CD

0%

shows

cumulative

% invested

34

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