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SMART MATERIALS

Presented by:GAURAV KUMAR

11/IME/043

1)

Classification & comparison between materials

2)

Smart Material-Introduction

3)

Classification of Smart Materials

4)

Different type of Smart Materials

5)

Their Application &Future scope

6)

Conclusion

7)

Reference

wood

metals

polymers

ceramics composites

Smart materials are the materials that can significantly

alter one or more of their inherent properties owing to


the application of an external stimuli in a controlled
fashion .
The several external stimulus to which the smart
materials are sensitive are
I. Stress
II. Temperature
III. Moisture
IV. Electric fields
V. Magnetic fields etc.

SIGNIFICANT
MEASURABLE
APPROPRIATE
RESULT-ORIENTED
TIME-ORIENTED

Types of smart
materials

Input

Output

Piezoelectric

Deformation

Potential difference

Electrostrictive

Potential difference

Deformation

Magnetostrictive

Magenetic fields

Deformation

Thermoelectric

Temperature

Potential difference

Shape memory alloys

Temperature

Deformation

Photochromic

Radiation

Colour change

theremochromic

Temperature

Colour change

The Direct Effect

The Reverse Effect

Materials Used : Quart,


Rochelle salt,Topaz,Bismuth
Ferrite

If a di electric material is
subjected to an electric
field,
Then it experiences a
strain which is
proportional to the
strength to the electric
field
Eg:-Lead Lanthanum
Zirconate Titanate
(PLTZ)
Lead magnesium Niobate

Application of a magnetic field

to a ferromagnetic material
causes it to change its shape.
This change in shape is
proportional to the strength of
field applied
Eg:-Cobalt Terfenol-D

These material, when subjected

to any temperature difference,


produce proportional voltage
output. The reverse effect is
also true.
Thermoelectric effect generally
comprise of
o Seebeck Effect;
o Peltier Effect;
o Thomson Effect

Shape memory alloys are metal

alloys which can undergo solidto-solid phase transformation


and can recover completely when
heated to a specific temperature
These materials has two phase:
1. Austenite:-high temperature
phase
2. martensite:-low temperature
phase

Materials commonly used are:


Cu-Al-Ni;
Fe-Zn-Al;
Cu-Zn-Al;

Major Applications
Aircraft;
Orthopedic surgery;
Dental Braces;
Robotics;

Chromogenic material change their colour in

accordance to electrical, thermal or radiative stimuli.

CHROMOGENIC MATERIALS

Thermochromic
materials

Photochromic
materials

Electrochromic
materials

Materials which changes colour

with changes in temperature.


General materials used are:
V2O5,
Cholesteryl nonanoate,
1,2,3-triazole,
Octadecylphosphonic acid.
General applicaton:
Inks;
Dyes;
Papers;
Plastics;

Photochromic material change colour in response to

the intensity of light.


Transmitance to light varies with the intensity of the
incident light.
General materials used are:
I. Azobenzene;
II. Diarylethene;
III. Spiropyran;
IV. Sliver Chloride.

Major Application:

1. Lenses;
2. Supermolecular chemistry;
3. Dyes;

4. Paints
5. Cosmetics;
6. Clothing.

These materials change their optical behavior with

application of electrical voltage.


Their behavior is basically characterized by
amount of light they allow to pass through them.

Transparent and looks


Like ordinary glass

Application of small voltage


Turns it opapue
(blueish and dark)

General materials used are: WO3;


NiO3;
TiO2;
Polyaniline;
Polythiophene;
Major application:
Smart glass:
Light-transmissive
devices
for optical data
Rear-view mirrors
Protective eyewear.

Smart Fabric ;

Smart aircraft;
Sporting Goods;
Smart Dust;

Reducing vibration

Helicopter blades;
Robotics;
Medical surgeries;
Security;

Smart materials have properties that react to changes

in their environment. This means that one of their


properties can be changed by an external condition,
such as temperature, light, pressure or electricity.
This change is reversible and can be repeated many
times. There are a wide range of different smart
materials. Each offer different properties that can be
changed. Some materials are very good indeed and
cover a huge range of the scales.

T.G. Frank, W. Xu, A. Cushieri: Instruments Based on Shape Memory


Alloy Properties for Minimal Access Surgery, lnterventional Radiology
and Flexible Endoscopy, Min. Invas. Ther. & Allied Techno!. (2000) 89 98
A Review of Shape Memory Alloy Research, Applications and
Opportunities JM Jani, M Leary, A Subic and MA Gibson, Materials and
Design, 2013