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Chapter 7

The Peripheral Nervous System:


Efferent Division

Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

PNS: Efferent Division


Communication link by which CNS controls activities
of muscles and glands
Two divisions of PNS
Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
Involuntary branch of PNS
Innervates cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, most
exocrine glands, some endocrine glands, and adipose
tissue

Somatic nervous system


Subject to voluntary control
Innervates skeletal muscle

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Autonomic nerve pathway
Extends from CNS to an innervated organ
Two-neuron chain
Preganglionic fiber (synapses with cell body of second
neuron)
Postganglionic fiber (innervates effector organ)

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Two subdivisions
Sympathetic nervous
system
Parasympathetic
nervous system

Sympathetic
Nervous
System

Parasympathetic
Nervous System

Fibers originate in
Fibers originate from
thoracic and lumbar
cranial and sacral areas
regions of spinal cord of CNS
Most preganglionic
fibers are short

Preganglionic fibers are


longer

Long postganglionic
fibers

Very short
postganglionic fibers

Preganglionic fibers
release acetylcholine
(Ach)

Preganglionic fibers
release acetylcholine
(Ach)

Most postganglionic
fibers release
noradrenaline
(norepinephrine)

Postganglionic fibers
release acetylcholine

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Structures
Innervated by
Sympathetic and
Parasympathetic
Nervous Systems

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Most visceral organs innervated by both sympathetic
and parasympathetic fibers
In general produce opposite effects in a particular
organ
Dual innervation of organs by both branches of ANS
allows precise control over organs activity

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Sympathetic system dominates in emergency or
stressful (fight-or-flight) situations
Promotes responses that prepare body for
strenuous physical activity
Parasympathetic system dominates in quiet, relaxed
(rest-and-digest) situations
Promotes body-maintenance activities such as
digestion

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Effects of Autonomic Nervous System on Various Organs

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Exceptions to general rule of dual reciprocal
innervation by the two branches of autonomic
nervous system
Most arterioles and veins receive only
sympathetic nerve fibers (arteries and capillaries
are not innervated)
Most sweat glands are innervated only by
sympathetic nerves
Salivary glands are innervated by both ANS
divisions but activity is not antagonistic both
stimulate salivary secretion

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

ANS
Adrenal medulla is a modified part of sympathetic
nervous system
Modified sympathetic ganglion that does not give
rise to postganglionic fibers
Stimulation of preganglionic fiber prompts
secretion of hormones into blood
About 20% of hormone release is norepinephrine
About 80% of hormone released is epinephrine
(adrenaline)

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Autonomic Neurotransmitter Receptors


Tissues innervated by autonomic nervous system
have one or more of several different receptor types
for postganglionic chemical messengers
Cholinergic receptors bind to ACh
Nicotinic receptors found on postganglionic cell
bodies of all autonomic ganglia
Muscarinic receptors found on effector cell
membranes

Andrenergic receptors bind to norepinephrine


and epinephrine
Alpha () receptors
Beta () receptors
Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Autonomic Agonists and Antagonists


Agonists
Bind to same receptor as neurotransmitter
Elicit an effect that mimics that of
neurotransmitter
Antagonists
Bind with receptor
Block neurotransmitters response

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Regions of CNS Involved in Control of


Autonomic Activities
Can be influenced by prefrontal association complex
through its involvement with emotional expression
characteristic of individuals personality
Hypothalamus plays important role in integrating
autonomic, somatic, and endocrine responses that
automatically accompany various emotional and
behavioral states
Medulla within brain stem is region directly
responsible for autonomic output
Some autonomic reflexes, such as urination,
defecation, and erection, are integrated at spinal
cord level
Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Distinguishing Characteristics of Sympathetic and


Parasympathetic Nervous Systems

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Somatic Nervous System


Consists of axons of motor neurons of motor
neurons that originate in spinal cord or brain stem
and end on skeletal muscle
Motor neuron releases neurotransmitter, Ach, which
stimulates muscle contraction
Motor neurons are final common pathway by which
various regions of CNS exert control over skeletal
muscle activity
These areas of CNS include spinal cord, motor
regions of cortex, basal nuclei, cerebellum, and
brain stem

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Comparison of Somatic and Autonomic Nervous System

Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division


Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Neuromuscular Junction
Axon terminal of motor neuron forms neuromuscular junction
with a single muscle cell
Signals are passed between nerve terminal and muscle fiber
by means of neurotransmitter ACh
Released ACh binds to receptor sites on motor end plate of
muscle cell membrane
Binding triggers opening of specific channels in motor end
plate
Ion movements depolarize motor end plate, producing endplate potential
Local current flow between depolarized end plate and
adjacent muscle cell membrane brings adjacent areas to
threshold
Action potential is initiated and propagated throughout muscle
fiber
Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning

Neuromuscular Junction
Acetylcholinesterase
Inactivates ACh
Ends end-plate potential and the action potential
and resultant contraction
Neuromuscular junction is vulnerable to chemical
agents and diseases
Black widow spider venom causes explosive
release of ACh
Botulism toxin blocks release of ACh
Curare blocks action of ACh at receptor sites
Organophosphates prevent inactivation of ACh
Myasthenia gravis inactivates ACh receptor sites
Chapter 7 The Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division
Human Physiology by Lauralee Sherwood 2007 Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning