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Fetus
Menstrual cycle
Oogenesis
Ovary
Pregnancy
Sperm
Spermatogenesis
Testes
Urethra
Uterus
Vagina
Zygote

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TESTES- or male gonads, the male primary sex organ


that produces sperm.
seminiferous tubules- highly convulated tubes
within the testes that form sperm
-sperm-forming factories
DUCT SYSTEM
epididymis- comma-shaped, is a highly coiled tube
about 6 m (20 feet) long that caps the superior
part of the testis and then runs
down its
posterolateral side
- that portion of the male duct
system in which sperm mature

ductus deferens- or vas deferens, runs upward


from the epididymis through the inguinal
canal into the pelvic cavity and arches over
the superior aspect of the bladder
urethra- the canal through which urine passes from
the bladder to the outside of the body

ACCESSORY GLANDS AND SEMEN


seminal vesicles- located at the base of the bladder,
produce about 60 percent of the fluid volume of
semen
- their thick, yellowish secretion is rich in
sugar (
fructose), vitamin C, prostaglandins, and
other
substances, which nourish an activate the
sperm passing
through the tract
prostate gland- is a single gland about the size and
shape of a chestnut
- its secretion is a milky fluid that plays a
role in
activating sperm
bulbourethral glands- are tiny, pea sized glands inferior
to the prostate gland
- they produce a thick, clear mucus that
drains
into the penile urethra

semen- fluid mixture produced by male


reproductive structures; contains sperm,
nutrients, and mucus
EXTERNAL GENITALIA
scrotum- external sac enclosing the testes
- is a divided sac of skin that hang
outside the abdominal cavity, between the
legs and at the root of the penis
penis- is designed to deliver sperm into the
female reproductive tract

SPERMATOGENESIS
- the process of sperm production in the male;
involves meiosis

TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

testosterone- produce by interstitial cells, the


important hormonal product of the testes
Secondary sex characteristics
Deepening

of the voice due to enlargement of

the larynx
Increased hair growth all over the body, and
particularly in the axillary and pubic regions
and the face (the beard)
Enlargement of skeletal muscles to produce the
heavier muscle mass typical of the male
physique
Increased heaviness of the skeleton due to
thickening of the bones

OVARY- the female sex organ in which ova (egg) are


produced
ovarian follicles- an internal view of an ovary
reveals many tiny saclike structures
oocyte- surrounded by one or more layers of very
different cells called follicle cells
graafian follicle- a mature ovarian follicle; also
called a vesicular follicle
corpus luteum- very different looking structure
which eventually degenerates

DUCT SYSTEM
Uterine (fallopian) tubes- the tube through the
ovum is transported to the uterus
Uterus- located in the pelvis between the urinary
bladder and rectum, is hollow organ that functions
to receive, retain, and nourish fertilized egg.
Vagina- is a thin-walled tube 8 to 10 cm long
- often called the birth canal; provides a
passageway for the delivery of an infant an for the
menstrual flow to leave the body

EXTERNAL GENITALIA
- also called the vulva, include the mons pubis,
labia, clitoris, urethral and vaginal orifices and
greater vestibular glands
mons pubis- is a fatty, rounded area overlying the
pubic symphysis
labia majora- which encloses two delicate hair free
folds, the labia minora
greater vestibular glands- a pair mucus-producing
glands; flanked the vagina, one on each side

OOGENESIS- the process of formation of the ova

Menstrual or uterine cycle- are the cyclic changes


that the endometrium, or mucosa of the uterus,
goes through month after month as it responds to
changes in the level of ovarian hormones in the
blood
Three stages of menstrual cycle
Days 1-5: Menses
Days 6-14: Proliferative stage
Days 15-28 Secretory stage

Estrogens- cause the appearance of the secondary


sex characteristics in the young woman
Enlargement of the accessory organs of the
female reproductive system
Development of the breasts
Appearance of axillary and pubic hair
Increased deposits of fat beneath the skin in
general, and particularly in the hips an breasts
Widening an lightening of the pelvis
Onset of menses, or menstrual cycle
Progesterone- a hormone partly responsible for
preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum

Are present in both sexes, but they normally


function only in females
- Its biological role is to produce milk to
nourish a newborn baby, they are actually
important only when reproduction has
already been accomplished
Areola- the circular, pigmented area
surrounding the nipple
Alveolar glands- produce the milk when a
woman is lactating
-

-the period from the conception to the birth of


her baby

CHILDBIRTH- also called paturition is the culmination


of pregnancy
Stages of Labor
Stage 1: Dilation Stage- is the time from the
appearance of true contractions until the cervix is
fully dilated by the babys head
Stage 2: Expulsion Stage- is the period from full
dilation to delivery of the infant
Stage 3: Placental Stage- or the delivery of the
placenta, is usually accomplished within 15 minutes
after birth of the infant