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UNIT 2

The Blood

Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD


To transport materials to and from cells

Oxygen and carbon dioxide


Nutrients

Hormones
Immune system components

Waste products

Functions of Blood

Transport of dissolved substances

Regulation of pH and ions

Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites

Defense against toxins and pathogens

Stabilization of body temperature

Blood
Represents about 8% of total body weight
Average volume
5 liters in women
5.5 liters in men
Consists of three types of specialized cellular elements
suspended in plasma (liquid portion of blood)
Erythrocytes
Red blood cells
Important in O2 transport

Leukocytes

White blood cells


Immune systems mobile defense units

Platelets
Cell fragments
Important in hemostasis

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Blood Composition

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Physical Characteristics of Blood


Whole Blood
Plasma
Fluid consisting of:
water
dissolved plasma proteins
other solutes

Formed elements
All cells and solids

Plasma
Plasma proteins
Compose 6% to 8% of plasmas total weight
Three groups of plasma proteins
Albumins
Most abundant plasma proteins

Globulins
Three subclasses
Alpha ()
Beta ()
Gamma ()

Fibrinogen
Key factor in blood clotting

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Plasma
Constituent

Functions

Water (makes up
90% of plasma)

Transport medium, carries heat

Electrolytes

Membrane excitability; osmotic distribution of fluid between


ECF and ICF; buffer pH changes

Nutrients, wastes,
gases, hormones

Transported in blood; blood gas CO2 plays role in acidbase balance

Plasma proteins

In general, exert an osmotic effect important in distribution


of ECF between vascular and interstitial compartments;
buffer pH changes

Albumins

Transport many substances; contribute most to colloid


osmotic pressure

Alpha and beta


globulins

Transport many water-insoluble substances; clotting


factors; inactive precursor molecules

Gamma globulins

Antibodies

Fibrinogen

Inactive precursor for the fibrin meshwork of a clot


Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Physical Characteristics of Blood


Three Types of Formed Elements
Red blood cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes
Transport oxygen

White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes


Part of the immune system

Platelets
Cell fragments involved in clotting

Red Blood Cells

Figure 192ac The Anatomy of Red Blood Cells

Erythrocytes
Contain no nucleus, organelles, or ribosomes
Structure is well suited to main function of O2 transport

in blood
Biconcave discs
Provides larger SA for diffusion of O2 across the membrane
Thinness of cell enables O2 to diffuse rapidly between the
exterior and innermost regions of the cell

Flexible membrane
Allows RBCs to travel through narrow capillaries without
rupturing in the process

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Hemoglobin
Found only in red blood cells
Pigment containing iron

Appears reddish when oxygenated


Appears bluish when deoxygenated
Molecule consists of two parts
Globin portion
Protein composed of four highly folded polypeptide
chains

Heme groups
Four iron-containing nonprotein groups
Each is bound to one of the polypeptides
Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Hemoglobin Structure

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Haemoglobin
Primary role is to carry O2

OXYHAEMOGLOBIN

Also combines with


Carbon dioxide
Forms carbaminohaemoglobin

Acidic hydrogen-ion portion (H+) of ionized

carbonic acid
Carbon monoxide
Nitric oxide

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Abnormal Haemoglobin
Thalassemia
Inability to produce a and b chains Hb
RBC

production decreases
Fragile
Short lived
Oxygen carrying capacity diminished

Sickle Cell
Mutation of b chain Hb
The RBC and Hb appears normal
when defective Hb gives up its O2
The Hb react with each other
making the cell rigid and sickle shaped

Red Blood Cells

Figure 194 Sickling in Red Blood Cells

Erythrocyte Enzymes
Glycolytic enzymes
Necessary for generating energy needed to fuel
active transport mechanisms involved in
maintaining proper ionic concentrations within cell

Rely on glycolysis for ATP formation

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Erythrocyte Enzymes
Carbonic anhydrase
Critical in CO2 transport
Catalyzes reaction that leads to conversion of
metabolically produced CO2 into bicarbonate ion

(HCO3-)
Primary form in which CO2 is transported in blood

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Erythropoiesis
Erythrocyte production
RBCs survive about 120 days
Spleen removes most of old erythrocytes from
circulation

Must be replaced at rate of 2 million to 3 million


cells/second
Erythropoiesis occurs in bone marrow
Pluripotent stem cells in red bone marrow
differentiate into the different types of blood cells
Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Erythropoiesis
Occurs only in myeloid tissue (red bone marrow) in
adults
Stem cells mature to become RBCs

Hemocytoblasts
Stem cells in myeloid tissue divide to produce
Myeloid stem cells: become RBCs, some WBCs
Lymphoid stem cells: become lymphocytes

Red Blood Cells Maturation


Myeloid stem cell destined to be RBC differentiate

Proerythroblast
Erythroblasts
Syn. Hb

Reticulocyte
80% Hb of normal cell
No nucleus

Mature RBC
Loses RNA

Red Blood Cells

Regulation of Erythropoiesis
Building red blood cells requires
Amino acids
Iron
Vitamins B12, B6, and folic acid:
pernicious anemia
low RBC production

due to unavailability of vitamin B12

Erythropoesis
Stimulating Hormones

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Formed by Kidney and Liver
Secreted when peripheral tissues experience hypoxia
Anaemia
Decrease blood to Kidneys
Disease or high altitude decrease O2 to lungs
Resp. Surface of lungs damaged

Control of Erythropoiesis

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Red Blood Cells


RBC Formation and Turnover
1% of circulating RBCs wear out per day
About 3 million RBCs per second

Macrophages of liver, spleen, and bone marrow


Monitor RBCs
Engulf RBCs before membranes rupture (hemolyze)

Red Blood Cells


Hemoglobin Conversion and Recycling
Phagocytes break hemoglobin into components
Globular proteins to amino acids
Heme to biliverdin
Iron

Heme excreted via Kidneys

Red Blood Cells


Iron Recycling

Free iron toxic to cell


Iron removed from heme leaving biliverdin

Binds to transport proteins


Circulated to other RBC
Removed to liver and spleen

Red Blood Cells


Breakdown of Biliverdin
Biliverdin (green) is converted to bilirubin
(yellow)
Bilirubin is:
Excreted by liver (bile)
converted by intestinal bacteria to urobilins
Excreted via Kidneys
Stored in skin
jaundice is caused by bilirubin buildup

Red Blood Cells

Figure 195 Recycling of Red Blood Cell Components

Anemia
Refers to a below-normal O2-carrying capacity of the
blood
Characterized by low hematocrit
Causes of anemia
Nutritional anemia
Pernicious anemia
Aplastic anemia
Renal anemia
Hemorrhagic anemia
Hemolytic anemia
Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Polycythemia
Characterized by too many circulating RBCs and
elevated hematocrit
Two general types

Primary polycythemia
Caused by tumorlike condition of bone marrow

Erythropoiesis proceeds at uncontrolled rate

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Polycythemia
Secondary polycythemia
Erythropoietin-induced adaptive mechanism to
improve bloods oxygen-carrying capacity in
response to prolonged reduced oxygen delivery
to the tissues
Occurs normally in people living at high altitudes

Sometimes called relative polycythemia


Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Hematocrit Under Various Conditions

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Blood Typing
Are cell surface proteins that identify cells to
immune system
Normal cells are ignored and foreign cells
attacked
Blood types
Are genetically determined
By presence or absence of RBC surface antigens A,
B, Rh (or D)

Blood Typing
Four Basic Blood Types

A (surface antigen A)
B (surface antigen B)

AB (antigens A and B)
O (neither A nor B)

Cell surface Antigens also called Agglutinogens

Blood Typing
Blood Plasma Antibodies
Type A
Type B antibodies

Type B
Type A antibodies

Type O
Both A and B antibodies

Type AB
Neither A nor B antibodies

Plasma Antibodies also called Agglutinins

Blood Typing

Blood Typing

Plasma antibodies
attack and agglutinate (clump) foreign antigens

Blood Typing
The Rh Factor
Also called D antigen
Either Rh positive (Rh+) or Rh negative (Rh-)
Only sensitized Rh- blood has anti-Rh antibodies

Blood Typing

Blood Typing

Figure 199 Rh Factors and Pregnancy

Blood Typing
Cross-Reactions in Transfusions
Plasma antibody meets its specific surface antigen
Blood will agglutinate and hemolyze
Occur if donor and recipient blood types not
compatible

O- universal Donor

Blood Typing

Figure 197b Blood Types and Cross-Reactions

Blood Typing

White Blood Cells


Also called leukocytes

Do not have hemoglobin


Have nuclei and other organelles

White Blood Cells


WBC Circulation and Movement

Most WBCs in
Connective tissue proper

Lymphoid system organs

Small numbers in blood


5000 to 10,000 per microliter

White Blood Cells


WBC Circulation and Movement
Characteristics of circulating WBCs
Can migrate out of bloodstream
diapedesis
Have amoeboid movement
Attracted to chemical stimuli (positive chemotaxis)
Some are phagocytic:
neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes

Leukocytes
White blood cells or WBCs
Mobile units of bodys immune defense system
Immune system
Made up of leukocytes, their derivatives, and

variety of plasma proteins


Recognizes and destroys or neutralizes materials

within body that are foreign to normal self

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Leukocytes

Functions
Defends against invading pathogens
Identifies and destroys cancer cells that arise in
body
Functions as a cleanup crew that removes

worn-out cells and tissue debris

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Leukocytes
Somewhat larger than erythrocytes
Five different types of circulating leukocytes
Neutrophils
Eosinophils

Basophils
Monocytes

Lymphocytes

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Leukocytes
Polymorphonuclear

Neutrophils

Granules are neutral and


show no dye preference
5070% of circulating WBCs

Eosinophils

Granules have an affinity for


the red dye eosin
24% of circulating WBCs

Basophils

Granules have an affinity for


a basic blue dye
< 1% of circulating WBCs

Mononuclear
Agranulocytes (singlenucleus; cells lacking
granules)

Monocytes

Have oval or kidney-shaped


nucleus
28% of circulating WBCs

2030% of circulating
WBCs

Lymphocytes

granulocytes (manyshaped nucleus; granulecontaining cells)

Smallest of the leukocytes;


usually have large spherical
nucleus that occupies most
Chapter 11 The Blood
of the cell
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

White Blood Cells

Figure 1910a-c White Blood Cells

White Blood Cells

Figure 1910d-e White Blood Cells

Leukocytes
Originate from same
undifferentiated multi-potent stem cells in red
bone marrow
produced only in bone marrow

Granulocytes and monocytes


Most new lymphocytes are actually produced by

Lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues


such as lymph nodes and tonsils
Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Neutrophils
Phagocytic specialists
Release web of extracellular fibers called neutrophil
extracellular traps (NETs) that contain bacteriakilling chemicals

Can also destroy bacteria by phagocytosis


Functions
First defenders on scene of bacterial invasion
Very important in inflammatory responses
Scavenge to clean up debris

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Eosinophils
Increase in circulating eosinophils (eosinophilia) is
associated with
Allergic conditions such as asthma and hay fever
Internal parasite infestations, such as worms
Attach to worm and secrete substances to kill it

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Basophils
Least numerous
Similar structurally and functionally to mast cells
Synthesize and store
Histamine
Release is important in allergic reactions

Heparin

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Heparin
Speeds up removal of fat particles from blood after
fatty meal
Can also prevent clotting of blood samples drawn for
chemical analysis

Used extensively as anticoagulant drug

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Monocytes
Emerge from bone marrow while still immature and
circulate for day or two before settling down in
various tissues in body
Mature and enlarge in resident tissue and become

known as macrophages
Life span can range from several months to years

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Lymphocytes
Provide immune defense against targets for which they are
specifically programmed

Live about 100 to 300 days

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes

Produce antibodies
Responsible to antibody-mediated or humoral immunity
T lymphocytes

Do not produce antibodies


Directly destroy specific target cells by releasing
chemicals that punch holes in the victim cell (cellmediated immunity)
Target cells include body cells invaded by viruses and

cancer cells

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Platelets
Thrombocytes
Cell fragments shed from megakaryocytes

Lack nuclei
Have organelles and cytosolic enzymes for generating
energy and synthesizing secretory products
High concentrations of actin and myosin
Remain functional for an average of 10 days

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

White Blood Cells


WBC Disorders

Leukopenia
Abnormally low WBC count

Leukocytosis
Abnormally high WBC count

Leukemia
Extremely high WBC count

Platelets
Removed from circulation by tissue macrophages
Do not leave blood as WBCs do
About are stored in blood-filled spaces in spleen
Released when needed by sympathetically induced

splenic contraction
Thrombopoietin
Hormone produced by liver increases number of
megakaryocytes and therefore increases platelet
production
Chapter 11 The Blood
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Hemopoiesis

Chapter 11 The Blood


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Immune Surveillance Against Cancer

Chapter 12 The Body Defenses


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning